- Timeline of the Northern Ireland Troubles and peace process
This article lists the major violent and political incidents during the Troubles and peace process in Northern Ireland. The Troubles (Irish: Na Trioblóidí) was a period of conflict in Northern Ireland involving republican and loyalist paramilitaries, the British security forces, and civil rights groups. The duration of the Troubles is conventionally dated from the riots of 1968 to the Belfast Agreement of 1998. However, sporadic violence continued after this point. Between 14 July 1969 and 31 December 2001, an estimated 3523 people had been killed in the conflict.
- For a list of those involved in the conflict, see Directory of the Northern Ireland Troubles
- For a chronology of the peace process, see Northern Ireland peace process
- 1 1960–1969
- 2 1970–1979
- 3 1980–1989
- 4 1990–1999
- 5 2000 – present
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Notes
21 May A group calling itself the Ulster Volunteer Force issued a statement declaring war on the Irish Republican Army. The group claimed to be composed of "heavily armed Protestants dedicated to this cause". June The UVF killed a number of Catholic civilians in west Belfast.
20 June Civil Rights activists (including Stormont MP Austin Currie) began a protest against discrimination in the allocation of housing by illegally occupying a house in Caledon, County Tyrone. An unmarried Protestant woman had been given the house ahead of Catholic families with children. The protesters were forcibly removed by the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). 6 October A civil rights march in Derry was banned by the Northern Irish government, who let an Apprentice Boys march take place instead. When civil rights activists defied the ban, they were attacked by the RUC, leading to three days of rioting. This is considered by many as the beginning of the Troubles. 9 October People's Democracy formed after demonstration in Belfast by students. Derry Citizens' Action Committee was also formed from five existing protest groups in Derry, led by Ivan Cooper and John Hume.
4 January Burntollet ambush – a People's Democracy march between Belfast and Derry was repeatedly attacked by loyalists and off-duty police. At Burntollet bridge it was ambushed by ~200 loyalists armed with iron bars, bricks and bottles. The police did little to protect the march. 30 March The Ulster Protestant Volunteers (UPV) bombed an electricity station at Castlereagh, resulting in blackouts. A further five bombs were exploded at electricity stations and water pipelines throughout April. Many believe this was part of a loyalist plot to frame the IRA and bring an end to equality reforms. 17 April Bernadette Devlin becomes the youngest woman ever elected to Westminster. 21 April The British Ministry of Defence grants Northern Ireland Army reinforcements for the first time since the Second World War. 28 April Terence O'Neill resigns as Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. 14 July A 67-year-old Catholic civilian died after being attacked by RUC officers in Dungiven. Many consider this the first death of the Troubles. 12–14 August Battle of the Bogside – serious rioting erupted in Derry after an Apprentice Boys march. 14–17 August Northern Ireland riots of August 1969 – in response to events in Derry, rioting erupted in Belfast, Dungannon, Dungiven, Coalisland, Armagh, Newry and Crossmaglen. Eight people were shot dead and at least 133 were treated for gunshot wounds. Loyalists set fire to hundreds of homes in nationalist areas.
The British Army was deployed on the streets of Northern Ireland.
11 October Three people were shot dead during street disturbances in the Shankill area of Belfast. Two were civilians shot by the British Army and one was an RUC officer shot by suspected loyalists. He was the first RUC officer to die in the Troubles.
The British Army shot dead two civilians.
December A split formed in the Irish Republican Army, creating what was to become the Official IRA and Provisional IRA.
31 March Following an Orange Order parade, intense riots erupted on the Springfield Road in Belfast. Violence lasted for three days, and the British Army used CS gas for the first time in large quantities. About 38 soldiers and dozens of civilians were injured. 27 June Following the arrest of Bernadette Devlin, intense riots erupted in Derry and Belfast. During the evening, loyalist paramilitaries made incursions into republican areas of Belfast. This led to a prolonged gun battle between republicans and loyalists. Seven people were killed. 3–5 July Falls Curfew – for three days the British Army imposed a curfew on the Falls Road area of Belfast as they searched for weapons. During the operation they came under attack from the Official IRA (OIRA) and republican rioters. Five civilians were killed, sixty were injured and three hundred were arrested by the British Army. Fifteen soldiers were shot by the OIRA. 2 August Rubber bullets were used for the first time. August Leading Nationalist party, the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) was formed.
6 February Robert Curtis became the first British soldier to die in the Troubles when he was shot by the IRA on New Lodge Road, Belfast. 9 March Three off-duty Scottish soldiers are killed by the IRA. 4000 shipyard workers take to the streets to demand internment in response. 23 March Brian Faulkner became the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. 25 May The PIRA threw a time bomb into Springfield Road British Army/RUC base in Belfast, killing British Army Sergeant Michael Willetts and wounding seven RUC officers, two British soldiers and eighteen civilians. 8 July During street disturbances, British soldiers shot dead two Catholic civilians in Free Derry. As a result, riots erupted in the city and the SDLP withdrew from Stormont in protest. 9 August Operation Demetrius (or Internment) was introduced in Northern Ireland. The security forces arrested 342 people suspected of supporting paramilitaries. During 9–11 August, fourteen civilians were shot dead by the British Army, and three security forces personnel were shot dead by republicans. In the following days, an estimated 7000 people fled their homes. The vast majority of the dead, imprisoned and refugees were nationalists and Catholics. September Loyalist groups formed the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). The group would quickly become the largest loyalist group in Northern Ireland. 4 December McGurk's Bar bombing – the UVF exploded a bomb at a Catholic-oned pub in Belfast, killing fifteen Catholic civilians and wounding seventeen others. This was the highest death toll from a single incident in Belfast during the Troubles.
30 January Bloody Sunday – 27 unarmed civilians were shot (of whom 14 were killed) by the British Army during a civil rights march in Derry. This was the highest death toll from a single shooting incident during the Troubles. 2 February Funerals of eleven of those killed on Bloody Sunday. Prayer services held across Ireland. In Dublin, over 30,000 marched to the British Embassy, carrying thirteen replica coffins and black flags. They attacked the Embassy with stones and bottles, then petrol bombs. The building was eventually burnt to the ground. 22 February Aldershot bombing – seven people were killed by an Official IRA bomb at Aldershot Barracks in England. It was thought to be in retaliation for Bloody Sunday. Six of those killed were female ancillary workers and the seventh was a Roman Catholic priest. March Stormont Government was dissolved. Direct rule from Westminster was introduced. 14 April The IRA exploded twenty-four bombs in towns and cities across Northern Ireland. There was also fourteen shootouts between the IRA and security forces. 22 April An 11-year-old boy was killed by a rubber bullet fired by the British Army in Belfast. He was the first to die from a rubber bullet impact. 28 May Four PIRA volunteers and four civilians were killed when a bomb they were preparing exploded prematurely at a house on Anderson Street, Belfast. 29 May The Official IRA announced a ceasefire. This marked the end of the Official IRA’s military campaign. 13 July There was a series of gun-battles and shootings across Belfast. The PIRA shot dead three British Army soldiers, and the British Army shot dead two civilians and a PIRA volunteer. 14 July There was a series of gun-battles and shootings across Belfast. The PIRA shot dead three British Army soldiers, the British Army shot dead a PIRA volunteer and an OIRA volunteer, while a civilian was shot dead in crossfire. 21 July Bloody Friday – within the space of seventy-five minutes, the PIRA exploded twenty-two bombs in Belfast. Six civilians, two British Army soldiers and one UDA volunteer were killed, while 130 were injured. 31 July Operation Motorman – the British Army used 12,000 soldiers supported by tanks and bulldozers to re-take the "no-go areas" controlled by the PIRA. 31 July Claudy bombing – nine civilians were killed when three car bombs exploded in Claudy, County Londonderry. No group has since claimed responsibility. 20 December Five civilians (four Catholics, one Protestant) were killed in gun attack on the Top of the Hill Bar in Derry. It is believed the UDA was responsible.
4 February British Army snipers shot dead a PIRA volunteer and three civilians at the junction of Edlingham Street and New Lodge Road, Belfast. 7 February The United Loyalist Council held a one-day strike to "re-establish some sort of Protestant or loyalist control over the affairs of the province". Loyalist paramilitaries forcibly tried to stop many people going to work and to close any businesses that had opened. There were eight bombings and thirty-five arsons. Three loyalist paramilitaries and one civilian were killed. 8 March The PIRA undertook its first operation in Great Britain, when it planted four car bombs in London. Ten members of the PIRA team were arrested at Heathrow Airport while trying to leave the country. 17 May Five British Army soldiers were killed by a PIRA booby-trap bomb in Omagh, County Tyrone. 12 June Six Protestant civilians were killed by a PIRA bomb in Coleraine, County Antrim. The warning given prior to the explosion had been inadequate. 28 June Northern Ireland Assembly elections took place. 31 October Mountjoy Prison escape – three PIRA volunteers escaped from Mountjoy Prison in Dublin using a hijacked helicopter. December The Sunningdale Agreement was signed.
4 February M62 coach bombing – nine British Army soldiers and three civilians were killed when a PIRA bomb exploded on a bus as it was travelling along the M62 motorway in West Yorkshire, England. It was carrying British Army soldiers and some of their family members. 20 April The Troubles claimed its 1000th victim. 2 May Six Catholic civilians were killed and eighteen wounded when the UVF exploded a bomb at Rose & Crown Bar on Ormeau Road, Belfast. 15 May Beginning of the Ulster Workers' Council strike. 17 May Dublin and Monaghan bombings – the UVF exploded four bombs (three in Dublin, one in Monaghan) in the Republic of Ireland. They killed thirty-three civilians and wounded a further 300. This was the highest number of casualties in a single incident during "The Troubles". It has been alleged that members of the British security forces were involved. The UVF did not claim responsibility until 15 July 1993. 28 May The Northern Ireland Executive collapsed. As a result, direct rule was re-introduced. 17 June The Provisional IRA bombed the Houses of Parliament in London, injuring 11 people and causing extensive damage. 5 October Guildford pub bombings – four soldiers and one civilian were killed by PIRA bombs at two pubs in Guildford, England. 21 November Birmingham pub bombings – twenty-one civilians were killed when bombs exploded at two pubs in Birmingham, England. This was the deadliest attack in England during the Troubles. The "Birmingham Six" would be tried for this and convicted. Many years later, after new evidence of police fabrication and suppression of evidence, their convictions would be quashed and they would be released. 10 December The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) and its political wing the Irish Republican Socialist Party (IRSP) was founded at the Spa Hotel in the village of Lucan near Dublin. 22 December The PIRA announced a Christmas ceasefire. Prior to ceasefire, they carried out a bomb attack on the home of former Prime Minister Edward Heath. Mr Heath was not in the building at the time and no one was injured.
10 February The PIRA agreed on a ceasefire with the British government and the Northern Ireland Office. Seven "incident centres" were established in nationalist areas to monitor the ceasefire and the response of the security forces. 20 February A feud began between the Official IRA (OIRA) and the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA). The two groups assassinated a number of each other's volunteers until the feud ended in June 1975. March A feud began between the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and Ulster Defence Association (UDA), resulting in a number of assassinations. 12 April Six Catholic civilians were killed in a UVF gun and grenade attack on Strand Bar in Belfast. 22 June The UVF tried to derail a train by planting a bomb on the railway line near Straffan, County Kildare, Republic of Ireland. A civilian tried to stop the UVF volunteers, and was stabbed-to-death. However, his actions delayed the explosion enough to let the train pass safely. 17 July Four British soldiers were killed by a PIRA remote-controlled bomb near Forkill, County Armagh. The attack was the first major breach of the February truce. 31 July Miami Showband massacre – UVF volunteers (some of whom were also UDR soldiers) shot dead three members of an Irish showband at Buskhill, County Down. The gunmen staged a bogus military checkpoint, stopped the showband's minibus and ordered the musicians out. Two gunmen then hid a time bomb in the bus, but it exploded and they were killed. The other gunmen then opened fire on the musicians and fled. Three UDR soldiers were later convicted for their part in the attack, which has been linked to the "Glenanne gang". 1 September Five Protestant civilians (all Orangemen) were killed and seven were wounded in a gun attack on Tullyvallen Orange Hall near Newtownhamilton, County Armagh. One of the Orangemen was an off-duty RUC officer, who returned fire. The attack was claimed by the South Armagh Republican Action Force (SARAF), who said it was retaliation for "the assassinations of fellow Catholics in Belfast". 2 October The UVF killed seven civilians in a series of attacks across Northern Ireland. Six were Catholic civilians and one was a Protestant civilian. Four UVF volutneers were also killed when their bomb prematurely exploded as they drove along a road in Farrenlester, near Coleraine. 22 November Drummuckavall Ambush – three British Army soldiers were killed and one captured when the PIRA attacked a watchtower in South Armagh. 25 November A loyalist gang nicknamed the "Shankill Butchers" undertook its first "cut-throat killing". The gang was named for its late-night kidnapping, torture and murder (by throat slashing) of random Catholic civilians in Belfast. 5 December End of internment. 6 December Balcombe Street Siege – for six days, four PIRA volunteers held two hostages at an apartment in London, England. 19 December The Red Hand Commandos exploded a no-warning car bomb in Dundalk, killing two civilians and wounding twenty. Shortly after, the same group launched a gun and bomb attack across the border in Silverbridge. Two Catholic civilians and an English civilian were killed in that attack, while six others were wounded. There is evidence that RUC officers and UDR soldiers were involved in the attacks, which have been linked to the "Glenanne gang".
4–5 January Reavey and O'Dowd killings – the UVF shot dead six Catholic civilians in two co-ordinated attacks in County Armagh. An officer in the RUC Special Patrol Group took part in the killings, which have been linked to the "Glenanne gang".
Kingsmill massacre – the South Armagh Republican Action Force shot dead ten Protestant civilians after stopping their minibus at Kingsmill, County Armagh.
23 January The PIRA truce of February 1975 was officially brought to an end. March End of Special Category Status for prisoners convicted of terrorist crimes. 17 March Four Catholic civilians (including two children) were killed and twelve wounded when the UVF exploded a car bomb at Hillcrest Bar, Dungannon. The attack has been linked to the "Glenanne gang". 15 May The UVF launched gun and bomb attacks on two pubs in Charlemont, killing four Catholic civilians and wounding many more. A British Army UDR soldier was later convicted for taking part in the attacks.
The PIRA killed three RUC officers in County Fermanagh and one RUC officer in County Down.
5 June Nine civilians were killed during separate attacks in and around Belfast. The UVF killed five civilians in a gun and bomb attack, the UDA/UFF assassinated a member of Sinn Féin, and two civilians were killed in a bombing by suspected republicans. 2 July Six civilians were killed in a UVF gun attack on Ramble Inn near Antrim, County Antrim. The pub was targeted because it was owned by Catholics. 21 July Christopher Ewart Biggs, the British Ambassador to Ireland, and his secretary Judith Cook, were assassinated by a bomb planted in Mr. Biggs’ car in Dublin. 30 July Four Protestant civilians were shot dead at a pub off Milltown Road, Belfast. The attack was claimed by the Republican Action Force. 10 August A PIRA volunteer was shot dead by the British Army as he drove along a road in Belfast. His car then went out of control and killed three children. This incident sparked a series of "peace rallies" throughout the month. The group that organised the rallies became known as Peace People, and was led by Mairead Corrigan and Betty Williams. Their rallies were the first (since the conflict began) where large numbers of Protestants and Catholics joined forces to campaign for peace. September Blanket protests began in the Maze prison, in protest at the end of special category status. The term ‘blanket protest’ comes from the protesters refusal to wear prison uniforms, instead wrapping blankets around themselves.
11 December Mairead Corrigan and Betty Williams received the Nobel Peace Prize.
17 February La Mon restaurant bombing – eleven civilians and an RUC officer were killed and thirty wounded by a PIRA incendiary bomb at the La Mon Restaurant near Belfast. 17 June The PIRA killed an RUC officer and kidnapped another near Crossmaglen, County Armagh. The following day, three RUC officers kidnapped a Catholic priest and vowed to hold him hostage until their comrade was freed. However, they released the priest shortly thereafter. In December 1978 these RUC officers were charged both for the kidnapping and for the murder of a Catholic shopkeeper. 21 June The British Army shot dead three PIRA volunteers and a passing UVF volunteer at a postal depot on Ballysillan Road, Belfast. It is claimed that the PIRA volunteers were about to launch a bomb attack. 21 September The PIRA exploded bombs at the RAF airfield near Eglinton, County Londonderry. The terminal building, two aircraft hangars and four planes were destroyed. 14–19 November The PIRA exploded over fifty bombs in towns across Northern Ireland, injuring thirty-seven people. Belfast, Derry, Armagh, Castlederg, Cookstown and Enniskillen were hardest hit.
20 February Eleven loyalists known as the "Shankill Butchers" were sentenced to life in prison for nineteen murders. The gang was named for its late-night kidnapping, torture and murder (by throat slashing) of random Catholic civilians in Belfast. 22 March The PIRA assassinated Richard Sykes, the British ambassador to the Netherlands, in Den Haag. The group also exploded twenty-four bombs in various locations across Northern Ireland. 30 March The INLA assassinated Airey Neave, Conservative MP and advisor to Margaret Thatcher. The INLA exploded a booby-trap bomb underneath his car as he left the House of Commons, London. If he had lived, he might have become Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, when the Conservatives won the United Kingdom general election two months later. 17 April Four RUC officers were killed by a PIRA van bomb in Bessbrook, County Armagh. The bomb was estimated at 1000 lb, believed to be the largest PIRA bomb used up to that point. 27 August Warrenpoint ambush – eighteen British Army soldiers were killed when the PIRA exploded two roadside bombs as a British convoy passed Narrow Water Castle near Warrenpoint. There was a brief exchange of fire, and the British Army shot dead a civilian. This was the British Army's highest death toll from a single attack during the Troubles. On the same day, four people (including the Queen’s cousin Lord Louis Mountbatten) were killed by a PIRA bomb on board a boat near the coast of County Sligo. September During a visit to the Republic of Ireland, Pope John Paul II appealed for an end to the violence in Northern Ireland. 16 December Four British Army soldiers were killed by a PIRA landmine near Dungannon, County Tyrone. Another British Army soldier was killed by a PIRA landmine near Forkill, County Armagh.
17 January Dunmurry train explosion – a PIRA bomb prematurely detonated on a passenger train near Belfast, killing three and injuring five (including the bombers). October Republican prisoners in the Maze began a hunger strike in protest against the end of special category status. December Republican hunger strike called off.
21 January Norman Stronge and his son James Stronge (both former UUP MPs) were assassinated by the IRA at their home Tynan Abbey, which was then burnt down. 1 March Republican prisoners in the Maze began a second hunger strike. 9 April Hunger striker Bobby Sands won a by-election to be elected as a Member of Parliament at Westminster. The law was later changed to prevent prisoners standing in elections. 5 May After 66 days on hunger strike, 26 year old Bobby Sands MP died in the Maze. Nine further hunger strikers died in the following 3 months. 19 May Five British Army soldiers were killed when their Saracen APC was ripped apart by a PIRA roadside bomb near Bessbrook, County Armagh. 10 June Eight PIRA prisoners escaped from Crumlin Road Gaol in Belfast. Using handguns that had been smuggled into the prison, they took prison officers hostage and shot their way out of the building. 17 July Glasdrumman ambush – the PIRA attacked a British Army post in South Armagh, killing one soldier and injuring another. 1 September Northern Ireland’s first religiously integrated secondary school opened. 3 October Republican hunger strike ended.
20 April The PIRA exploded bombs in Belfast, Derry, Armagh, Ballymena, Bessbrook and Magherafelt. Two civilians were killed and twelve were injured. 20 July Hyde Park and Regent's Park bombings – eleven British soldiers and seven military horses died in PIRA bomb attacks during military ceremonies in Regent's Park and Hyde Park, London. Many spectators were badly injured. 6 December Droppin Well bombing – eleven British soldiers and six civilians were killed by an INLA time bomb at the Droppin’ Well Bar in Ballykelly, County Londonderry.
11 April In the first 'supergrass' trial, fourteen UVF volunteers were jailed for a total of two hundred years. May New Ireland Forum set up. 13 July Four British Army (Ulster Defence Regiment) soldiers were killed when their vehicle struck a PIRA landmine near Ballygawley, County Tyrone. 5 August In another 'supergrass' trial, twenty-two PIRA volunteers were jailed for a total of over four thousand years. Eighteen would later have their convictions quashed. 25 September Maze Prison escape – thirty-eight Republican prisoners staged an elaborate escape from the Maze Prison in County Antrim. 17 December Harrods bombing – a PIRA car bomb killed six and injured ninety outside a department store in London. The PIRA Army Council claimed that it had not authorised the attack.
21 February Two PIRA volunteers and a British soldier were killed during a shootout in Dunloy, County Antrim. 18 May Three British soldiers were killed by a PIRA landmine in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh. Two RUC officers were killed by a PIRA landmine near Camlough, County Armagh. 12 October Brighton hotel bombing – the PIRA carried out a bomb attack on the Grand Hotel, Brighton, which was being used as a base for the Conservative Party Conference. Five people, including MP Sir Anthony Berry, were killed. Margaret and Denis Thatcher narrowly escaped injury. December Ian Thain became the first British soldier to be convicted of murdering a civilian during the Troubles.
28 February Newry mortar attack – a PIRA mortar attack on an RUC base in Newry killed nine officers and wounded thirty-seven. This was the RUC's highest death toll from a single attack during the Troubles. 20 May Four RUC officers were killed by a PIRA remote-controlled bomb near Killeen, County Armagh. 15 November Margaret Thatcher and Garret FitzGerald signed the Anglo-Irish Agreement. December All fifteen Unionist MPs at Westminster resigned in protest against the Anglo-Irish agreement. 7 December Attack on Ballygawley barracks – the PIRA launched an assault on the RUC barracks in Ballygawley, County Tyrone. Two RUC officers were killed and the barracks was completely destroyed by the subsequent bomb explosion.
June Northern Ireland Assembly was officially dissolved. August The PIRA issued a warning that anyone working with the security forces in Northern Ireland would be considered "part of the war machine" and would be "treated as collaborators". 2 November During the Sinn Féin Ard Fheis (party conference) in Dublin, a majority of delegates voted to end the party's policy of abstentionism – refusing to take seats in Dáil Éireann (Irish parliament). This led to a split and Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, Dáithí Ó Conaill and approximately 100 people staged a walk-out. The two men would form a new party called Republican Sinn Féin. 10 November Loyalists held a closed meeting at the Ulster Hall in Belfast. The main speakers at the meeting were Ian Paisley, Peter Robinson and Ivan Foster. During the meeting a new organisation, Ulster Resistance, was formed to "take direct action as and when required" to end the Anglo-Irish Agreement.
8 May Loughgall Ambush – eight PIRA volunteers and one civilian were killed by the Special Air Service (SAS) in Loughall, County Armagh. The eight-strong PIRA unit had just exploded a bomb at the RUC base when it was ambushed by the 24-strong SAS unit. 8 November Remembrance Day bombing – eleven civilians and an RUC officer were killed and sixty-three others were wounded by a PIRA bomb during a Remembrance Day service in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh. One of those killed was Marie Wilson. In an emotional BBC interview, her father Gordon Wilson (who was injured in the attack) expressed forgiveness towards his daughter's killer, and asked Loyalists not to seek revenge. He became a leading peace campaigner and was later elected to the Irish Senate. He died in 1995.
January SDLP leader John Hume and Sinn Féin leader Gerry Adams held a meeting. Many[who?] consider this meeting as the beginning of the Peace Process. 6 March Operation Flavius – three unarmed PIRA volunteers were killed by the SAS in Gibraltar. 16 March Milltown Cemetery attack – at the funeral of those killed in Gibraltar, Loyalist Michael Stone (using pistols and grenades) attacked the mourners, killing one PIRA volunteer and two civilians. Over sixty others were wounded. Most of the attack was filmed by television news crews. 19 March Corporals killings – at the funeral of Michael Brady (killed in the Milltown Cemetery attack) two non-uniformed British Army corporals were attacked by civilians and then executed by the PIRA, after being mistaken for Loyalist gunmen. 15 June Six off-duty British Army soldiers were killed by a PIRA bomb attached to their van in Lisburn. The bomb was made in such a way so as to ensure it exploded upwards, lowering the risk of collateral damage. 20 August Ballygawley bus bombing – eight British Army soldiers were killed and twenty-eight wounded when the PIRA attacked their bus with a roadside bomb near Ballygawley, County Tyrone. 19 October The British Government introduced the broadcasting ban on organisations believed to support terrorism – including 11 Loyalist and Republican groups and Gerry Adams' voice.
12 February Prominent Republican solicitor Pat Finucane was assassinated by the "Ulster Freedom Fighters" (UFF), a covername used by the UDA. 22 September Deal barracks bombing – eleven British military bandsmen were killed by a PIRA bomb at Deal Barracks in Kent, England. October Twenty-eight members of the British Army (Ulster Defence Regiment) were arrested on suspicion of leaking security force documents to loyalist paramilitaries. 13 December Attack on Derryard checkpoint – using machine guns, grenades and a flamethrower, the PIRA launched an assault on a British Army checkpoint near Rosslea, County Fermanagh. Two British soldiers were killed and two wounded.
9 April Four British Army (Ulster Defence Regiment) soldiers were killed when the PIRA exploded a landmine under their patrol vehicle near Downpatrick, County Down. The blast was so powerful that the vehicle was hurled into a nearby field. 6 May Operation Conservation – the British Army attempted to ambush a PIRA unit in South Armagh, but were counter-ambushed and one British soldier was killed. 20 July The PIRA bombed the London Stock Exchange. 20 July A PIRA landmine attack on an RUC patrol vehicle in Armagh killed three RUC officers and a civilian. 30 July Conservative MP for Eastbourne, Ian Gow, was assassinated by a PIRA bomb planted in his car. 30 September Two Catholic civilians were killed by British Army soldiers in Belfast. 24 October Proxy bomb attacks – the PIRA launched three "proxy bombs" or "human bombs" at British Army checkpoints. Three men (who were or had been working with the British Army) were tied into cars loaded with explosives and ordered to drive to each checkpoint. Each bomb was detonated by remote control. The first exploded at a checkpoint in Coshquin, killing the driver and five soldiers. The second exploded at a checkpoint in Killeen; the driver narrowly escaped but one soldier was killed. The third failed to detonate. 22 November Margaret Thatcher resigned as British Prime Minister.
3 February The PIRA launched a "proxy bomb" attack on a British Army (Ulster Defense Regiment) base in Magherafelt, County Londonderry. The bomb caused major damage to the base and nearby houses, but the driver escaped before it exploded. 7 February The PIRA launched three mortar shells at 10 Downing Street while the British Cabinet were holding a meeting. 3 March Three PIRA volunteers and a Catholic civilian were shot dead by the UVF at Boyle's Bar in Cappagh, County Tyrone. The volunteers arrived in a car as a UVF gang was about to attack the pub. The UVF fired at the car (killing the volunteers) then fired into the pub (killing the civilian). According to nationalist sources, UVF Mid-Ulster Brigade commander Billy Wright was involved. 29 April The Combined Loyalist Military Command (CLMC) (acting on behalf of all loyalist paramilitaries) announced a ceasefire lasting until 4 July. This was to coincide with political talks between the four main parties (the Brooke-Mayhew talks). 31 May Glenanne barracks bombing – the PIRA launched a large truck bomb attack on a British Army (Ulster Defence Regiment) base in County Armagh. Three soldiers were killed, whilst ten soldiers and four civilians were wounded. The blast left a deep crater and it could be heard over 30 miles away. Most of the UDR base was destroyed by the blast and the fire that followed. It was one of the largest bombs detonated during the Troubles in Northern Ireland.
17 January A PIRA landmine killed eight Protestant men and wounded six others at Teebane Crossroads near Cookstown, County Tyrone. The men had been working for the British Army at a base in Omagh and were returning home on a minibus. Shortly thereafter, Peter Brooke (Secretary of State for Northern Ireland) appeared on the Irish RTÉ Late Late Show and was persuaded to sing "Oh My Darling, Clementine". Unionists accused him of gross insensitivity for agreeing to do so. 4 February Allen Moore, an RUC officer, walked into a Belfast Sinn Féin office and shot dead three Catholic civilians. Moore drove away from the scene and later shot himself. 5 February The UDA, using the covername "Ulster Freedom Fighters" (UFF), claimed responsibility for a gun attack on a bookmaker's shop on Lower Ormeau Road, Belfast. Five Catholic civilians were killed and three wounded. 16 February Clonoe ambush – A PIRA unit attacked Coalisland RUC base in County Tyrone using a heavy machine gun mounted on the back of a stolen lorry. Following the attack, the British Army ambushed the unit in a graveyard. Four PIRA volunteers were killed and two were wounded but escaped. 10 April The PIRA exploded a truck bomb at the Baltic Exchange in London. Despite a telephoned warning, three civilians were killed. The bomb caused £800 million worth of damage. 1 May Attack on Cloghogue checkpoint – the PIRA, using a van modified to run on railway tracks, launched an elaborate bomb attack on a British Army checkpoint in South Armagh. The checkpoint was obliterated and one soldier was killed. 17 May Coalisland riots – After a PIRA bomb attack on a British Army patrol near Cappagh, in which a soldier lost his legs, British soldiers raided two public houses in Coalisland and caused considerable damage. This led to a fist-fight between the soldiers and locals. Shortly thereafter, another group of British soldiers arrived and fired on a crowd of civilians, wounding seven. 28 August The PIRA's "South Armagh snipers" undertook their first successful operation, when a British Army soldier was shot dead on patrol in Crossmaglen, County Armagh. 23 September The PIRA exploded a 2000 lb bomb at the Northern Ireland Forensic Science Laboratory in South Belfast. The laboratory was obliterated, seven hundred houses were damaged, and twenty people were injured. The explosion could be heard from over 16 km away. It was one of the largest bombs to be detonated during the Troubles in Northern Ireland.
20 March Warrington bomb attacks – after a telephoned warning, the PIRA exploded two bombs in Warrington, Cheshire, England. Two children were killed and fifty-six people were wounded. There were widespread protests in Britain and Ireland following the deaths. 25 March Castlerock killings – the UDA, using the covername "Ulster Freedom Fighters" (UFF), claimed responsibility for shooting dead four Catholic civilians and a PIRA volunteer at a building site in Castlerock, County Londonderry. Later in the day it claimed responsibility for shooting dead another Catholic civilian in Belfast. 24 April Bishopsgate bombing – after a telephoned warning, the PIRA exploded a large bomb at Bishopsgate, London. It killed one civilian, wounded thirty others, and caused an estimated £350 million in damage. 23 October Shankill Road bombing – eight civilians, one UDA volunteer and one PIRA volunteer were killed when a PIRA bomb prematurely exploded at a fish shop on Shankill Road, Belfast. The PIRA's intended target was a meeting of loyalist paramilitary leaders, which was scheduled to take place in a room above the shop. However, unbeknownst to the PIRA, the meeting had been re-scheduled. 30 October Greysteel massacre – the UDA, using the covername "Ulster Freedom Fighters" (UFF), claimed responsibility for a gun attack on the Rising Sun Bar in Greysteel, County Londonderry. Eight civilians (six Catholic, two Protestant) were killed and twelve wounded. One gunman yelled "trick or treat!" before he fired into the crowded room; a reference to the Halloween party taking place. The UFF claimed that it had attacked the "nationalist electorate" in revenge for the Shankill Road bombing.
January The broadcasting ban was lifted in the Republic of Ireland. March The PIRA carried out a mortar attack on Heathrow Airport, London. Further attacks were carried out later in the month, but on each occasion the mortars failed to explode. 2 June Twenty-nine people, including ten senior RUC officers, died during the 1994 Scotland RAF Chinook crash at Mull of Kintyre, Scotland. They were travelling from Belfast to a security conference in Inverness. 16 June The INLA shot dead three UVF volutneers in a gun attack on Shankill Road, Belfast. 18 June Loughinisland massacre – the UVF shot dead six Catholic civilians and wounded five others during a gun attack on a pub in Loughinisland, County Down. 31 August The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) issued a statement which announced a complete cessation of military activities. This ceasefire was broken less than two years later. 16 September The broadcasting ban was lifted in the UK. 13 October The Combined Loyalist Military Command (CLMC) issued a statement which announced a ceasefire on behalf of all loyalist paramilitaries. The statement noted that "The permanence of our cease-fire will be completely dependent upon the continued cessation of all nationalist/republican violence".
January A delegation from Sinn Féin met with officials from the Northern Ireland Office. February The British and Irish governments released the Joint Framework document. March Gerry Adams attended a reception held by Bill Clinton at the White House. July Lee Clegg, a British Army paratrooper, was released from prison on the orders of Secretary of State Patrick Mayhew. Clegg had been jailed in 1993, for the murder of Catholic teenager Karen Reilly. September David Trimble was elected as the leader of the Ulster Unionist Party, following the resignation of James Molyneaux.
9 February London Docklands bombing – after a telephoned warning, the PIRA bombed the Docklands in London. The bomb killed two civilians, and brought to an end the ceasefire after 17 months and 9 days. 10 June Political talks at Stormont began without Sinn Féin. 15 June Manchester bombing – after a telephoned warning, the PIRA exploded a bomb in Manchester, England. It destroyed a large part of the city centre and injured over 200 people. To date, it is the largest bomb to be detonated on the British mainland since the Second World War. July Drumcree conflict – the RUC decided to block the annual Orange Order march through the nationalist Garvaghy area of Portadown. In response, loyalist protestors attacked the RUC and blocked hundreds of roads across Northern Ireland. Eventually, the RUC allowed the march to continue, leading to serious rioting by nationalists across Northern Ireland. 7 October The PIRA exploded two bombs at the British Army HQ in Thiepval Barracks, Lisburn. One soldier was killed and thirty-one wounded.
12 February The PIRA's "South Armagh snipers" shot dead a British soldier manning a checkpoint in Bessbrook, County Armagh. He was the last British soldier to be killed during Operation Banner. 5 April The Grand National horse race was cancelled, and Aintree Racecourse evacuated following a hoax bomb warning from the PIRA. It was one of a number of events that proved how easily the PIRA could disrupt the lives of the British public with minimum effort, and minimum risk to PIRA volunteers. (The race was eventually run the following Monday – 7 April – with no distruption.) June Sinn Féin won its first ever seats in Dáil Éireann (Irish Parliament) 16 June The PIRA shot dead two RUC officers on patrol in Lurgan, County Armagh. They were the last RUC officers to be killed before the signing of the Belfast Agreement (see below). 6–9 July Drumcree conflict – to ensure the Orange Order march could continue, the security forces sealed-off the nationalist Garvaghy area of Portadown. This sparked serious rioting in Portadown and across Northern Ireland. After four days, the RUC released figures which showed that there had been 60 RUC officers injured; 56 civilians injured; 117 people arrested; 2,500 plastic bullets fired; 815 attacks on the security forces; 1,506 petrol bombs thrown; and 402 hijackings. 20 July The PIRA renewed its ceasefire. September Sinn Féin signed the Mitchell Principles.
Multi-party talks resumed.
27 December INLA prisoners shot dead Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) leader and fellow prisoner Billy Wright inside the maximum-security Maze Prison. The LVF launched a number of revenge attacks over the following weeks.
10 April After two years of intensive talks, the Belfast Agreement (also known as the 'Stormont Agreement' or 'Good Friday Agreement') was signed at Stormont in Belfast. 15 May The Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) declared an "unequivocal ceasefire". The group hoped this would encourage people to vote against the Belfast Agreement. 22 May Two referendums were held on the Belfast Agreement, one in Northern Ireland and one in the Republic of Ireland. In Northern Ireland the vote was 71.2% in favour, in the Republic of Ireland the vote was 94.39% in favour. 25 June Northern Ireland Assembly elections were held. David Trimble was elected First Minister. Seamus Mallon was elected deputy. 5–12 July Drumcree conflict – the annual Orange Order march was prevented from marching through the nationalist Garvaghy area of Portadown. Security forces and about 10,000 loyalists began a standoff at Drumcree church. During this time, loyalists launched 550 attacks on the security forces and numerous attacks on Catholic civilians. On 12 July, three children were burnt to death in a loyalist petrol bomb attack. This incident brought an end to the standoff. 15 August Omagh bombing – a dissident republican group calling itself the Real IRA exploded a bomb in Omagh, County Tyrone. It killed twenty-nine civilians, making it the worst single bombing of the Troubles, in terms of civilian life lost. 22 August The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) declared a ceasefire. 1998 Considered by many as the end of the troubles. Violence nonetheless continues on a small-scale basis.
27 January Former IRA volunteer and supergrass Eamon Collins was found dead near Newry, County Down. The South Armagh IRA were believed to have been responsible. 15 March Solicitor Rosemary Nelson, who had represented the Garvaghy residents in the Drumcree dispute, was assassinated by a booby trapped car bomb in Lurgan, County Armagh. A loyalist group, Red Hand Defenders, claimed responsibility. 8 August The INLA and its political wing the IRSP stated that "There is no political or moral argument to justify a resumption of the campaign". 1 December Direct rule officially ended as power was handed over to the Northern Ireland Assembly.
2000 – present
11 February Direct rule was reinstated and the Northern Ireland Assembly suspended by new Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Mandelson, citing insufficient progress on decommissioning. 27 March The Bloody Sunday Inquiry began in Derry. It is the biggest public inquiry in British history. 29 May Devolution was restored to the Northern Ireland Assembly. 2–12 July Drumcree conflict – the annual Orange Order parade was banned from marching through the nationalist Garvaghy area of Portadown. The security forces erected large barricades to prevent loyalists from entering the area. About 2,000 British soldiers were deployed to keep order. During the standoff at Drumcree Church, loyalists continually launched missiles at the security forces. 28 July The final prisoners were released from the Maze Prison, under the conditions of the Good Friday Agreement. 21 September The Real IRA fired a rocket propelled grenade at MI6 headquarters in London.
4 March BBC bombing – a Real IRA bomb exploded outside BBC Television Centre, causing some damage to the building. 19 June Holy Cross dispute – RUC officers had to protect pupils and parents at Holy Cross Catholic Girls' School in Belfast, following attacks from loyalist protesters. The attacks resumed in September, following the school summer holidays, before subsiding in January 2002. 11–13 July The worst rioting for several years took place in Belfast. 3 August Ealing bombing – a Real IRA car bomb injured seven civilians in Ealing, west London. 23 October The Provisional IRA began decommissioning of its weaponry. 4 November The RUC was replaced by the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). Recruits were recruited on the basis of 50% Catholic, 50% Protestant.
12 July Police were attacked with blast and petrol bombs during rioting in the Ardoyne area of Belfast, following an Orange Order parade. Eighty police officers were injured and several people were arrested. 28 July The PIRA issued a statement declaring it has ended its armed campaign and will verifiably put its weapons beyond use. 26 September International weapons inspectors issue a statement confirming the full decommissioning of the PIRA's weaponry. 11–12 September Following the rerouting of a controversial Orange Order Parade, rioting broke out in Belfast on a scale not seen for many years, 30 October The Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) instructed its forces to "stand down".
25 February 2006 Dublin riots 24 November Michael Stone was arrested for breaking into the Stormont parliament buildings while armed. He would receive 16 years imprisonment for attempting to murder Martin McGuinness and Gerry Adams.
7 March Elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly took place. 26 March DUP leader, Ian Paisley and Sinn Féin leader, Gerry Adams meet face-to-face for the first time, and the two come to an agreement regarding the return of the power-sharing executive in Northern Ireland. 3 May The UVF and RHC issued a statement declaring an end to its armed campaign. The statement noted that they would retain their weapons but put them "beyond reach". 8 May The new Northern Ireland Assembly met and the new Northern Ireland Executive was formed. 31 July The British military's campaign in Northern Ireland (codenamed Operation Banner) officially ends. 11 November The UDA issued a statement declaring an end to its armed campaign. The statement noted that they would retain their weapons but put them "beyond use".
16 August The Continuity IRA (CIRA) fired a rocket-propelled grenade at a police patrol in Lisnaskea, County Fermanagh. Three officers required hospital treatment. 25 August Riots erupted in Craigavon, during which a number of vehicles were hijacked and shots were fired. The Independent Monitoring Commission blamed the CIRA for orchestrating the violence.
7 March Two British Army soldiers were shot dead and two more seriously injured during a gun attack at Massereene Barracks in County Antrim. The Real IRA claimed responsibility. These were the first British military fatalities in Northern Ireland since 1997. 9 March A police officer was shot dead in Craigavon, County Armagh. The Continuity IRA claimed responsibility. This was the first police fatality in Northern Ireland since 1998. Police were petrol bombed when arrests were made. In the following week there was sporadic attacks on police by youths. 27 June It was announced that the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and Red Hand Commando (RHC) had decommissioned their weapons. 11 October The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) formally vow to pursue its aims through peaceful political means, saying their "armed struggle is over".
6 January It was announced that the Ulster Defence Association (UDA) had decommissioned its weapons in front of independent witnesses. 6 February It was announced that the Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) had decommissioned its weapons in front of independent witnesses. 9 February The Independent International Commission on Decommissioning stood down. 22 February The RIRA were blamed for detonating a car bomb outside a courthouse in Newry, heavily damaging the guardhut. This was the first successful car bomb attack in Northern Ireland since 2000. 12 April A group calling itself Óglaigh na hÉireann claimed responsibility for detonating a car bomb outside the MI5 headquarters at Palace Barracks in Holywood, County Down. 23 April A car bomb exploded outside a PSNI station in Newtownhamilton, County Armagh. 3 August Óglaigh na hÉireann claimed responsibility for detonating a 200 lb car bomb outside Strand Road PSNI station in Derry. 4 October The RIRA claimed responsibility for detonating a car bomb close to the Ulster Bank on Culmore Road in Derry. 6 November Three PSNI officers were injured after a grenade was thrown at them as they were investigating a robbery on Shaw's Road in West Belfast. Óglaigh na hÉireann claimed responsibility.
2 April Ronan Kerr, a 25-year-old Catholic PSNI officer, was killed after a bomb exploded under his car in Omagh, County Tyrone. The Real IRA claimed responsibility. 17–20 May Queen Elizabeth II's visit to the Republic of Ireland. May–July Irish republicans in Maghaberry Prison, Lisburn take part in a Dirty protest calling for Family Visits and Legal Visits. June and July 2011 Northern Ireland riots
- List of bombings during the Northern Ireland Troubles
- Timeline of Provisional Irish Republican Army actions
- Timeline of Irish National Liberation Army actions
- Timeline of Continuity Irish Republican Army actions
- Timeline of Real Irish Republican Army actions
- Timeline of Ulster Volunteer Force actions
- Timeline of Ulster Defence Association actions
- Timeline of Loyalist Volunteer Force actions
- Timeline of Orange Volunteers actions
- Timeline of Ulster Defence Regiment operations
- Operation Banner
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – October 1968, CAIN Web Service
- ^ The Politics of Northern Ireland: Beyond the Belfast Agreement by Arthur Aughey (ISBN 978-0-415-32788-6), page 7
- ^ a b "The troubles were over, but the killing continued. Some of the heirs to Ireland's violent traditions refused to give up their inheritance." Holland, Jack: Hope against History: The Course of Conflict in Northern Ireland. Henry Holt & Company, 1999, page 221. ISBN 0-8050-6087-1
- ^ a b Historical Dictionary of the Northern Ireland Conflict by Gordon Gillespie (ISBN 978-0-8108-5583-0), page 250
- ^ Malcolm Sutton's index of Troubles related deaths cited in Statistics Of Danger, Liam O'Rourke, 8.
- ^ See Nelson, Sarah. "Ulster's Uncertain Defenders: Protestant Political Paramilitary and Community Groups and the Northern Ireland Conflict" Belfast: Appletree Press, 1984 Page.61.
- ^ Ibid pp. 2
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – January 1969 CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – April 1969 CAIN Web Service
- ^ Ibid pp. 14
- ^ Bardon, Jonathan (December 1992) . "The O'Neill Era, 1963–1972". A History of Ulster. Dundonald, Belfast: The Blackstaff Press. p. 664. ISBN 0-85640-476-4.
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – July 1969 CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – August 1969 CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – October 1969 CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – March 1970, CAIN Web Service.
- ^ The Times, 3 August 1970, Ulster offers £50,000 to stop bombs
- ^ White, Robert William (1993). Provisional Irish republicans: an oral and interpretive history. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-313-28564-6.
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – July 1971, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – August 1971, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – September 1971, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – April 1972, CAIN Web Service
- ^ Sutton Index of Deaths – 20 December 1972, CAIN Web Service
- ^ McKittrick, David. Lost Lives. Mainstream, 1999. p.309
- ^ Sutton Index of Deaths – 1973, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – May 1973, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – June 1973, CAIN Web Service
- ^ 'Troubles' death toll hits 1,000, BBC On This Day, 20 April 1974
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – May 1974, CAIN Web Service
- ^ Direct Rule, Triskelle – Irish History
- ^ 1974, Farlex
- ^ IRA bombs parliament, BBC On This Day, 17 June 1974
- ^ White, R. W. (1993). Provisional Irish republicans: an oral and interpretive history. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 136.
- ^ a b IRA Bomb Campaigns, Museum of London
- ^ a b A Chronology of the Conflict – February 1975, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – March 1975, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – April 1975, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – July 1975, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – September 1975, CAIN Web Service
- ^ McKittrick, David. Lost Lives. Mainstream Publishing, 1999. p.572
- ^ English, Richard. Armed Struggle: The history of the IRA. Pan McMillen, 2004. p.171
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – October 1975, CAIN Web Service
- ^ Cassell Report (2006), p.51
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – December 1975, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – January 1976, CAIN Web Service
- ^ Cassel Report (2006), p.53
- ^ Cassell Report (2006), p.53-54
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – May 1976, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – June 1976, CAIN Web Service
- ^ a b A Chronology of the Conflict – July 1976, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – August 1976, CAIN Web Service
- ^ The Nobel Peace Prize 1976, Nobelprize.org
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – June 1978, CAIN Web Service
- ^ Sutton Index of Deaths – 1978, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – September 1978, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – November 1978, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – March 1979, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – April 1979, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – September 1979, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – December 1979, CAIN Web Service
- ^ a b http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/sutton/chron/1981.html
- ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,954798,00.html Northern Ireland: Death Cycle Monday, Jun. 01, 1981
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – April 1982, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – April 1983, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – July 1983, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – August 1983, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – February 1984, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – May 1984, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – December 1984, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – May 1985, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – August 1986, CAIN Web Service
- ^ a b A Chronology of the Conflict – November 1986, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – May 1987, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – June 1988, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – August 1988, CAIN Web Service
- ^ The 'broadcast ban' on Sinn Fein, BBC, 5 April 2005
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – February 1989, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – October 1989, CAIN Web Service
- ^ IRA bombs Stock Exchange, BBC On This Day, 20 July 1990
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – October 1989, CAIN Web Service
- ^ NI Conflict Archive on the Internet
- ^ Collusion link to journalist's killing, An Phoblacht
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – February 1992, CAIN
- ^ O'Brien, Brendan (1999). The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Féin. O'Brien Press. pp. 232–235. ISBN 0-86278-606-1.
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – May 1992, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – September 1992, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – March 1993, CAIN
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – October 1993, CAIN
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – June 1994, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – August 1994, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – October 1994, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – June 1996, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – July 1996, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – October 1996, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – July 1997, CAIN Web Service
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – May 1998, CAIN Web Service
- ^ Good Friday Agreement, BBC
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – July 1998, CAIN Web Service
- ^ BBC News – UK and Ireland welcome INLA ceasefire
- ^ The Politics of Northern Ireland: Beyond the Belfast Agreement by Arthur Aughey (ISBN 978-0-415-32788-6), p. 7
- ^ "Draft List of Deaths Related to the Conflict. 2002–". http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/sutton/index.html. Retrieved 31 July 2008.
- ^ BBC News – INLA 'declares war is over'
- ^ a b Timeline: Northern Ireland Assembly, BBC, 11 November 2003
- ^ The Bloody Sunday inquiry, Guardian, 22 November 2004.
- ^ A Chronology of the Conflict – July 2000 CAIN Web Service
- ^ The Maze gives up its terrorists for the final time, Independent, 28 July 2000
- ^ "Security tight in London in wake of MI6 attack". RTÉ. 21 September 2000. http://rte.ie/news/2000/0921/dissidents.html. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
- ^ Boyne, p. 384.
- ^ Haunting tale of a school under siege, The Sunday Business Post, 5 December 2004
- ^ Northern Ireland timeline: May 2000 to September 2001, Guardian, 19 September 2001
- ^ IRA begins disarming, CNN, 23 October 2001
- ^ 'New era' as NI police change name, BBC, 4 November 2001
- ^ "80 officers injured during riot". BBC. 13 July 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/4677401.stm.
- ^ "Full text: IRA statement". London: The Guardian. 28 July 2005. http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,1537996,00.html. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
- ^ "IRA 'has destroyed all its arms'". BBC. 26 September 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/4283444.stm. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
- ^ Violent clashes erupt in Belfast, BBC, 11 September 2005.
- ^ 50 police officers injured in Belfast riots, Guardian, 12 September 2005.
- ^ Michael Stone guilty of attempted murder of Gerry Adams and Martin McGuinness, Telegraph, 14 November 2008
- ^ Loyalist killer Michael Stone jailed for 16 years, Guardian, 8 December 2008
- ^ "NI deal struck in historic talks". BBC News. 26 March 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/6494599.stm. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
- ^ BBC News – UVF Statement
- ^ BBC News – Statement Released
- ^ BBC NEWS BBC News – UFF given the order to stand down
- ^ Dissident republicans in rocket attack on police in Northern Ireland, Guardian, 18 August 2008.
- ^ Calls for urgent inquiry into dissident access to semtex, UTV, 19 August 2008.
- ^ Twentieth Report Of The Independent Monitoring Commission (PDF)
- ^ How the barracks attack unfolded, BBC, 9 March 2009.
- ^ Real IRA claims responsibility for attack, RTÉ News, 8 March 2009
- ^ Police officer shot dead in town, BBC, 10 March 2009
- ^ Two men held over PSNI murder, RTÉ News, 10 March 2009
- ^ "UDA confirm guns decommissioned". BBC News. 6 January 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/8442683.stm. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
- ^ "INLA confirms disposal of weapons". BBC News. 8 February 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/8503544.stm. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
- ^ "Decommissioning body stands down". BBC News. 9 February 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/8506659.stm. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
- ^ "'Sheer miracle' that Newry court bomb did not kill". BBC. 23 February 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/8529884.stm. Retrieved 24 February 2010.
- ^ "Real IRA admits NI MI5 base bomb". BBC News. 12 April 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/8614723.stm. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
- ^ "Car bomb explodes outside County Armagh police station". BBC News. 23 April 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/8638902.stm. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- ^ "200lb of explosives in Derry car bomb". BBC News. 3 August 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-10853360. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- ^ "Real IRA claims Derry car bomb attack". BBC News. 4 October 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-foyle-west-11473586. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- ^ "Three police hurt in West Belfast bomb attack". BBC News. 6 November 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-11703535. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
- ^ "Booby trap bomb kills policeman in Northern Ireland". The Independent. 2 April 2011. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/booby-trap-bomb-kills-policeman-in-northern-ireland-2260912.html. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
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