- Old Latin
Old Latin Prisca Latinitas
Titus Maccius Plautus, an Old Latin writer
Spoken in Roman Republic Region Italy Era Developed into Classical Latin in 1st century BC Language family Official status Official language in Rome Regulated by Schools of grammar and rhetoric Language codes ISO 639-3 qbb Linguist List qbbExpansion of the Roman Republic, 2nd century BC. It is unlikely Latin was spoken much beyond the green area, and was by no means ubiquitous within it. This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.
Old Latin (also called Early Latin or Archaic Latin) refers to the Latin language in the period before the age of Classical Latin; that is, all Latin before 75 BC. The term prisca Latinitas distinguishes it in New Latin and Contemporary Latin from vetus Latina, in which "old" has another meaning.
The use of "old", "early" and "archaic" has been standard in publications of the corpus of Old Latin writings since at least the 18th century. The definition is not arbitrary but these terms refer to writings with spelling conventions and word forms not generally found in works written under the Roman Empire. This article presents some of the major differences.
- 1 Philological constructs
- 2 Corpus
- 3 Script
- 4 Orthography
- 5 Phonology
- 6 Grammar and morphology
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 Sources
- 9 See also
- 10 External links
The old-time language
The concept of Old Latin (Prisca Latinitas) is as old as the concept of Classical Latin, both dating to at least as early as the late Roman republic. In that time period Marcus Tullius Cicero, along with others, noted that the language he used every day, presumably the upper-class city Latin, included lexical items and phrases that were heirlooms from a previous time, which he called verborum vetustas prisca, translated as "the old age/time of language."
During the classical period, Prisca Latinitas, Prisca Latina and other expressions using the adjective always meant these remnants of a previous language, which, in the Roman philology, was taken to be much older in fact than it really was. Viri prisci, "old-time men," were the population of Latium before the foundation of Rome.
The four Latins of Isidore
In the Late Latin period, when Classical Latin was behind them, the Latin- and Greek-speaking grammarians were faced with multiple phases, or styles, within the language. Isidore of Seville reports a classification scheme that had come into existence in or before his time: "the four Latins" ("Latinas autem linguas quatuor esse quidam dixerunt"). They were Prisca, spoken before the founding of Rome, when Janus and Saturn ruled Latium, to which he dated the Carmen Saliare; Latina, dated from the time of king Latinus, in which period he placed the laws of the Twelve Tables; Romana, essentially equal to Classical Latin; and Mixta, "mixed" Classical Latin and Vulgar Latin, which is known today as Late Latin. The scheme persisted with little change for some thousand years after Isidore.
By Early Latin I understand Latin of the whole period of the Republic, which is separated very strikingly, both in tone and in outward form, from that of the Empire.
Although the differences are striking and can be easily identified by Latin readers, they are not such as to cause a language barrier. Latin speakers of the empire had no reported trouble understanding old Latin, except for the few texts that must date from the time of the kings, mainly songs. Thus the laws of the twelve tables, which began the republic, were comprehensible, but the Carmen Saliare, probably written under Numa Pompilius, was not entirely.
An opinion concerning Old Latin, of a Roman man of letters in the middle Republic, does survive: the historian, Polybius, read "the first treaty between Rome and Carthage", which he says "dates from the consulship of Lucius Junius Brutus and Marcus Horatius, the first consuls after the expulsion of the kings." Knowledge of the early consuls is somewhat obscure, but Polybius also states that the treaty was formulated 28 years after Xerxes I crossed into Greece; that is, in 452 BC, about the time of the Decemviri, when the constitution of the Roman republic was being defined. Polybius says of the language of the treaty: "...the ancient Roman language differs so much from the modern that it can only be partially made out, and that after much application by the most intelligent men."
There is no sharp distinction between Old Latin as it was spoken for most of the republic and classical Latin, but the earlier grades into the later. The end of the republic was too late a termination for compilers after Wordsworth; Charles Edwin Bennett said:
'Early Latin' is necessarily a somewhat vague term ... Bell, De locativi in prisca Latinitate vi et usu, Breslau, 1889, sets the later limit at 75 B.C. A definite date is really impossible, since archaic Latin does not terminate abruptly, but continues even down to imperial times.
Bennett's own date of 100 BC. did not prevail but rather Bell's 75 BC. became the standard as expressed in the four-volume Loeb Library and other major compendia. Over the 377 years from 452 BC to 75 BC Old Latin evolved from being partially comprehensible by classicists with study to being easily read by men of letters.
Old Latin authored works began in the 3rd century BC. These are complete or nearly complete works under their own name surviving as manuscripts copied from other manuscripts in whatever script was current at the time. In addition are fragments of works quoted in other authors.
Numerous inscriptions placed by various methods (painting, engraving, embossing) on their original media survive just as they were except for the ravages of time. Some of these were copied from other inscriptions. No inscription can be earlier than the introduction of the Greek alphabet into Italy but none survive from that early date. The imprecision of archaeological dating makes precise dates impossible but the earliest survivals are probably from the 6th century BC. Some of the texts, however, surviving as fragments in the works of classical authors, had to have been composed earlier than the republic, in the monarchy. These are listed below.
Fragments and inscriptions
Notable Old Latin fragments with estimated dates include:
- The Carmen Saliare (chant put forward in classical times as having been sung by the salian brotherhood formed by Numa Pompilius, approximate date 700 BC)
- The Praeneste fibula (formerly attributed to the 7th century BC, possibly a 19th century forgery)
- The Forum inscription (illustration, right c. 550 BC under the monarchy)
- The Duenos inscription (c. 500 BC)
- The Castor-Pollux dedication (c. 500 BC)
- The Garigliano Bowl (c. 500 BC)
- The Lapis Satricanus (early 5th century BC)
- The preserved fragments of the laws of the Twelve Tables (traditionally, 449 BC, attested much later)
- The Tibur pedestal (c. 400 BC)
- The Scipionum Elogia
- The Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus (186 BC)
- The Vase Inscription from Ardea
- The Corcolle Altar fragments
- The Carmen Arvale
- Altar to the Unknown Divinity (92 BC)
Works of literature
The authors are as follows:
- Lucius Livius Andronicus (c. 280/260 BC — c. 200 BC), translator, founder of Roman drama
- Gnaeus Naevius (ca. 264 — 201 BC), dramatist, epic poet
- Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254 — 184 BC), dramatist, composer of comedies
- Quintus Ennius (239 BC — c. 169 BC), poet
- Marcus Pacuvius (ca. 220 BC — 130 BC), tragic dramatist, poet
- Statius Caecilius (220 BC — 168/166 BC), comic dramatist
- Publius Terentius Afer (195/185 BC — 159 BC), comic dramatist
- Quintus Fabius Pictor (3rd century BC), historian
- Lucius Cincius Alimentus (3rd century BC), military historian
- Marcius Porcius Cato (234 BC — 149 BC), generalist, topical writer
- Gaius Acilius (2nd century BC), historian
- Lucius Accius (170 BC — c. 86 BC), tragic dramatist, philologist
- Gaius Lucilius (c. 160's BC — 103/2 BC), satirist
- Quintus Lutatius Catulus (2nd century BC), public officer, epigramatist
- Aulus Furius Antias (2nd century BC), poet
- Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo Vopiscus (130 BC — 87 BC), public officer, tragic dramatist
- Lucius Pomponius Bononiensis (2nd century BC), comic dramatist, satirist
- Lucius Cassius Hemina (2nd century BC), historian
- Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi (2nd century BC), historian
- Manius Manilius (2nd century BC), public officer, jurist
- Lucius Coelius Antipater (2nd century BC), jurist, historian
- Publius Sempronius Asellio (158 BC — after 91 BC), military officer, historian
- Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus (2nd century BC), jurist
- Lucius Afranius (2nd & 1st centuries BC), comic dramatist
- Titus Albucius (2nd & 1st centuries BC), orator
- Publius Rutilius Rufus (158 BC — after 78 BC), jurist
- Lucius Aelius Stilo Praeconinus (154 BC — 74 BC), philologist
- Quintus Claudius Quadrigarius (2nd & 1st centuries BC), historian
- Valerius Antias (2nd & 1st centuries BC), historian
- Lucius Cornelius Sisenna (121 BC — 67 BC), soldier, historian
- Quintus Cornificius (2nd & 1st centuries BC), rhetorician
Old Latin surviving in inscriptions is written in various forms of the Etruscan alphabet as it evolved into the Latin alphabet. The writing conventions varied by time and place until classical conventions prevailed. The works of authors in manuscript form were copied over into the scripts of other times. The original writing does not exist.
Some differences between old and classical Latin were of spelling only; pronunciation is thought to be essentially as in classical Latin:
- Single for double consonants: Marcelus for Marcellus
- Double vowels for long vowels: aara for āra
- q for c before u: pequnia for pecunia
- gs/ks/xs for x: e.g. regs for rex, saxsum for saxum
- c for g: Caius for Gaius
These differences did not necessarily run concurrently with each other and were not universal; that is, c was used for both c and g.
Phonological characteristics of older Latin:
- Preservation of original PIE thematic case endings -os and -om (later -us and -um).
- Most original PIE diphthongs were preserved in stressed syllables, including /ai/ (later ae, but pronunciation unchanged); /ei/ (later ī); /oi/ (later ū, or sometimes oe); /ou/ (from PIE /eu/ and /ou/; later ū).
- Intervocalic /s/ (pronounced [z]) preserved up through 350 BC or so, at which point it changed into /r/ (called rhotacism). This rhotacism had implications for declension: early classical Latin, honos, honoris (from honos, honoses); later Classical (by analogy) honor, honoris ("honor"). Some Old Latin texts preserve /s/ in this position, such as the Carmen Arvale's lases for lares. Later instances of /s/ are mostly due either to reduction of early /ss/ after long vowels or diphthongs; borrowings; or late reconstructions.
- Many unreduced clusters, e.g. iouxmentom (later iūmentum, "beast of burden"); losna (later lūna, "moon") < *lousna < */leuksnā/; cosmis (later cōmis, "courteous"); stlocum, acc. (later locum, "place").
- /dw/ (later b): duenos (later bonus, "good"), in the famous Duenos inscription.
- Final /d/ in ablatives (later lost) and in third-person secondary verbs (later t).
Grammar and morphology
Latin nouns are distinguished by grammatical case, a word with a termination, or suffix, determining its use in the sentence, such as subject, predicate, etc. A case for a given word is formed by suffixing a case ending to a part of the word common to all its cases called a stem. Stems are classified by their last letters as vowel or consonant. Vowel stems are formed by adding a suffix to a shorter and more ancient segment called a root. Consonant stems are the root (roots end in consonants). The combination of the last letter of the stem and the case ending often results in an ending also called a case ending or termination. For example, the stem puella- receives a case ending -m to form the accusative case puellam in which the termination -am is evident.
In Classical Latin textbooks the declensions are named from the letter ending the stem or First, Second, etc. to Fifth. A declension may be illustrated by a paradigm, or listing of all the cases of a typical word. This method is less frequently applied to Old Latin, and with less validity. In contrast to Classical Latin, Old Latin reflects the evolution of the language from an unknown hypothetical ancestor spoken in Latium. The endings are multiple. Their use depends on time and locality. Any paradigm selected would be subject to these constraints and if applied to the language universally would result in false constructs, hypothetical words not attested in the Old Latin corpus. Nevertheless the endings are illustrated below by quasi-classical paradigms. Alternative endings from different stages of development are given, but they may not be attested for the word of the paradigm. For example, in the Second Declension, *campoe "fields" is unattested, but poploe "peoples" is attested.
First declension (a)
A nominative case ending of –s in a few masculines indicates the nominative singular case ending may have been originally –s: paricidas for later paricida, but the –s tended to get lost. In the nominative plural, -ī replaced original -s as in the genitive singular.
girl, maiden f.
Singular Plural Nominative puellā puellāī Genitive puell-ās/-āī/-ais puell-om/-āsōm Dative puellāi puell-eis/-abos Accusative puellam puellās Ablative puellād puell-eis/-abos Vocative puella puellai Locative Romai Syracuseis
In the genitive singular, the –s was replaced with –ī from the second declension, the resulting diphthong shortening to –ai subsequently becoming –ae. In a few cases the replacement did not take place: pater familiās. Explanations of the late inscriptional -aes are speculative. In the genitive plural, the regular ending is –āsōm (classical –ārum by rhotacism and shortening of final o) but some nouns borrow –om (classical –um) from the second declension.
In the accusative singular, Latin regularly shortens a vowel before final m.
In the ablative singular, –d was regularly lost after a long vowel. In the dative and ablative plural, the –abos descending from Indo-European *–ābhos is used for feminines only (deabus). *–ais > –eis > īs is adapted from –ois of the o-declension.
In the vocative singular, an original short a merged with the shortened a of the nominative.
The locative case would not apply to such a meaning as puella, so Roma, which is singular, and Syracusae, which is plural, have been substituted. The locative plural has already merged with the –eis form of the ablative.
Second declension (o)
The 'O-Stem Declension'. The stems of the nouns of the o-declension end in ŏ deriving from the o-grade of Indo-European ablaut. Classical Latin evidences the development ŏ > ŭ. Nouns of this declension are either masculine or neuter.
Nominative singulars ending in -ros or -ris syncopate the -os: ager not ageros. The nominative plural masculine follows two lines of development, each leaving a trail of endings. Roman generalizes the Indo-European pronominal ending *-oi. The sequence is *-oi>-oe>-ei>-e>-ī The "provincial texts" generalize from the Indo-European nominative plural ending *-ōs appearing in the Third Declension: *-ōs >-ēs, -eis, -īs, from 190 BC on.
field, plain m.
rock, stone n.
Singular Plural Singular Plural Nominative campos camp-oe/-e/-ei/-ī
saxom sax-ā/-ă Genitive camp-ī/-ei camp-ōm/-ūm saxī sax-ōm/-ūm Dative campō camp-ois/-oes/-eis/-īs saxō sax-ois/-oes/-eis/-īs Accusative campom campōs saxom sax-ā/-ă Ablative campōd camp-ois/-oes/-eis/-īs saxōd sax-ois/-oes/-eis/-īs Vocative camp-e/-us camp-oe/-e/-ei/-ī
saxom saxă Locative campī/-ei/-oi camp-ois/-oes/-eis/-īs saxī/-ei/-oi sax-ois/-oes/-eis/-īs
In the genitive singular, –ī is earliest, alternating later with –ei: populi Romanei, "of the Roman people." In the genitive plural, -om and -um (or -ōm and -ūm) from Indo-European *-ōm survived in classical Latin "words for coins and measures"; otherwise classical has -ōrum by analogy with 1st declension -ārum.
In the dative singular, if the Praenestine Fibula is a fraud, Numasioi, the only instance of –ōi, does not count and the Old Latin ending must be –ō.
In the vocative singular, some nouns lose the –e, (0 ending) but not necessarily the same as in classical Latin. The -e alternates regularly with -us. The vocative plural was the same as the nominative plural. Except for some singular forms that were like the genitive, the locative was captured by the ablative case in all Italic languages prior to Old Latin.
Third declension (c)
The Consonant Declension. This declension contains nouns that are masculine, feminine, and neuter. The stem ends in the root consonant, except in the special case where it ends in -i (i-stem declension). The i-stem, which is a vowel-stem, partially fused with the consonant-stem in the pre-Latin period and went further in Old Latin. I/y and u/w can be treated either as consonants or as vowels; hence their classification as semi-vowels. Mixed-stem declensions are partly like consonant-stem and partly like i-stem. Consonant-stem declensions vary slightly depending on which consonant is root-final: stop-, r-, n-, s-, etc. The paradigms below include a stop-stem (reg-) and an i-stem (igni-).
Singular Plural Singular Plural Nominative rēg/-s rēg-eīs/-īs/-ēs/-ĕs ign-is/-es ign-eīs/-ēs/-īs/-ĕs Genitive rēg-es/-is/-os/-us rēg-om/-um/-erum ignis ign-iom/-ium Dative rēg-ei/-ī/-ē/-ě rēg-ebus/-ebūs
ign-i/-eī/-ē ign-ibus/-ibos Accusative rēgem rēg-eīs/-īs/-ēs ignim ign-eīs/-ēs/-īs Ablative rēg-īd/-ĭd/-ī/-ē/-ĕ rēg-ebus/-ebūs
Vocative rēg/-s rēg-eīs/-īs/-ēs/-ĕs ign-is/-es ign-eīs/-ēs/-īs/-ĕs Locative rēgī rēgebos ignī ignibos
For the consonant declension, in the nominative singular, the -s was affixed directly to the stem consonant, but the combination of the two consonants produced modified nominatives over the Old Latin period. The case appears in different stages of modification in different words diachronically. The nominative as rēgs instead of rēx is an orthographic feature of Old Latin; the letter x was seldom used alone (as in the classical period) to designate the /ks/ or /gs/ sound, but instead, was written as either 'ks', 'cs', or even 'xs'. Often a collapse or syncope/apocope of the full nominative occurs: Old Latin nominus > Classical Latin nomen; hominus > homo; Caesarus > Caesar. The Latin neuter form (not shown) is the Indo-European nominative without stem ending; for example, cor < *cord "heart."
The genitive singular endings include -is < -es and -us < *-os. In the genitive plural, some forms appear to affix the case ending to the genitive singular rather than the stem: regerum < *reg-is-um.
In the dative singular, -ī succeeded -ēI and -ē after 200 BC.
In the accusative singular, -em < *-ṃ after a consonant.
In the locative singular, the earliest form is like the dative but over the period assimilated to the ablative.
Fourth declension (u)
The 'U-Stem' declension. The stems of the nouns of the u-declension end in ŭ and are masculine, feminine and neuter. In addition is a ū-stem declension, which contains only a few "isolated" words, such as sūs, "pig", and is not presented here.
Singular Plural Nominative senātus senātūs Genitive senāt-uos/-uis/-ī/-ous/-ūs senāt-uom/-um Dative senātuī senāt-ubus/-ibus Accusative senātum senātūs Ablative senāt-ūd/-ud senāt-ubus/-ibus Vocative senātus senātūs Locative senāti
Fifth declension (e)
The "E-Stem" declension functions in Old Latin much as it did in Classical Latin, with a few exceptions.
While the commonest ending in the nominative in both the singular and plural forms is '-ēs' (i.e. 'rēs, rĕī'), there have been recorded a few instances of either a shortened 'e' with the addition of a consonantal 'i', as in 'reis', or the abandonment of the nature of the 'e-stem' declension (i.e. 'res, rei').
The genitive in the singular functions as the second declension: 'rĕī' (the breve above the 'e' is the result of a voiceless 'r' preceding a vowel that has no solid nature at the time of the Old Latin's use). The genitive plural, in a like manner to the second declension, is formed with an '-ēsōm', primarily.
The dative is generally formed with an unstressed '-ei' in the singular, and an '-ēbos' in the plural.
The accusative, like all the other declensions, keeps the final 'm' to shorten the inherently long vowel in the singular: 'rem', and elongates it again with a final 's' in the plural: 'rēs'.
The ablative singular is as the pronouns and the 3rd person practical: 'rēd', voiceless to keep the long 'e'. The plural is generally like the dative plural but sometimes formed with an '-rīs'.
The locative functions exactly in the singular as it does in the plural, with a short '-eis' as the 1st although there are no singular-based city names in the singular besides the occasional 'Athenseis'.
Personal pronouns are among the most common thing found in Old Latin inscriptions. In all three persons, the ablative singular ending is identical to the accusative singular.
Ego, I Tu, You Suī, Himself, Herself, Etc. Nominative ego tu - Genitive mis tis sei Dative mihei, mehei tibei sibei Accusative mēd tēd sēd Ablative mēd tēd sēd Plural Nominative nōs vōs - Genitive nostrōm,
sei Dative nōbeis, nis vōbeis sibei Accusative nōs vōs sēd Ablative nōbeis, nis vōbeis sēd
In Old Latin, the relative pronoun is also another common concept, especially in inscriptions. The forms are quite inconsistent and leave much to be reconstructed by scholars.
queī, quaī, quod who, what Masculine Feminine Neuter Nominative queī quaī quod Genitive quoius, quoios quoia quoium, quoiom Dative quoī, queī, quoieī, queī Accusative quem quam quod Ablative quī, quōd quād quōd Plural Nominative ques, queis quaī qua Genitive quōm, quōrom quōm, quārom quōm, quōrom Dative queis, quīs Accusative quōs quās qua Ablative queis, quīs
Old present and perfects
There is little evidence of the inflection of Old Latin verb forms and the few surviving inscriptions hold many inconsistencies between forms. Therefore, the forms below are ones that are both proven by scholars through Old Latin inscriptions, and recreated by scholars based on other early Indo-European languages such as Greek and Italic dialects such as Oscan and Umbrian.
Indicative Present: Sum Indicative Present: Facio Old Classical Old Classical Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural First Person som, esom somos, sumos sum sumus fac(e/ī)o fac(e)imos faciō facimus Second Person es esteīs es estis fac(e/ī)s fac(e/ī)teis facis facitis Third Person est sont est sunt fac(e/ī)d/-(e/i)t fac(e/ī)ont facit faciunt Indicative Perfect: Sum Indicative Perfect: Facio Old Classical Old Classical Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural First Person fuei fuemos fuī fuimus (fe)fecei (fe)fecemos fēcī fēcimus Second Person fuistei fuisteīs fuistī fuistis (fe)fecistei (fe)fecisteis fēcistī fēcistis Third Person fued/fuit fueront/-erom fuit fuērunt (fe)feced/-et (fe)feceront/-erom fēcit fēcērunt/-ēre
- Bennett, Charles Edwin (1895). Appendix to Bennett's Latin grammar for Teachers and Advanced Students. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
- Bennett, Charles Edwin (1907). The Latin language: a historical outline of its sounds, inflections, and syntax. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
- Bennett, Charles Edwin (1910). Syntax of Early Latin. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
- Buck, Carl Darling (1933). Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin. Chicago: University of Chicago.
- De Forest Allen, Frederic (1897). Remnants of Early Latin. Boston: Ginn & Company. http://books.google.com/books?id=I7EgAAAAMAAJ&printsec=titlepage&cad=0.
- Gildersleeve, Basil Lanneau; Lodge, Gonzalez (1900). Gildersleeve's Latin grammar (3rd ed.). New York, Boston, New Orleans, London: University Publishing Company.
- Lindsay, Wallace Martin (1894). The Latin language: an historical account of Latin sounds, stems and flexions. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Palmer, Leonard Robert (1988) . The Latin language. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
- Roby, Henry John (1872). A grammar of the Latin language from Plautus to Suetonius. Volume I (2nd ed.). London: MacMillan and Co..
- Wordsworth, John (1874). Fragments and specimens of early Latin, with Introduction and Notes. Oxford: Clarendon Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=67wUAAAAQAAJ&printsec=titlepage&cad=0.
- ^ "Archaic Latin". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.
- ^ De Oratoribus, I.193.
- ^ Book IX.1.6.
- ^ Wordsworth, John (1874). p. v.
- ^ Histories III.22.
- ^ Bennett, C (1910). p. iii.
- ^ Bell, Andreas (1889). De Locativi in prisca latinitate vi et usu, dissertatio inauguralis philologica. Breslau: typis Grassi, Barthi et soc (W. Friedrich).
- ^ De Forest Allen (1897). p. 8. "There were no such names as Caius, Cnaius"
- ^ Allen (1897), p.6
- ^ Bennett, Charles Edwin (1915) [1895, 1908]. A Latin grammar. Boston, Chicago: Allyn and Bacon. p. 12.
- ^ Buck (1933), pp. 174–175.
- ^ Wordsworth (1874), p.45.
- ^ a b Buck (1933), p. 177.
- ^ Buck (1933), pp. 175–176.
- ^ a b Wordsworth (1874), p. 48.
- ^ a b c d Buck (1933), p. 176.
- ^ Buck (1933), p. 172.
- ^ Palmer (1988), p. 242.
- ^ Buck (1933), p. 173.
- ^ Buck (1933), pp. 99–100.
- ^ a b Palmer (1954), p. 243.
- ^ a b c d Allen (1897), p. 9.
- ^ Wordsworth (1874), p.56.
- ^ Lindsay (1894), p. 383.
- ^ Buck (1933), p. 182.
- ^ Buck (1933), p.181.
- ^ Grandgent, Charles Hall (1908) . An introduction to vulgar Latin. Heath's modern language series. Boston: D.C. Heath & Co.. p. 89.
- ^ Bennett (1907), p. 126.
- ^ Buck, Carl Darling (2005) . A Grammar Of Oscan And Umbrian: With A Collection Of Inscriptions And A Glossary. Languages of classical antiquity, vol. 5. Bristol, Pa.: Evolution Publishing. p. 204.
- ^ Buck (1933), p. 197.
- ^ Buck (1933), pp. 185–193.
- ^ Wordsworth (1874), pp. 67–73.
- ^ Roby (1872), p. 161.
- ^ Buck (1933), p. 185.
- ^ a b Bennett (1895), p. 117.
- ^ Roby (1872), p. 162.
- ^ Gildersleeve (1900), p. 18.
- ^ Buck (1933), pp. 198–201.
- Saturnian (verse form)
- Gippert, Jost (1994–2001). "Old Latin Inscriptions" (in German, English). Titus Didactica. http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/didact/idg/ital/latinsc.htm. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
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