- Manor house
A manor house (often fortified) is a country house that historically formed the administrative centre of a manor, the lowest unit of territorial organisation in the feudal system in Europe. The term is applied to country houses that belonged to the gentry and other grand stately homes. There were manor houses in most European countries, where they were sometimes referred to as castles, palaces, and so on.
"Manor house" is also technical term in the UK for a minor late-medieval country house. They were often fortified but this was intended more for show than for defence.
History and architecture
The manor house was the dwelling house, or "capital messuage", of a feudal lord of a manor, which he occupied only on occasional visits if he held many manors. As such it was the place in which sessions of his "court baron", or manor court, were held. Sometimes a steward or seneschal was appointed by the seigneurial lord to oversee and manage his different manorial properties. The day-to-day administration was delegated to an official, who in England was called a bailiff, or reeve.
Although not typically built with strong fortifications as castles were, many manor-houses were partly fortified: they were enclosed within walls or ditches that often included the farm buildings as well. Arranged for defence against robbers and thieves, it was often surrounded by a moat with a drawbridge, and equipped with small gatehouses and watchtowers; but was not provided with a keep or with large towers or lofty curtain walls so as to withstand a siege. The primary feature of the manor-house was its great hall, to which subsidiary apartments were added as the lessening of feudal warfare permitted more peaceful domestic life.
By the beginning of the 16th century, manor-houses as well as small castles began to acquire the character and amenities of the residences of country gentlemen. This late 16th century transformation produced many of the smaller Renaissance châteaux of France and the numerous country mansions of the Elizabethan and Jacobean styles in England.
Manor Houses in the British Isles
Before around 1600, larger houses were usually fortified, reflecting the position of their owners as feudal lords, de facto overlords of their manors. The Tudor period of stability in England saw the building of the first of the unfortified great houses. Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries saw many former ecclesiastical properties granted to the King's favourites, who then converted them into private country houses. Woburn Abbey, Forde Abbey and many other mansions with Abbey or Priory in their name often date from this period as private houses.
It was during the second half of the reign of Elizabeth I and under her successor James I that the first architect-designed mansions, thought of today as epitomising the English country house, began to make their appearance. Burghley House, Longleat House, and Hatfield House are among the best known.
- Dunboy Castle, is located on the Beara Peninsula in south-west Ireland
- Ballylickey Manor House on Bantry Bay
- Temple House, Ballymote, County Sligo
- Mount Juliet Estate Manor House, Country Kilkenny
- Temple House Manor, County Westmeath
- Bunratty House, County Clare
- Brodie Castle
- Drum Castle, started as a 13th century tower house.
- Haddo House
- House of Dun
- Lingo House
- Monboddo House
- Muchalls Castle
- Bodysgallen Hall near Conwy Castle
- Gwydir Castle, Conwy valley, North Wales
- Weobley Castle, Gower
- Tretower Court near Crickhowell
- Llancaiach fawr near Abercynon and Ystrad Mynach
Manor Houses in Western Europe
In France, the terms château or manoir are often used synonymously to describe a French manor-house. Maison-forte is another French word to describe a strongly fortified manor-house, which might include two sets of enclosing walls, drawbridges, and a ground-floor hall or salle basse that was used to receive peasants and commoners. The salle basse was also the location of the manor court, with the steward or seigneur's seating location often marked by the presence of a crédence de justice or wall-cupboard (shelves built into the stone walls to hold documents and books associated with administration of the demesne or droit de justice). The salle haute or upper-hall, reserved for the seigneur and where he received his high-ranking guests, was often accessible by an external spiral staircase. It was commonly "open" up to the roof trusses, as in similar English homes. This larger and more finely decorated hall was usually located above the ground-floor hall. The seigneur and his family's private chambres were often located off of the upper first-floor hall, and invariably had their own fireplace (with finely decorated chimney-piece) and frequently a latrine.
In addition to having both lower and upper-halls, many French manor-houses also had partly fortified gateways, watchtowers, and enclosing walls that were fitted with arrow or gun loops for added protection. Some larger 16th-century manors, such as the Château de Kerjean in Finistère, Brittany, were even outfitted with ditches and fore-works that included gun platforms for cannons. These defensive arrangements allowed maisons-fortes, and rural manors to be safe from a coup de main perpetrated by an armed band as there was so many during the troubled times of the Hundred Years War and the wars of the Holy League; but it was difficult for them to resist a siege undertaken by a regular army equipped with (siege) engines.
- Château d'Harcourt in Eure, Normandy.
- Château de Beaumont-le-Richard in Calvados, Normandy. (Fr)
- Château de Bienassis in Côtes-d'Armor, Brittany. (Fr)
- Château de Bonnefontaine in Ille-et-Vilaine, Brittany. (Fr)
- Château de Gratot in Manche, Normandy.
- Château de Hac, 14th century, Côtes-d'Armor, Brittany
- Manoir de Kerazan in Finistère, Brittany. (Fr)
- Château de Kérouzéré in Finistère, Brittany.
- Château des Milandes in Dordogne, Aquitaine.
- Château de Pirou in Manche, Normandy.
- Château du Plessis-Josso in Morbihan, Brittany.
- Château de Puymartin in Dordogne, Aquitaine. (French)
- Château de la Roche-Jagu in Côtes-d'Armor, Brittany. Strategically important maison-forte in Trégor. (Fr)
- Château des Rochers-Sévigné in Ille-et-Vilaine, Brittany. (Fr)
- Château de Rustéphan in Finistère, Brittany. Ruins of large 15th–16th century manor house.
- Château de Trécesson in Morbihan, Brittany.
- Manoir de Dur-Écu, 16th century manor in Urville-Nacqueville, Normandy.
- Manoir de Mathan, 16th century manor in Crépon, Normandy.
- Manoir de Mézarnou, 16th century manor in Finistère, Brittany. (under extensive restoration)
- Château de la Motte, Joué du Plain
Many of the earlier houses are the legacy of the feudal heerlijkheid system. The Dutch had a manorial system centred on the local lord's demesne. In Middle Dutch this was called the vroonhof or vroenhoeve, a word derived from the Proto-Germanic word fraujaz, meaning "lord". This was also called a hof and the lord's house a hofstede. Other terms were used, including landhuis (or just huis), a ridderhofstad (Utrecht), a stins or state (Friesland), or a havezate (Drente, Overijssel and Gelderland). Some of these buildings were fortified. A number of castles associated with the nobility are found in the country. In Dutch, a building like this was called a kasteel, a slot, a burcht or (in Groningen) a borg.
During the Dutch Golden Age in the 17th century, merchants and regents looking for ways to spend their wealth bought country estates and built grand new homes, often just for summer use. Some purchased existing manor houses and castles from the nobility. Some country houses were built on top of the ruins of earlier castles that had been destroyed during the Dutch Revolt. The owners, aspiring to noble status, adopted the name of the earlier castle.
These country houses or stately homes (called buitenplaats or buitenhuis in Dutch) were located close to the city in picturesque areas with a clean water source. Wealthy families sent their children to the country in the summer because of the putrid canals and diseases in the city. A few still exist, especially along the river Vecht, the river Amstel, the Spaarne in Kennemerland, the river Vliet and in Wassenaar. Some are located near former lakes (now polders) like the Wijkermeer, Watergraafsmeer and the Beemster. In the 19th century, with improvements in water management, new regions came into fashion, such as the Utrecht Hill Ridge (Utrechtse Heuvelrug) and the area around Arnhem.
Today there is a tendency to group these grand buildings together in the category of "castles". There are many castles and buitenplatsen in all twelve provinces. A larger-than-average home is today called a villa or a herenhuis, but despite the grand name this is not the same as a manor house.
A few of the more prominent Dutch manor houses are:
Manor Houses in Central Europe
The German equivalent of a manor house is a Gutshof (or Gut, Rittergut, Landgut or Bauerngut). Also used are Herrenhaus and Domane. Schloss (pl. Schlösser) is another German word for a building similar to manor house, stately home, château or palace. Other terms used in German are Burg (castle), Festung (fort/fortress) and and Palais/Palast (palace).
- Gut Altenhof in Dänischer Wohld
- Gut Blomenburg in Selent
- Gut Brodau in Ostholstein
- Gut Emkendorf in Emkendorf
- Gut Knoop in Dänischer Wohld
- Gut Krummbek
- Gut Panker in Ostholstein
- Gut Projensdorf in Dänischer Wohld
- Gut Salzau in Fargau-Pratjau
- Gut Wahlstorf in Otterndorf
- Gut Wellingsbüttel
- Gut Wotersen in Herzogtum Lauenburg
- Schloss Ahrensburg in Ahrensburg
- Schloss Glücksburg in Angeln
- Nütschau Priory in Travenbrück
- Rittergut Kürbitz
- Berritzgaard Manor
- Børglum Abbey
- Clausholm Castle
- Dragsholm Castle
- Egeskov Castle
- Fuglsang Manor
- Gavnø Castle
- Glorup Manor
- Krogerup Manor
- Nysø Manor
- Rosenholm Castle
- Svanholm Manor
- Vemmetofte Convent
- Austrått Manor
- Damsgård Manor
- Fossum hovedgård
- Frogner Hovedgård
- Frogner Hovedgård (Skien)
- Linderud gård
- Jarlsberg Hovedgård
- Store Milde Hovedgård
Manor Houses in the Iberian Peninsula
A pazo is a type of grand old house found in Galician. Similar to a manor house, a pazo is usually located in the countryside and the former residence of an important nobleman or other important individual. They were of crucial importance to the rural and monastic communities around them. The pazo was a traditional architectural structure associated with a community and social network. It usually consisted of a main building surrounded by gardens, a dovecote and outbuildings such as a small chapels for religious celebrations. The word pazo is derived from the Latin palatiu(m) ("palace").
In Spain a good many old manor houses, palaces, castles and grand homes have been converted into a type of hotel called parador.
- Paço de Lanheses
Manor Houses in Eastern Europe
- Alatskivi Manor, Alatskivi Parish, Tartu County
- Aaspere Manor, Haljala Parish, Lääne-Viru County
- Luke Manor, Nõo Parish, Tartu County
- Mooste Manor, Mooste Parish, Põlva County
- Palmse Manor, Vihula Parish, Lääne-Viru County
- Pädaste Manor, Muhu Parish, Saare County
- Riisipere Manor, Nissi Parish, Harju County
- Roosna-Alliku Manor, Roosna-Alliku Parish, Järva County
- Sagadi Manor, Vihula Parish, Lääne-Viru County
- Taagepera Manor, Helme Parish, Valga County
- Vaimõisa Manor, Märjamaa Parish, Rapla County
- See: List of palaces and manor houses in Latvia
- Bachorza manor
- Branicki Palace, Białystok
- Castle in Pszczyna
- Dzików Castle
- Jabłonna Palace
- Kozłówka Palace
- Krasiczyn Palace
- Wilanów Palace
Manor Houses Outside of Europe
The term "manor house" can be used to refer to any grand, stately home, including those that do not have a history rooted in European feudalism.
- Sign of the Takahe (New Zealand)
- Temple Trees
- Sirimathipaya Mansion
- Country house and Mansion
- Court baron and Court leet
- Lord of the manor
- Manor court
- Pele tower and Bastle house
- Quadrangular castle
- Tower house
- Eesti mõisate loend (List of Estonian manors in Estonian Wikipedia)
- Liste des châteaux de Bretagne (List of Breton manor houses in the French Wikipedia)
- Luettelo Suomen kartanoista (List of Finnish manor houses in the Finnish Wikipedia)
- There is a short list of Norman manoirs in Pays de Caux.
- Lijst van kastelen in Nederland (From the Dutch Wikipedia, a comprehensive list of castles and manor houses in the Netherlands)
- Lijst van kastelen in België (From the Dutch Wikipedia, a comprehensive list of castles and manor houses in Belgium)
- ^ "European Heritage Open days - Armagh". http://www.ni-environment.gov.uk/events/events-ehod/events-ehod-armagh.htm?show%3D10%26page%3D4&id=36132. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
- ^ Barbier, Pierre (2005). Le Trégor Historique et Monumental. Saint-Brieuc: La Decouvrance Editions. pp. 419.
- ^ The information in this section has been drawn from various unreferenced articles found in the Dutch version of Wikipedia.
- Reality TV show recreating life in an Edwardian manor house.
- Timelines TV Interactive video timeline of British history with section on medieval manors.
- UK Manor House news blog
- Estonian Manors Portal – the English version gives the brief overview of 438 best preserved manor houses in Estonia.
- Portal of Association of Latvia's castles, palaces and manors – the English version gives the information about all manors and castles in Latvia, routes and photos.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.