Choriocarcinoma Classification and external resources ICD-10 C58 ICD-9 181 ICD-O: M9100/3-9101 DiseasesDB 2602 MeSH D002822
Choriocarcinoma is a malignant, trophoblastic and aggressive cancer, usually of the placenta. It is characterized by early hematogenous spread to the lungs. It belongs to the far end of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), a subset of germ cell tumors.
Cytotrophoblasts are polyhedral and regular cells. Have a clear/eosinophillic cytoplasm with hyperchromatic nuclei. It's also Chorion associated with the uterus.
Choriocarcinoma of the placenta during pregnancy is preceded by:
- hydatidiform mole (50% of cases)
- Spontaneous abortion (20% of cases)
- ectopic pregnancy (2% of cases)
- normal term pregnancy (20-30% of cases)
Rarely, choriocarcinoma occurs in primary locations other than the placenta; very rarely, it occurs in testicles. Although trophoblastic components are common components of mixed germ cell tumors, pure choriocarcinoma of the adult testis is rare. Pure choriocarcinoma of the testis represents the most aggressive pathologic variant of germ cell tumors in adults, characteristically with early hematogenous and lymphatic metastatic spread. Because of early spread and inherent resistance to anticancer drugs, patients have poor prognosis. Elements of choriocarcinoma in a mixed testicular tumor have no prognostic importance.
- increased quantitative β-hCG levels
- vaginal bleeding
- shortness of breath
- hemoptysis (coughing up blood)
- chest pain
- chest X-ray shows multiple infiltrates of various shapes in both lungs
- presents in males as a testicular neoplasm, sometimes with skin hyperpigmentation (from excess beta hCG cross reacting with the alpha MSH receptor), gynecomastia, and weight loss (from excess beta hCG cross reacting with the TSH receptor) in males
- can present with increased TSH
Choriocarcinoma is one of the tumors that is most sensitive to chemotherapy. The cure rate, even for metastatic choriocarcinoma, is around 90-95%. Virtually everyone without metastases can be cured; however, metastatic disease to the liver and/or brain is usually fatal. At present, treatment with single-agent methotrexate or actinomycin D is recommended for low-risk disease, while intense combination regimens including EMACO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclosphosphamide and vincristine (Oncovin)) are recommended for intermediate or high-risk disease.
Hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) can also be offered to patients > 40 years of age or those for whom sterilisation is not an obstacle. It may be required for those with severe infection and uncontrolled bleeding.
- ^ "choriocarcinoma" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
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- ^ Gerson RF, Lee EY, Gorman E (November 2007). "Primary extrauterine ovarian choriocarcinoma mistaken for ectopic pregnancy: sonographic imaging findings". AJR Am J Roentgenol 189 (5): W280–3. doi:10.2214/AJR.05.0814. PMID 17954626. http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17954626.
- ^ Ozdemir I, Demirci F, Yucel O, Demirci E, Alper M (May 2004). "Pure ovarian choriocarcinoma: a difficult diagnosis of an unusual tumor presenting with acute abdomen in a 13-year-old girl". Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 83 (5): 504–5. doi:10.1111/j.0001-6349.2004.00092a.x. PMID 15059168. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0001-6349&date=2004&volume=83&issue=5&spage=504.
- ^ Rustin GJ, Newlands ES, Begent RH, Dent J, Bagshawe KD (1989). "Weekly alternating etoposide, methotrexate, and actinomycin/vincristine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for the treatment of CNS metastases of choriocarcinoma". J. Clin. Oncol. 7 (7): 900–3. PMID 2472471.
- ^ Katzung, Bertram G. (2006). "Cancer Chemotherapy". Basic and clinical pharmacology (10th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division. ISBN 0-07-145153-6. OCLC 157011367.
- ^ Lurain JR, Singh DK, Schink JC (2006). "Role of surgery in the management of high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia". The Journal of reproductive medicine 51 (10): 773–6. PMID 17086805.
Germ cell tumors (ICD-O 9060–9119) (C45–C49/D17–D21, 171/214–215) Germinomatous Nongerminomatous Tumors: female urogenital neoplasia (C51–C58/D25–D28, 179–184/218–221) AdnexaGlandular and epithelial/
stromal tumorSex cord-gonadal stromal
UterusChoriocarcinoma · Gestational trophoblastic diseaseGeneral Vagina Vulva Tumors: male urogenital neoplasia · genital neoplasia (C60–C63/D29, 185–187/222) InternalSex cord-gonadal stromalSertoli-Leydig cell tumour (Sertoli cell tumor, Leydig cell tumor) ExternalPenis
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