Ahmed Ressam

Ahmed Ressam
Ahmed Ressam
Born May 9, 1967 (1967-05-09) (age 44)[1][2]
Bou Ismaïl, Algeria[3]
Cause terrorism to bomb LAX
Alias(es) Nassar Ressam; Anjer Tahar Medjadi; Nabil; Abu Reda; Benni Antoine Noris; Mario Roig[4][5]
Motive Fulfill a fatwā issued by Osama bin Laden[6]
Charge(s) 1) an act of terrorism transcending a national boundary; 2) placing an explosive in proximity to a terminal; 3) false identification documents; 4) use of a fictitious name for admission to the U.S.; 5) false statement to U.S. Customs; 6) smuggling; 7) transportation of explosives; 8) possession of an unregistered firearm; and 9) carrying an explosive during the commission of a felony.[2]
Conviction(s) On all counts (April 6, 2001)
Penalty Initially sentenced to 22 years in prison (July 27, 2005), but an appellate court found his sentence to be too lenient, and ordered that it be extended since (February 2, 2010).
Status In prison
Occupation Thief[7]
Parents Belkacem Ressam (father); Benoir Malika (mother)[3]
Children none

Ahmed Ressam (Arabic: احمد رسام‎; also Benni Noris or the Millennium Bomber; born May 9, 1967(1967-05-09), in Bou Ismaïl, Algeria) is an Algerian al-Qaeda member who lived in Montreal, Canada.[1][3][4][7][8]

He was convicted of attempting to bomb the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) on New Year's Eve 1999, as part of the foiled 2000 millennium attack plots.[9][10] He was initially sentenced to 22 years in prison, but in February 2010 an appellate court held his sentence to be too lenient, and ordered that it be extended.[11]


Early life

The eldest of seven children, he grew up in a town west of Algiers, and graduated from high school in 1988. In 1984 Ressam traveled to Paris, France, for special medical treatments and it was his first time out of Algeria. Ressam failed the exams to college and applied for jobs with police or security forces but was turned down.[7][12] Over the next four years he worked with his father in a coffee shop.[7][13]

He left Algeria on September 5, 1992 due to the civil war outrage in the country, entering France on a forged Moroccan passport in the name of "Nassar Ressam".[10][14] He was arrested on immigration violations in Corsica, a territorial collectivity of France, in November 1993, and France deported him to Morocco on November 8, 1993, and banned him from returning for three years.[6][10] Morocco determined that he was not in fact Moroccan, however, and returned him to France.[10] Faced with a March 1994 hearing, he instead flew to Montreal, Canada.[14]


Ressam entered Canada on February 20, 1994, using a fake, illegally altered French passport in the name of "Anjer Tahar Medjadi".[10][15] When immigration officials at the Montréal-Mirabel International Airport arrested him and confronted him about the altered passport, he divulged his real name and applied for refugee status.[10] In his effort to obtain political asylum, he told the Canadian authorities a false story about having been subjected to Algerian abuse and torture.[6][16] He was released pending a hearing, and given three years of welfare benefits.[12][14] His application for refugee status was denied on June 6, 1995, and his appeal was denied, and on May 4, 1998, a warrant was issued for his arrest by Citizenship and Immigration Canada.[10] At the time the warrant was issued, however, he was in Afghanistan, attending a terrorist training camp. He evaded deportation thereafter by using a Canadian passport he had obtained in March 1998 by submitting a baptismal certificate; he used a stolen blank certificate, filling it in with the fake name, "Benni Antoine Noris."[6]

He supported himself by theft (stealing tourists' suitcases at hotels, pickpocketing, and shoplifting), and through welfare benefits of C$500 per month.[6][16] He was arrested four times, but never jailed.[6][16] By 1999, he had a Canadian criminal history for theft under C$5,000, an outstanding Canada-wide immigration arrest warrant, and a British Columbia-wide arrest warrant for theft under C$5,000.[1]

Settling in east of Montreal, he lived with other Algerian immigrants in an apartment building on Avenue Malicorne later identified by Canadian and international police as the headquarters of a Montreal 99 cell connected to Osama bin Laden's network (the "GIA", or Armed Islamic Group).[6][12][16][17] He was recruited into al-Qaeda.[18] According to Canadian Security Intelligence Service officials, he was under surveillance as part of an investigation into a suspected terrorist ring from 1996 until he left the country.[12]

Terrorist training in Afghanistan

Ressam became friends with Raouf Hannachi, an al-Qaeda member who served as the muezzin at Montreal's Assuna Mosque, which attracted almost 1,500 mostly Algerian worshipers to Friday prayers.[6][7][14][19] Hannachi returned from Afghanistan towards the end of the summer of 1997, where he had trained for jihad at Khalden Camp. He told Ressam about the experience and jihad, encouraged him to train as well, and ultimately arranged a trip to the camp for him and his roommate Mustapha Labsi.[7][14][20]

On March 17, 1998, interested in joining jihad in Algeria, Ressam traveled using his fraudulent "Benni Noris" passport from Montreal, Canada to Karachi, Pakistan.[7][10] There, he contacted al-Qaeda leader Abu Zubeida in Peshawar, Pakistan, who was in charge of the Afghan terrorist training camps funded and organized by Bin Laden.[10][12][16] Abu Zubeida approved him, and arranged for him to be transported over the Khyber Pass into Afghanistan in April.[10][12][16]

Derunta training camp,
after U.S. bombardment

Using the alias "Nabil", he attended three camps for Islamic terrorists between March 1998 and February 1999.[7][10] At Khalden Camp, which generally hosted 50–100 trainees at any time, he trained in light weapons, handguns, small machine guns, rocket-propelled grenade launchers (RPGs), explosives (including TNT, C4 plastic explosives, and black plastic explosives), poisons (including cyanide), poison gas, sabotage, target selection, urban warfare, tactics (including assassinations), and security.[7][10][16] Trainees were from Jordan, Algeria, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Chechnya, Turkey, Sweden, Germany, and France.[7] During the five to six months he was there, he met Zacarias Moussaoui.[10][16] He then trained how to manufacture advanced explosives and make electronic circuits for six weeks at Derunta training camp, outside Jalalabad, Afghanistan.[10][16]

Abu Zubeida, in contrast, testified before his Combatant Status Review Tribunal that Khalden only trained fighters for "defensive jihad".[21] He said trainees were explicitly instructed to only attack military targets, that it was an offense against Islam to kill or injure innocent civilians, and that Ressam would never have been sent to Khalden if he were thought to be someone who believed Islam justified attacking civilians.[21]

A six-person terrorist cell that included Ressam was created, and tasked with meeting in Canada, and then attacking a U.S. airport or consulate before the end of 1999.[10] The cell was directed by Abu Jaffar in Pakistan and Abu Doha in Europe.[10]

Plot to bomb LAX

Los Angeles International Airport
theme restaurant and control tower

He returned to Montreal, Canada, in February 1999 under the name "Benni Noris", bringing $12,000 in cash he had obtained in Afghanistan to fund the attack, as well as chemical substances known as hexamine (used as an explosive booster in the manufacture of explosives) and glycol, and a notebook with explosives concoction instructions.[10][16] While in Montreal, he shared an apartment with Karim Said Atmani, an alleged forger for the Algerian Groupe Islamique Arme.[4]

In April 1999, French investigators asked Canadian authorities to locate him for questioning, but the Canadians were unable to locate him as he was living under the name Benni Noris.[10][12] In the summer of 1999, informed by Abu Doha that the other members of his cell had been unable to make it to Canada due to immigration issues, he chose to continue without them, targeting an airport.[10]

In August 1999 he decided that he would bomb Los Angeles International Airport, the third-busiest airport in the world at the time, which he was familiar with because he had landed there in the past, and which he felt would be a politically and economically sensitive target.[6][16] He planned to conduct a rehearsal using a luggage cart, putting it in a place that was not suspicious, and observing how long it would take for airport security to notice it.[16] He planned to then execute his plan in a passenger waiting area, using one or two suitcases filled with explosives.[12][16]

In September 1999 he purchased electronic equipment and components in order to build detonators, and made four timing devices.[16] He also recruited Abdelmajid Dahoumane, an old friend of his, to help him.[16] In November, with Dahoumane's assistance he bought urea and aluminum sulfate from nurseries, and mixed it together with nitric and sulphuric acid he stole from fertilizer manufacturers to create a TNT-like explosive substance.[16]

He had met Mokhtar Haouari in early 1994, when he first arrived in Canada.[7] Haouari was involved in fraudulent activity that included the theft and sale of stolen passports and creation of fraudulent credit cards, and Ressam sold him some stolen identity cards.[12][22] In early November he recruited Haouari to assist him in what he described to Haouari as "some very important and dangerous business in the U.S.", by providing continued funding for his project, a credit card, and a fake ID. In addition, Haouari in turn recruited Brooklyn, New York-based Algerian illegal immigrant Abdelghani Meskini, a con man who he said was involved in bank fraud, to assist Ressam.[10][16][22][23]

On November 17, 1999, Ressam and Dahoumane traveled from Montreal to Vancouver, British Columbia, where in a small rented motel cottage on the southern outskirts of the city they prepared the explosives for LAX.[10][22] They left behind an acid burn stain on a table, and corroded plumbing.[24]

In December he called Abu Jaffar in Afghanistan to ask whether Osama Bin Laden wanted to take credit for the attack, but did not get an answer.[22][23] He also called Abu Doha in London, told him that he wanted to return to Algeria after the attack, and was assured he would receive money and documents.[22]

Ressam arranged for the English-speaking Meskini to wait for him in Seattle. Meskini would assist him once he crossed the border, by helping him rent a car and communicate in English, driving him, and giving him a cell phone and money withdrawn with a stolen bank debit card.[5][6][23]


External videos
Ahmed Ressam Video Dramatization (Path to 9/11)

Ressam rented a dark green 1999 Chrysler 300M luxury sedan, and on the evening of December 13, Ressam and Dahoumane hid the explosives and all the related components in the wheel well in the car's trunk.[1][6][24] On December 14, they left Vancouver, traveling to Victoria, British Columbia. Believing that he would draw less scrutiny alone, Ressam sent Dahoumane back to Vancouver, British Colombia by bus.[1][10][16][22]

M/V Coho ferry entering Victoria, B.C., Canada

Ressam then attempted to cross the border by taking the M/V Coho car ferry from Victoria, British Columbia, to Port Angeles, Washington.[9][10] He successfully passed through U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service checks in Victoria, and boarded the last ferry of the day for the 90-minute crossing to the U.S.[6][17][25]

After the ferry docked in Port Angeles at 6 pm, Ressam saw to it that his car was the last one to leave the ferry.[1][17][23] Although there had not been any intelligence reports suggesting threats, U.S. Customs inspector Diana Dean decided to have a secondary Customs search of Ressam's car performed, saying later that Ressam was acting "hinky", and asked him to get out of the car.[1][10][26][27]

At first, Ressam was not cooperative.[1] Dean requested that he fill out a Customs declaration form, which he did listing himself as a Canadian citizen named Benni Noris.[9] He also had a passport, Quebec driver license, and credit cards all in the Noris name, as well as another Quebec driver license with the same date of birth, but in the name "Mario Roig".[1] Royal Canadian Mounted Police later advised that the Mario Roig driver license was a fake, and did not exist on their records.[1]

Another Customs inspector searching his car and unscrewing the covering over the spare tire in his trunk found, hidden in the spare tire well:

  • 10 green plastic garbage bags with 118 pounds (54 kg) of a fine white powder (which tests later identified as urea, used to manufacture explosives and fertilizer),
  • 2 lozenge bottles filled with primary explosives hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX),
  • 2 plastic bags with 14 pounds (6.4 kg) of a crystalline powder (later shown to be aluminium sulfate, used primarily as a desiccant, to keep things dry),
  • two 22-ounce olive jars with 2.6 pounds (1.2 kg) of golden-brown liquid (later identified as secondary explosive ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN), an extremely explosive and volatile nitroglycerin equivalent that is twice as powerful as TNT), and
  • 4 operational timing devices designed to detonate primary explosives, consisting of small black boxes containing circuit boards connected to Casio watches and 9-volt battery connectors.[1][2][6][9][10][17] When the watch alarm would ring, an electrical charge would pass from the battery to a small lightbulb which had had its glass covering removed, exposing the filament; the bulb would heat, ignite, and detonate the other bomb ingredients in a chain reaction.[17][24]

As one of the Customs inspectors began to escort him from the car, Ressam broke free and fled.[1] Inspectors chased him for five to six blocks, and after he unsuccessfully tried to force his way into a car stopped at a light at an intersection, inspectors tackled him in the street and took him into custody.[1][24]

He was arrested by the U.S. Border Patrol on charges of misrepresentation on entry and failure to be inspected, booked into the Clallam County Jail in Clallam County, Washington, and investigated by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).[1] Customs officials searching him and the car also found the phone numbers of Abu Doha and Meskini.[5][28][29][30] His fingerprints were analyzed by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, who determined that he was actually "Ahmed Ressam", rather than "Benni Antoine Noris".[1]

An explosives expert concluded that the materials in his car could have produced a blast 40x greater than that of a devastating car bomb.[1][10] It was ultimately determined that he had intended to detonate the explosives at the Los Angeles International Airport.[9]

Trial, sentencing, and appeals

Indictment and trial

Ressam was indicted by a superseding indictment on January 20, 2000, for nine counts of criminal activity in connection with his attempt to bomb the Los Angeles International Airport on December 31, 1999: 1) an act of terrorism transcending a national boundary; 2) placing an explosive in proximity to a terminal; 3) false identification documents; 4) use of a fictitious name for admission to the U.S.; 5) the felony of making a false statement to a U.S. Customs official; 6) smuggling; 7) transportation of explosives; 8) possession of an unregistered firearm; and 9) carrying an explosive during the commission of a felony.[2][9][10]

Following a 19-day trial in U.S. District Court in Los Angeles, with approximately 120 witnesses, a jury found Ressam guilty on all counts of his indictment on April 6, 2001.[10][31] That same day, he was convicted in absentia in France, and sentenced to five years for conspiring to commit terrorist acts there.[12]

Cooperation and sentencing

His sentencing was delayed for four years, to give counter-terrorism analysts a chance to fully exploit him as an intelligence source. Facing up to 130 years in prison, Ressam began cooperating with investigators after his conviction pursuant to a June 23, 2001, cooperation agreement that he entered into with the U.S. government.[10] Under the agreement, after he cooperated fully with the U.S. and other governments, the U.S. government would recommend a prison sentence taking his cooperation into consideration, though the recommendation would not under any circumstances be less than 27 years.[6]

He provided information to law enforcement officials of the U.S. and six other countries with regard to al-Qaeda's organization, recruitment, and training activities.[10] He revealed that al-Qaeda sleeper cells existed within the U.S.[10] This information was included in the famous President's Daily Brief delivered to President George W. Bush on August 6, 2001, entitled Bin Ladin Determined To Strike in US. He testified in July 2001 against his accomplice and co-conspirator Haouari, and Ressam's testimony was also used by the Guantanamo Bay Combatant Status Review Tribunal to decide that friends of his, such as fellow Algerian Ahcene Zemiri, should continue to be held as unlawful combatants.[10]

The Summary of Evidence memo prepared for Abu Zubeida's Combatant Status Review Tribunal, and the transcript from his Tribunal,[20][21] indicate that 7 of the 12 unclassified allegations that Abu Zubeida faced were based on Ressam's confessions. The Globe and Mail opined that the intelligence analysts' heavy reliance on Ressam's confessions was due to a desire to have all the unclassified allegations against Abu Zubeida based on evidence that clearly didn't rely on torture.[32]

One person whom he was not asked about until after 9/11, but whom he was able to identify when asked as having trained with him at the Khalden Camp, was Zacarias Moussaoui, an al-Qaeda member later implicated in the 9/11 plot.[23] Moussaoui had been arrested by the FBI on August 16, 2001.[23] But FBI agents were without success trying to convince their superiors that there was enough evidence to obtain a warrant to allow them to search Moussaoui's laptop and belongings.[23] The 9/11 Commission Report opined that had Ressam been asked about Moussaoui, he would have broken that logjam.[23] Had that happened, the Report opined, the U.S. might conceivably have disrupted or derailed the September 11 attacks altogether.[23]

By November 28, 2001, Ressam began to express reluctance about discussing some matters.[10] By early 2003, after having provided 65 hours of trial and deposition testimony and names of 150 people involved in terrorism, he stopped cooperating and began to recant his prior testimony.[10]

The Seattle Times described Ressam's sentencing hearing as the "gripping climax" to Ressam's journey through the U.S. court system.[33] U.S. Attorney John McKay argued Ressam should get a 35-year sentence, because he had declined to cooperate in two cases, which would now go unprosecuted.[33] Ressam's lawyer argued that Ressam should be given a sentence of less than 20 years, to reflect the value of his original cooperation, saying: "It is a flat fact that law enforcement, the public, and public safety benefited in immeasurable ways from Ressam's decision to go to trial and [later] cooperate."[33] Ressam didn't say anything during his sentencing hearing, but did send the judge a personal note, that included an apology for planning to bomb the airport.[33]

On July 27, 2005, United States District Court Judge John Coughenour sentenced Ressam to 22 years in prison, plus 5 years of supervision after his release; credited for good conduct, he could have been released after 14 years.[33] According to the Seattle Times, the judge used the occasion of Ressam's sentencing "to unleash a broadside against secret tribunals and other war on terrorism tactics that abandon 'the ideals that set our nation apart.'"[33] The judge added: "The tragedy of September 11 shook our sense of security and made us realize that we, too, are vulnerable to acts of terrorism. Unfortunately, some believe that this threat renders our Constitution obsolete ... If that view is allowed to prevail, the terrorists will have won."[33]

Appeals and sentencing guidelines

On January 16, 2007, a divided panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in Seattle reversed Ressam's conviction on one of the charges, due to the majority's reading of the applicable law. The Supreme Court of the United States, however, then overturned the Ninth Circuit in an 8–1 decision on May 19, 2008, restoring the original convictions and sentence.[9][34]

On February 2, 2010, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that his 22-year sentence was too lenient, and did not fit in the then-mandatory sentencing guidelines, which indicated he should have received at least 65 years, and up to 130 years, in prison.[10] Finding that the trial court judge's "views appear too entrenched to allow for the appearance of fairness on remand," the appellate court ordered that Ressam be re-sentenced by a different district court judge than the one who had handed down the original sentence.[10][11] In March 2010, Ressam's lawyer said he would file a petition for a rehearing before the Ninth Circuit Court.[35]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Complaint; U.S. v. Ressam". NEFA Foundation. December 1999. http://nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/FeaturedDocs/U.S._v_Ressam_Complaint.pdf. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Superseding Indictment in U.S. v. Ressam". January 20, 2000. http://nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/FeaturedDocs/U.S._v_Ressam_indictment.pdf. Retrieved February 16, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c "The Terrorist Within, Chapter 2: The Fountainhead". The Seattle Times. June 23, 2002. http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20020623&slug=2ressam230. Retrieved March 1, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c Canadian Security Intelligence Service, Summary of the Security Intelligence Report concerning Hassan Almrei, February 22, 2008.
  5. ^ a b c Pypes, Craig (January 21, 2000). ". Canada Adds Details on Algerians' Suspected Bomb Plot". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/01/21/world/canada-adds-details-on-algerians-suspected-bomb-plot.html. Retrieved February 28, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Government's Sentencing Memorandum; U.S. v. Ressam". April 20, 2005. http://intelfiles.egoplex.com/ressam-sentencing-memo.pdf. Retrieved February 28, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "U.S. v. Haquari, Examination". USDC SDNY. July 3, 2001. http://fl1.findlaw.com/news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/haouari/ushaouari70301rassamtt.pdf. Retrieved February 27, 2010. 
  8. ^ Weiser, Benjamin, and Golden, Tim, "A NATION CHALLENGED: BIN LADEN'S NETWORK; Al Qaeda: Sprawling, Hard-to-Spot Web of Terrorists-in-Waiting", The New York Times, September 30, 2001, accessed February 15, 2010
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Supreme Court of the United States (May 19, 2008). "U.S. v. Ressam". http://www.nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/FeaturedDocs/US_v_Ressam_supremecourt.pdf. Retrieved February 27, 2010. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (February 2, 2010). "U.S. v. Ressam". http://www.nefafoundation.org/miscellaneous/US_v_Ressam_9thcircuitappeals0210.pdf. Retrieved February 27, 2010. 
  11. ^ a b "'Millennium bomber' sentence overturned; feds seek longer one". CNN.com. February 2, 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/CRIME/02/02/millennium.bomber/index.html?hpt=T2. Retrieved March 18, 2010. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Ahmed Ressam's Millennium Plot". Frontline (PBS). http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/trail/inside/cron.html. Retrieved February 28, 2010. 
  13. ^ As a default
  14. ^ a b c d e Sageman, Marc (2004). Understanding Terror Neworks. University of Pennsylvania Press. http://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/toc/14036.html. Retrieved February 28, 2010. 
  15. ^ Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), Security Intelligence Report concerning Mohamed Harkat, February 22, 2008
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Ressam Testimony in Mokhtar Haouari Trial". Southern District of New York. July 2001. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/trail/inside/testimony.html. Retrieved February 27, 2010. 
  17. ^ a b c d e "Trail of a Terrorist Program". Program # 2004 (PBS). October 25, 2001. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/trail/etc/script.html. Retrieved February 28, 2010. 
  18. ^ Carter, Mike. "Nation & World | Ressam gets 22 years for millennium bomb plot | Seattle Times Newspaper". google.com. http://google.com/search?q=cache:tLgJW3Wyg5gJ:seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2008464114_webressam03m.html+Ahmed+Ressam+recruited&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us. Retrieved March 18, 2010. 
  19. ^ "The Terrorist Within, Chapter 7: Joining Jihad", The Seattle Times, June 27, 2002, March 1, 2010
  20. ^ a b Bell, Stewart (October 25, 2003). "Dozens of Canadians join Jihad Terror Camps". National Post. 
  21. ^ a b c OARDEC (March 27, 2007). "verbatim transcript of the unclassified session of the Combatant Status Review Tribunal of ISN 10016" (PDF). Department of Defense. http://www.defenselink.mil/news/transcript_ISN10016.pdf. Retrieved April 16, 2007. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f "The Terrorist Within, Chapter 11: The Ticking Bomb; Terrorist-training-camp graduate Ahmed Ressam turns to untrained friends for help in his plan to bomb the L.A. airport.". The Seattle Times. July 1, 2002. http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20020701&slug=11ressam01. Retrieved March 2, 2010. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States (2004). The 9/11 Commission report: final report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-06041-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=fNqdmUnqTJUC&pg=PA501&dq=Hannachi+ressam&cd=1#v=onepage&q=ressam&f=false. Retrieved February 28, 2010. 
  24. ^ a b c d Block, Paula (November 25, 2001). "An Otherwise Ordinary Day: In quiet Port Angeles, local folks tackle a terrorist and nothing has been quite the same since". The Seattle Times. http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20011125&slug=pdiana25. Retrieved February 28, 2010. 
  25. ^ U.S. Border Security: Looking North
  26. ^ "The Terrorist Within, Chapter 12: The Crossing", by Hal Bernton, Mike Carter, David Heath, and James Neff, the Seattle Times, July 2, 2002. Eprint with publication date and Eprint with author credits.
  27. ^ "Foiling millennium attack was mostly luck", Lisa Myers, NBC News Senior investigative correspondent, MSNBC, April 29, 2004. Eprint.
  28. ^ Library of Congress, Federal Research Division. "Asian Criminal and Terrorist Activity in Canada", July 2003
  29. ^ Hirschkorn, Phil, "Boyhood friend fingers defendant in Y2K bomb plot", CNN, July 2, 2001, accessed February 28, 2010
  30. ^ Muriel, Diana, "Al Qaeda suspect faces U.S. trial", CNN, May 10, 2002, accessed February 28, 2010
  31. ^ "Statement of Attorney General John Ashcroft; Conviction of Ahmed Ressam," U.S. Department of Justice, April 6, 2001, accessed February 15, 2010
  32. ^ FREEZE, COLIN (April 17, 2007). "'High-value' detainee rejects al-Qaeda doctrine: Terror suspect tells Guantanamo hearing he 'disagreed' with targeting civilians". The Globe and Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/LAC.20070417.HARKAT17/TPStory/National. Retrieved April 16, 2007. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g Bernton, Hal; Green, Sara Jean (July 28, 2005). "Ressam judge decries U.S. tactics". Seattle Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2002406378_ressam27m.html. Retrieved April 21, 2007. 
  34. ^ "Supreme Court restores full prison term in LAX plot by 'millennium bomber'". Los Angeles Times. May 20, 2008. 
  35. ^ "Millennium plotter appealing sentence decision", Associated Press, March 17, 2010, accessed March 18, 2010

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