- Mundane astrology
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Mundane astrology is the application of astrology to world affairs and world events, taking its name from the Latin word Mundus, meaning "the World". Mundane astrology is a branch of Judicial astrology and is widely believed by astrological historians to be the most ancient branch of astrology. In the Middle Ages mundane astrology was more commonly known as the study of Revolutions - meaning the study of the revolutions of the planets in their apparent orbits around the Earth, as they were then believed to do.
Political astrology is a branch of mundane astrology dealing with politics, the government, and the politicians/laws governing a particular nation, state, or city. A wider definition of mundane astrology focuses also on natural and man-made disasters.
There are two major approaches to the study of mundane astrology. One is the focus on national horoscopes. It is held that certain countries have astrological charts (or horoscopes) just like a person is said to in astrology. For example, the modern state of India is widely considered to have come into being at midnight on August 15, 1947. This time gives rise to a national horoscope for this country, which can be analyzed in terms of the natal potential and the impacts of transiting planets in the horoscope at any given time. The other approach is the ancient practice of finding correlations that exist between geological phenomena (such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, etc.) and astronomical phenomena (the movement of celestial bodies in the Solar System). This approach is based on the horoscope of the astronomical placements at any given time, without reference to a national horoscope.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Planets and areas of life
- 3 Houses and Signs
- 4 Mundane Horoscopes
- 5 Planetary Cycles
- 6 Astrological Ages
- 7 Historical predictions
- 8 Modern predictions
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Mundane astrology had two purposes: one was to look back and explain history, looking for patterns and a sense of some greater purpose in apparently chaotic events such as the rise and fall of empires or religions. The other was to predict the future. Some philosophers believed that the world could be saved from disaster if future troubles could be predicted – and subsequently averted.
Although it was originally developed in ancient Babylon there have been three subsequent major periods of developments. In 120 AD the Greek astrologer Claudius Ptolemy set down the fundamentals of mundane astrology in his famous treatise on astrology, the Tetrabiblos. In the ninth and tenth centuries the astrologers of the Islamic world added many more techniques, particularly the use of the cycles of Jupiter and Saturn to identify the rise and fall of states and religions. The twentieth century saw a major proliferation of techniques mainly based on the use of planetary cycles rather than, as had always been the case the interpretation of planetary positions in horoscopes or natal charts.
An approach to studying longer-term history through astrology is through the use of "precession of the equinoxes" indicators, providing a source for the idea of Astrological Ages.
Planets and areas of life
Many astrologers have been interested in the area of mundane or political astrology, including the noted British astrologer Charles Carter who proposed that specific areas of life and politics can be correlated to each of the planets. In general, the following associations of areas of society with each of the planets are generally accepted by most astrologers:
- Sun : Supreme authority in the State (the President/Prime Minister/Chancellor). Eclipses often signify the death or displacement of the head of state. National character and identity, major events, overall Weltanschauung.
- Moon : The population, the popular mood; national security needs, basic necessities, women's issues, agriculture.
- Mercury : News media and the Press, literature, all schools leading up to higher education; the post office and means of communication; political speeches, opinion polls, transportation.
- Venus : Sufferers, disease, arrogance, defeat in war, death, anger, jealousy
- Mars : The armed forces and police; violent crime, war, industrial concerns; when associated with Uranus may cause explosions, terrorism; with Neptune, treachery. Divisive elements in society.
- Jupiter : Clergy and churches, religion, judges, law and court system, higher education, prosperity, publishing, banking, insurance; the 'upper classes'; philanthropic institutions (especially in association with Neptune).
- Saturn : Property, the system of government, institutions and bureaucracy, economy, conservatism, infrastructure, law, control
- Uranus : Administration, revolutions, progressive or radical movements, countercultures; power in its physical sense - electrical and nuclear, new technology, innovation.
- Neptune : The arts, glamor, hope, idealism, covert actions, socialism; hospitals, charitable institutions; the navy. Under affliction associated with muddle, fraud, crime, scandal; brewing and alcohol, drugs; chemicals, footwear.
- Pluto : Financial or political power, factions, oligarchies, big business, nuclear energy, mines; criminal detection, but under affliction the criminal underworld, death, catastrophes, dictators.
- Ceres : Native needs to feel loved and nurtured, the reproductive issues of an adult woman, pregnancy, family bonds and relationships. Deals with grief, worry, negative emotions and places of perceived imprisonment.
Houses and Signs
Carter also associated each of the houses and signs with different aspects of politics and the state as follows:
- 1st House-Aries : The nation as a whole, its self image and how it projects itself to the world.
- 2nd House-Taurus : The economy
- 3rd House-Gemini : Education; periodical publications; the post office, radio and transport; communications in general; science.
- 4th House-Cancer : Land and housing; agriculture; the opposition in parliament
- 5th House-Leo : All forms of national pleasure and entertainment; sports, general amusements; Society, children
- 6th House-Virgo : The 'working classes'; left wing organisations; public health. The armed forces and civil service.
- 7th House-Libra : Foreign affairs generally; war as well as treaties.
- 8th House-Scorpio : Financial relations with foreign countries; public safety and crime.
- 9th House-Sagittarius : The law; religion; philosophy; and science.
- 10th House-Capricorn : Heads of state; government; national prestige.
- 11th House-Aquarius : Parliament, especially the lower house. Local government.
- 12th House-Pisces : Prisons, hospitals, homes for the aged; philanthropic societies; secret societies; monasteries and institutional religion.
Just as a person has a horoscope cast for the moment of their birth, so too can states and nations have horoscopes cast for the moment of their beginning. Sometimes the choice of date appears to be obvious.
In many cases the correct date is not so clear, and in most cases a nation or country has multiple birth charts. For example, many astrologers take the date of England's horoscope as Christmas Day 1066 - the day when that William the Conqueror had the crown set upon his head. There is also a chart set for midnight on 1 May 1707 (Old Style), the time of the Union of England and Wales with Scotland creating Great Britain. The Union then grew again on 1 January 1801 with the Union of Great Britain and Ireland. A further change took place as the Republic of Ireland left the Union, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland was created.
Another example of a country/state that has multiple 'birthdays' is France, which regained its independence after the occupation of the Second World War as the Fourth Republic on 10 October 1946, while the present French system came into being as the Fifth Republic after a referendum held on 28 September 1958. Similarly in Germany the present state system came into effect with the enactment of the Basic Law in August 1949, yet it is also considered by most astrologers that a new state has come into being with German re-unification in October 1990.
In principle, any organisation or object can have a chart cast for the moment of its 'birth'. For example, the ship Titanic's horoscope is generally cast for noon on 10 April 1912 when the ocean liner first set sail. The ship's chart showed its ascendant in opposition to Uranus, and Neptune (ruler of the sea) was squared to the Sun, both aspects indicating the potential for danger. The chart also contains a 'Void of course Moon', a period in which the Moon does not make any applying major aspects with any of the planets before it enters the next sign: this is said to be a period in which new ventures are not likely to succeed.
Horoscopes for the USA
There are many contending dates and times for a national horoscope for the United States of America, but the primary events considered are on the one hand when the states declared their independence from Great Britain and on the other when they formed a lasting union.
Declaration of Independence (1776)
Most astrologers view the birth of the USA as having occurred sometime during the day of July 4, 1776, when the Declaration of Independence was adopted . Of the many charts proposed for that day, the most widely accepted continues to be the Sibly chart, set for 5.10pm on 4 July 1776 in Philadelphia. This chart was generated using medieval techniques which signified the event, rather than purporting to represent the actual time. (See Nick Campion's Book of World Horoscopes p417).
Other dates also configure in this event. The document, formally entitled The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen United States of America, explained the justifications for separation from the British crown, and was an expansion of Richard Henry Lee's Resolution (passed by Congress on July 2), which first proclaimed independence. An engrossed copy of the Declaration was signed by most of the delegates on August 2.
Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union (1777-1781)
In recent years, some astrologers and historians consider the formation of the country to have occurred with the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union when the country became legally a nation-state with its own constitution.
David Solte's chart is based on November 15, 1777, when the Articles were approved by the Continental Congress to be sent to the states for their ratification. Solte rectified the time as 12.46pm. It bears noting that the Articles had at this time not been ratified by the 13 still sovereign or independent states.
The SAMVA USA (Perpetual Union) chart  is based on the event when Maryland became the 13th and final state to pass an Act ratifying the Articles on February 2, 1781. The Act provided the requisite unanimous consent for the formation of a perpetual union of the thirteen states. The chart was rectified using the techniques of ancient vedic astrology, notably the Systems' Approach, determining that the signing of the law took place at 5.00pm on that day.
In contrast to Mundane horoscopes, which provide individual snapshots of moments of time and interpretations of the potential developmental possibilities of those snapshots, the study of planetary cycles provides an overview of real-time historical perspectives. Each planet has a tropical period (the time it takes to transit the complete tropical Zodiac) from 0 degrees Aries to 0 degrees Aries, and each of those periods of time reveals a complete cycle of expression on Earth, in keeping with the key astrological principles of that planet. A related field of study is the Aspect cycle, which combines the principles of two planets (or more) in aspect, from one conjunction to the next conjunction. The Aspect cycle provides much additional detail to a single planetary cycle, because of the "easy" and "difficult" expressions indicated by each aspect, as well as the relative positions of each aspect within Zodiacal signs, and retrograde motion applying during aspects. Sun/Moon eclipse cycles are also studied by some astrologers, together with examination of their Zodiacal positions later, at the Midheaven and Ascendant positions of actual event locations (usually disasters).
The Astrological Ages provide another astrological technique for examining the correlations between historical events on a large scale with Ages such as the Age of Aquarius, that are generally linked to precession of the equinoxes. One complete precessional cycle (Great Year) is approximately 25,600 years, and the average length of an Astrological Age is approximately 2160 years.
Many astrologers believe that the world is currently on the cusp of the Age of Pisces, passing into the Age of Aquarius. Archetypes traditionally linked to Pisces include Christianity, salvation and faith-based religions, slavery, drugs (especially tobacco, but also including all forms of drugs both legal and illicit), oil, pharmaceuticals, corporations, psychic phenomena, all esoteric subjects and massive problems that humanity has created for itself. Archetypes associated with Aquarius include democracy, freedom, technology, electricity, computers, space travel, flight, dictators, freedom fighters and revolutionaries, excitement and the effects of mental instability upon societies.
In modern Mundane Astrology it is a matter of considerable debate whether the purpose of astrology is elucidation of meaning, or a tool to make predictions about events.
Throughout history many astrologers have made predictions about the future course of world events, and these are often remarkable either for their fulfillment, or for the ruin and confusion they brought upon their authors.
A favourite topic of a minority of astrologers around the world has been the immediate end of the world. As early as 1186 the Earth had escaped one threatened cataclysm of the astrologers.
Stöffler predicted a universal deluge for the year 1524, a year, as it turned out, distinguished for drought. His study of the heavens told him that in that year three planets would meet in the aqueous sign of Pisces. The prediction was widely believed and President Aurial, at Toulouse, built himself a Noah's ark--a curious realization of Chaucer's merry invention in the Miller's Tale.
The most famous predictions about European and world affairs were made by the French astrologer Nostradamus (1503–66), however many astrologers dispute whether many of his prophecies were based on astrology. Nostradamus became famous after the publication in 1555 of his work Centuries , which was a series of prophecies in cryptic verse. The obscure predictions have been interpreted as relating to a great variety of events, including the French and English Revolutions, and the Second World War. In 1556 Nostradamus was summoned to the French court by Catherine de Medici and commissioned to draw up the horoscopes of the royal children.
According to Francis Bacon in his essay Of Prophesies Nostradamus foretold the death of King Henry II of France: "When I was in France, I heard from one Dr Pena, that the queen mother, who was given to curious arts, caused the king, her husband's, nativity to be calculated, under a false name; and the astrologer (Nostradamus) gave a judgment, that he should be killed in a duel; at which the queene laughed, thinking her husband to be above challenges and duels; but he was slaine, upon a course at tilt, the splinters of the staffe of Montgomery going in at his beaver." Although Nostradamus later fell out of favour with many in the court and was accused of witchcraft, Catherine continued to support him and patronized him until his death.
Tycho Brahe was devoted to astrology, and adjoining his observatory at Uranienburg, the astronomer-royal of Denmark had a laboratory built. The astronomer Kepler, who in his youth made almanacs, and once prophesied a hard winter which came to pass, made an astrological interpretation of the disappearance of the brilliant star of 1572, which Tycho had observed. Another prediction of Kepler was the appearance of a comet in 1577. Brahe wrote that in the north, in Finland, there would be born a prince who would lay waste to Germany and vanish in 1632. Gustavus Adolphus was in fact born in Stockholm, Sweden, overran Germany, and died in 1632. Brahe predicted this Finland not Sweden, but the partial fulfillment of the prophecy is cited as evidence of astrological accuracy. Brahe, appeared to foresee the advent of some great northern hero; he was likely well acquainted with an ancient tradition, that heroes generally came from the northern frontiers of his native land, where they are hardened struggle with soil, climate, and barbarian neighbours.
Theodore Beza thought that this star, which in December 1573 equaled Jupiter in brilliancy, predicted the second coming of Christ. Astronomers were only then beginning to study variable and periodic stars, and disturbances in that part of the heavens, which had till then, on the authority of Aristotle, been regarded as incorruptible, combined with the troubles of the times, must have given a new stimulus to belief in the signs in heaven.
Montaigne (Essais, lib. i. chap, x.) related a singular episode in the history of astrology. Charles V and Francis I, who both bid for the friendship of the infamous Pietro Aretino, surnamed the divine, both likewise engaged astrologers to fight their battles.
In Italy those who prophesied the ruin of France were sure to be listened to. These prophecies affected the public funds much as telegrams used to in 1911. "At Rome," Montaigne wrote, "a large sum of money was lost on the Change by this prognostication of our ruin."
The Marquis of Saluces, notwithstanding his gratitude to Francis I for the many favours he had received, including his marquisate, of which the brother was despoiled for his benefit, was led in 1536 to betray his country, being scared by the glorious prophecies of the ultimate success of Charles V which were then rife.
During World War II the British and German governments (among others) hired astrologers to make predictions about the opposing side. One Swiss astrologer, Karl Ernst Krafft, attracted the attention of the Nazis due to his predictions.
Many studying the area note historical cycles which involve the transit of outer planets through the zodiac and the different aspects they form. One particular example will be a grand cross that will occur in summer 2010 when Pluto, Uranus and Jupiter and Saturn and Mars will be at 0-3º Capricorn, Aries and Libra, respectively, while inner planets transit at 0-3º Cancer. This is assumed by astrologers studying mundane astrology that it shall be a time with many great challenges and dramatic changes. This aspect resembles another grand cross that occurred during the 1930s. Mundane astrologers trace back these cycles to decades and even centuries before, when Uranus transited Aries last time in 1930s and 1840s, and Pluto transited Capricorn last time in 1760s and 1770s, which were decades of many revolutions and changes. The cardinal alignment of 2010 includes a 90° square between Pluto and Uranus. Both planets conjoined in the 1960s, thus many astrologers expect a return to themes from that decade. Uranus and Pluto were last square in the 1930s. Before that, Uranus and Pluto squared between 1875 and 1877 during the Long Depression, suggesting a theme of economic downturn, The most recent one occurs between 2010 and 2014. Mundane astrologers predict dramatic changes (economic, social, military, scientific) to occur again in the years ahead.
- ^ Charles E. O. Carter, An Introduction of Political Astrology, L. N. Fowler, 1951
- ^ Derek and Julia Parker, The New Compleat Astrologer, pp184-5, Crescent Books, New York, 1990
- ^ Derek and Julia Parker, Ibid, p184
- ^ Derek and Julia Parker, Ibid, pp201-2, Crescent Books, New York, 1990
- ^ http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/03/03/hitler.horoscope.ap/index.html
- ^ http://www.mountainastrologer.com/planet_tracks/pt_archive/nept_pluto/nept_pluto.html
- ^ http://www.astrologyforthesoul.com/billstreett/2010alignment.html
- ^ http://astrotransits.blogspot.com/2008/09/cardinal-climax-square-of-2010.html
- ^ http://www.aquariuspapers.com/astrology/2006/10/the_coming_card.html
- ^ http://www.mmacycles.com/articles/articles/the-cardinal-climax:-2008%112015/
- Michael Baigent, Nicholas Campion & Charles Harvey, Mundane Astrology , The Aquarian Press, London, 1984
- Nicholas Campion, The Book of World Horoscopes, The Aquarian Press, London, 1988
- Stan Barker, The Signs of The Times - The Neptune Factor: America's Future and Past as Seen Through Planetary Cycles, Llewellyn Publications, St Paul, MN USA 1986
- Dhruva, Astrological analysis of Indian Affairs (1947–2050), New Delhi: Readworthy Publications (P) Ltd., 2008 (ISBN 9788189973025)
- "America is Born: Introducing the Regulus USA National Horoscope", Regulus Astrology LLC, Princeton, NJ, 2008. (ISBN 9780980185621)
- Richard Tarnas, Cosmos and Psyche , Intimations of a New World View, New York, 2006 (ISBN 9780670032921)
- SIDERUM NUNTIUM - Astrodata, Event, Politic Personality, Nation and City
- Mundane Astrology - A very cogent introduction to Mundane Astrology, the most ancient branch of astrology.
- Weekly NewsScope - A weekly column which, since 1998, has applied Mundane Astrology to interpreting news events from around the world.
- - A Forum to discuss scientific astrology as a cause of earthquakes and other natural events
- Mundane Vedic Astrology Discussion List - A forum for the discussion of the application of vedic astrology based on the Systems' Approach by V. K. Choudhry to mundane questions with a focus on predictive accuracy.
- Waves - Measuring History's blog with additional pages that use Outer Planet Waves to interpret history and provide an astrological foundation for the future. Measuring History's sole focus is Mundane Astrology.
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