Nation

Nation

A nation may refer to a community of people who share a common language, culture, ethnicity, descent, and/or history.[1] In this definition, a nation has no physical borders. However, it can also refer to people who share a common territory and government (for example the inhabitants of a sovereign state) irrespective of their ethnic make-up.[2][3] In international relations, nation can refer to a country or sovereign state.[1] The word nation can more specifically refer to a tribe of North American Indians, such as the Cherokee Nation.[1]

Etymology

The word nation came to English from the Old French word nacion which in turn originates from the Latin word natio (nātĭō) literally meaning "that which has been born".[4]

As an example of how the word natio was employed in classical Latin, the following quote from Cicero's Philippics Against Mark Antony in 44 BC contrasts the external, inferior nationes ("races of people") with the Roman civitas ("community").:

"Omnes nationes servitutem ferre possunt: nostra civitas non potest."
("All races are able to bear enslavement, but our community cannot.")

Cicero, Orationes: Pro Milone, Pro Marcello, Pro Ligario, Pro rege Deiotaro, Philippicae I-XIV[5]

An early example of the use of the word "nation" (in conjunction with language and territory) was provided in 968 by Liutprand (the bishop of Cremona) who, while confronting the Byzantine emperor, Nicephorus II, on behalf of his patron Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, declared:

"The land...which you say belongs to your empire belongs, as the nationality and language of the people proves, to the kingdom of Italy.'"

Liutprand, Relatio de legatione Constantinopolitana ad Nicephorum Phocam [6]

A significant early use of the term nation, as natio, was at mediaeval universities,[7] to describe the colleagues in a college or students, above all at the University of Paris, who were all born within a pays, spoke the same language and expected to be ruled by their own familiar law. In 1383 and 1384, while studying theology at Paris, Jean Gerson was twice elected procurator for the French natio. The division of students into a natio was also adopted at the University of Prague, where from its opening in 1349 the studium generale was divided among Bohemian, Bavarian, Saxon and Polish nations.

In a similar way, the nationes were segregated by the Knights Hospitaller of Jerusalem, who maintained at Rhodes the hostels from which they took their name "where foreigners eat and have their places of meeting, each nation apart from the others, and a Knight has charge of each one of these hostels, and provides for the necessities of the inmates according to their religion," as the Spanish traveller Pedro Tafur noted in 1436.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c World Book Dictionary defines nation as “the people occupying the same country, united under the same government, and usually speaking the same language”. Another definition is that nation is a “sovereign state.” It also says nation can refer to “a people, race, or tribe; those having the same descent, language, and history.” World Book Dictionary also gives this definition: “a tribe of North American Indians.” Webster’s New Encyclopedic Dictionary defines nation as “a community of people composed of one or more nationalities with its own territory and government” and also as “a tribe or federation of tribes (as of American Indians)”.
  2. ^ "Nation". Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged (10th ed.). http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Nation. Retrieved 17 June 2011. "1. an aggregation of people or peoples of one or more cultures, races, etc, organized into a single state: the Australian nation" 
  3. ^ Bretton, Henry L. (1986). International relations in the nuclear age: one world, difficult to manage. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 5. ISBN 0-88706-040-4. http://books.google.ie/books?id=wCpKUmCpmoEC&lpg=PR4&dq=0-88706-040-4&pg=PA5#v=onepage&q=0-88706-040-4&f=false. Retrieved 17 June 2011. "It should be stated at the outset that the term nation has two distinctly different uses. In a legal sense it is synonymous with the state as a whole regardless of the number of different ethnic or national groups–nationalities–contained within it. In that sense, one speaks of nation and means state." 
  4. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Nation". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=nation. Retrieved 5 June 2011. .
  5. ^ Online at Tufts.edu
  6. ^ Taken from an online translation at UCdavis.edu
  7. ^ see: nation (university)
  8. ^ Pedro Tafur, Andanças e viajes.

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  • Nation — (vor dem 14. Jahrhundert ins Deutsche übernommen, von lat. natio, „Geburt, Herkunft, Volk“) bezeichnet größere Gruppen oder Kollektive von Menschen, denen gemeinsame kulturelle Merkmale wie Sprache, Tradition, Sitten, Gebräuche oder Abstammung… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Nation.1 — Official language(s) …   Wikipedia

  • Nation — Na tion, n. [F. nation, L. natio nation, race, orig., a being born, fr. natus, p. p. of nasci, to be born, for gnatus, gnasci, from the same root as E. kin. [root]44. See {Kin} kindred, and cf. {Cognate}, {Natal}, {Native}.] 1. (Ethnol.) A part,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Nation — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Nation (homonymie). Le sens moderne de nation est assez proche de celui de peuple, mais ajoute souvent l idée d État (souhaité, autonome ou indépendant)[1]. Ce terme n est pas défini juridiquement, toutefois l… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • NATION — s. f. coll. La totalité des personnes nées ou naturalisées dans un pays, et vivant sous un même gouvernement. Nation puissante, belliqueuse, guerrière, civilisée, policée, barbare, sauvage, riche, pauvre, commerçante, industrieuse, florissante.… …   Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise, 7eme edition (1835)

  • NATION — n. f. L’ensemble des personnes nées ou naturalisées dans un pays et vivant sous un même gouvernement. Nation puissante, belliqueuse, civilisée, policée, barbare, riche, pauvre, commerçante. Deux nations rivales, amies, ennemies, alliées. Chaque… …   Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise, 8eme edition (1935)

  • nation — noun Etymology: Middle English nacioun, from Anglo French naciun, from Latin nation , natio birth, race, nation, from nasci to be born; akin to Latin gignere to beget more at kin Date: 14th century 1. a. (1) nationality 5a (2) a politically… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Nation — biographical name Carry Amelia 1846 1911 née Moore American temperance agitator …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Nation Of Islam — Un des drapeaux de la Nation de l’islam. Les lettres signifient Justice (justice), Freedom (liberté), Equality (égalité), Islam (islam) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nation de l'Islam — Nation of Islam Un des drapeaux de la Nation de l’islam. Les lettres signifient Justice (justice), Freedom (liberté), Equality (égalité), Islam (islam) …   Wikipédia en Français

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