- Roman province
Ancient Rome, a province (Latin, "provincia", pl. "provinciae") was the basic, and until the Tetrarchy(circa 296), largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of the Italian peninsula. The word " province" in modern English has its origins in the term used by the Romans.
Provinces were generally governed by politicians of senatorial rank, usually former consuls or former
praetors. A later exception was the province of Egypt, incorporated by Augustus after the death of Cleopatra: it was ruled by a governor of equestrian rank only, perhaps as a discouragement to senatorial ambition. This exception was unique, but not contrary to Roman law, as Egypt was considered Augustus' personal property, following the tradition of earlier, Hellenistic kings.
The term "provincia" originally designated simply a task or duty within the Roman state. Under the Roman Republic, the magistrates were elected to office for a period of one year, and those serving outside the city of Rome, like the consuls on campaign, were assigned a particular "province", an area of authority. The term did not acquire a definite territorial sense until Rome started expanding beyond Italy during the
First Punic War, and the first permanent provinces ( Sicilyin 241 BC and Sardiniain 237 BC) were set up.
At the beginning of each year, the provinces were distributed to future governors by lots or direct appointment. Normally, the provinces where more trouble was expected — either from barbaric invasions or internal rebellions — were given to active or former consuls, men of the greatest prestige and experience, while the rest given to
praetors and propraetors.
The distribution of the legions across the provinces was also dependent of the amount of danger that they represented. In
14, for instance, the province of Lusitaniahad no permanent legion but Germania Inferior, where the Rhine frontier was still not pacified, had a garrison of four legions. These problematic provinces were the most desired by future governors. Problems meant war, and war could be expected to bring plunder, slaves to sell, and other opportunities for enrichment.
List of Republican provinces
* 241 BC - Sicilia, propraetorial province (senatorial from 27 BC)
* 231 BC -
Corsica et Sardinia, propraetorial province (senatorial from 27 BC)
* 203 BC -
Gallia Cisalpina, propraetorial province (merged with Italy ca. 42 BC)
* 197 BC - Hispania Citerior and
Hispania Ulterior, propraetorial provinces (imperial from 27 BC)
* 167 BC -
Illyricum, propraetorial province (imperial from 27 BC)
* 146 BC - Macedonia, propraetorial province (senatorial from 27 BC)
* 146 BC -
Africa proconsularis, proconsular province (senatorial from 27 BC)
* 129 BC - Asia, proconsular province (senatorial from 27 BC)
* 120 BC -
Gallia Transalpina(later Gallia Narbonensis), propraetorial province (senatorial from 27 BC)
* 74 BC -
Bithynia, propraetorial province (senatorial from 27 BC)
* 74 BC -
Cyrenaicaet Creta, propraetorial province (senatorial from 27 BC)
* 66 BC -
Corduene(imperial from 27 BC)
* 64 BC -
Ciliciaet Cyprus, propraetorial province (senatorial from 27 BC)
* 64 BC - Syria, propraetorial province (imperial from 27 BC)
* 51 BC -
Gallia Comata(divided in 22 BC)
* 30 BC - Aegyptus, personal domain of
Augustus, getting a special governor styled Praefectus Aegypti
* 29 BC -
Moesia, propraetorial province (imperial from 27 BC)
Imperial provinces during the Principate
In the so-called Augustan Settlement of
27 BC, which established the Roman Empire, the governance of the provinces was regulated. Octavian Caesar, having emerged from the Roman civil warsas the undisputed victor and master of the Roman state, officially laid down his powers, and in theory restored the authority of the Roman Senate. Octavian himself assumed the title "Augustus" and was given to govern, in addition to Egypt, the strategically important provinces of Gaul, Hispaniaand Syria (including Ciliciaand Cyprus). These " imperial provinces" were governed by men ("legati Augusti propraetore") appointed solely by the emperor, selected from either the patricians or the equestrian class. They were assisted by equestrian " procuratores" as chief financial officials. The remaining provinces, usually in the Empire's interior and with weak military forces, often termed " senatorial provinces", were governed by former magistrates for terms of one to two years, who were assisted by " quaestores". The system remained flexible however, and in subsequent years provinces would change status as the situation required. In any event, as the centrality of the emperors' position in the administration grew, the practical differences between the "imperial" and "senatorial" provinces diminished.
During the Principate, the number and size of provinces also changed, either through conquest or through the division of existing provinces. The larger or more heavily garrisoned provinces (for example Syria and
Moesia) were subdivided into smaller provinces in order to prevent any single governor from holding too much power in his hands.
List of provinces created during the Principate
* 27 BC - Achaea separated from Macedonia, senatorial propraetorial province
* 25 BC -
Galatia, imperial propraetorial province
* 22 BC -
Gallia Comatadivided into Gallia Aquitania, Gallia Belgica, Gallia Lugdunensis, imperial propraetorial provinces
* 15 BC -
Raetia, imperial procuratorial province
* ca. 13 BC -
Hispania Ulteriordivided into Baeticaand Lusitania(senatorial propraetorial and imperial propraetorial respectively)
* 12 BC -
Germania Magna, lost after 9 AD
* 6 AD - Iudaea, imperial procuratorial province (renamed Syria Palaestina by Hadrian, and upgraded to proconsular province).
* 14 -
Alpes Maritimae, imperial procuratorial province
* 18 -
Cappadocia, imperial propraetorial (later proconsular) province
* ca. 20-50 -
Illyricumdivided into Illyricum Superior ( Dalmatia) and Illyricum Inferior ( Pannonia), imperial proconsular provinces
* 40 -
Mauretania Tingitanaand Mauretania Caesariensis, imperial procuratorial provinces
* ca. 40 -
Noricum, imperial procuratorial province
* 43 - Britannia, imperial proconsular province
* 43 -
Lyciaand Pamphylia, imperial propraetorial province
* 46 - Thracia, imperial procuratorial province
* ca. 47 -
Alpes Poeninae, imperial procuratorial province
* 63 -
Alpes Cottiae, imperial procuratorial province
* 67 - Epirus, imperial procuratorial province
* 72 -
Commageneannexed to Syria
* ca. 84 -
Germania Superiorand Germania Inferior, imperial proconsular provinces
* 85 -
Moesiadivided into Moesia Superiorand Moesia Inferior, imperial proconsular provinces
* 105 - Arabia, imperial propraetorial province
* 107 - Dacia, imperial proconsular province (split into Dacia Superior and Dacia Inferior between 118 – 158)
* 107 -
Pannoniadivided into Pannonia Superiorand Pannonia Inferior, imperial provinces (proconsular and propraetorial respectively)
* ca. 115 -
Armenia, Assyria and Mesopotamia, formed by Trajan, abandoned by Hadrianin 118
* 166 - Tres Daciae formed: Porolissensis, Apulensis and Malvensis, imperial procuratorial provinces
* 193 - Syria divided into Syria Coele and Syria Phoenicia, imperial provinces (proconsular and propraetorial respectively)
* 193 -
Numidiaseparated from Africa proconsularis, imperial propraetorial province
* ca. 197 - Mesopotamia, imperial praefectorial province
* 197 (formalized ca. 212) -
Britanniadivided into Britannia Superiorand Britannia Inferior, imperial provinces (proconsular and propraetorial respectively)
* 214 AD -
:Note that many of the above provinces were under Roman military control or under the rule of Roman clients for a long time before being officially constituted as civil provinces. Only the date of the official formation of the province is marked above, not the date of conquest.
The Roman provinces in 117
Diocletianintroduced a radical reform known as the Tetrarchy(284-305), with a western and an eastern "Augustus" or senior emperor, each seconded by a junior emperor (and designated successor) styled "Caesar", and each of these four defending and administering a quarter of the Empire. In the 290s, Diocletian divided the Empire anew into almost a hundred provinces, including Italy. Their governors were hierarchically ranked, from the proconsuls of Africa proconsularisand Asia through those governed by "consulares" and " correctores" to the "praesides". These last were the only ones recruited from the equestrian class. The provinces in turn were grouped into (originally twelve) dioceses, headed usually by a " vicarius", who oversaw their affairs. Only the proconsuls and the urban prefectof Rome (and later Constantinople) were exempt from this, and were directly subordinated to the tetrarchs.
Although the Caesars were soon eliminated from the picture, the four administrative resorts were restored in
318by Emperor Constantine I, in the form of praetorian prefectures, whose holders generally rotated frequently, as in the usual magistracies but without a colleague. Constantine also created a second capital, "Nova Roma", known after him as Constantinople, which became the permanent seat of the Eastern government. In Italy itself, Rome ceased to be the imperial residence, Mediolanum ( Milan) and later Ravennabeing favoured by the emperors. During the 4th century, the administrative structure was modified several times. Provinces and dioceses were split to form new ones, the praetorian prefecture of Illyricumwas abolished and reformed, and changed hands between East and West several times. In the end, with the death of Theodosius Iin 395, the permanent division of the Empire into Western and Eastern halves was complete.
Detailed information on these arrangements is contained in the "
Notitia Dignitatum" (Record of Offices), a document dating from the early 5th century. It is from this authentic imperial source that we draw most data, as the names of the areas governed and titles of the governors are given there. There are however debates about the source of some data recorded in the " _la. Notitia", and it seems clear that some of its own sources are earlier than others.
It is interesting to compare this with the list of military territories under the "duces", in charge of border garrisons on so-called "limites", and the higher ranking " _la. Comites rei militaris", with more mobile forces, and the later, even higher "magistri militum".
In the surviving Eastern half, which evolved into what is known as the
Byzantine Empire, this administrative subdivision was gradually changed. Justinian Imade the first great changes during his great reforms in 534-536 by abolishing, in some provinces, the strict separation of civil and military authority that Diocletian had established. This process was continued on a larger scale with the creation of extraordinary Exarchates in the 580s and culminated with the adoption of the military theme systemin the 640s, which replaced the older administrative arrangements entirely.
List of Late Roman provinces
Praetorian prefecture of Galliae
In Latin, "Gallia" was also sometimes used as a general term for all Celtic peoples and their territories, such as all
Brythons, including the Germanic and Iberian provinces which also had a population with a Celtic culture. The plural, "Galliae" in Latin, indicates that all of these are meant, not just Caesar's Gaul (several modern countries).
Diocese of Galliae
Galliae covered about half of the Gallic provinces of the early empire:
*in what is now northern France roughly the part north of the Loire (called after the capital Lugdunum, modern Lyon)
**Gallia Lugdenensis II
**Gallia Lugdunensis III
**Gallia Lugdunensis IV
*in Belgium, Luxembourg, the parts of the Netherlands on the left bank (west) of the Rhine
**Gallia Belgica II
* Germany on the left bank (west) of the Rhine
* the Helvetic tribes (parts of Switzerland):
Alpes Poenninae et Graiae
Diocese of Viennensis
Viennensis was named after the city of "Vienna" (now
Vienne), and entirely in present-day France, roughly south of the Loire. It was originally part of Caesar's newly conquered province of Transalpine Gaul, but a separate diocese from the start.
* Aquitanica II
* Narbonensis II
In the fifth century, Viennensis was replaced by a diocese of "Septem Provinciae" ('7 Provinces') with similar boundaries.
Diocese of Hispaniae
Hispaniawas the name of the whole Iberian Peninsula. It covered Hispania and the westernmost province of Roman Africa:
Baleares(the Mediterranean islands)
Mauretania Tingitanaor Hispania Nova, in North Africa
Diocese of Britanniae
Britanniae was again a plural
Praetorian prefecture of Italy and Africa (western)
Originally there was a single diocese of Italia, but it was eventually split into a northern section and a southern section. The division of Italy into regions had already been established by
Diocese of Italia suburbicaria
"Suburbicaria" indicates proximity to Rome, the "Urbs" (capital city). It included the islands, not considered actually Italian in Antiquity (hence they were provinces while the peninsular regions still had a superior status), given their different ethnic stock (e.g.
Sicilywas named after the Siculi) and history of piracy.
Tuscania et Umbria
Apulia et Calabria
Bruttia et Lucania
Diocese of Italia annonaria
"Annonaria" refers to a reliance on the area for the provisioning of Rome. It encompassed northern Italy and Raetia.
Venetia and Istria
Flaminia and Picenum Annonarium
Diocese of Africa
Africa included the central part of Roman North Africa:
Africa proconsularisor Zeugitana
Praetorian Prefecture of Illyricum
Prefecture of Illyricumwas named after the former province of Illyricum. It originally included two dioceses, the Diocese of Pannoniaeand the Diocese of Moesiae. The Diocese of Moesiae was later split into two dioceses: the Diocese of Macedoniaand the Diocese of Dacia.
Diocese of Pannonia
Pannonia was one of the two dioceses in the eastern quarters of the Tetrarchy not belonging to the cultural Greek half of the empire (the other was Dacia); It was transferred to the western empire when
Theodosius Ifixed the final split of the two empires in 395.
Diocese of Dacia
Dacianshad lived in the Transylvaniaarea, annexed to the Empire by Trajan. However, during the invasions of the third century Dacia was largely abandoned. Some inhabitants evacuated from the abandoned province were settled on the south side of the Danube and their new homeland renamed Dacia accordingly, in order to diminish the impact that abandoning the original Daciahad on the Empire's prestige. The diocese was transferred to the western empire in 384 by Theodosius I, probably in partial compensation to the empress Justina for his recognition of the usurpation of Magnus Maximus in Britannia, Gaul and Hispania.
Diocese of Macedonia
Diocese of Macedoniawas transferred to the western empire in 384 by Theodosius I, probably in partial compensation to the empress Justina for his recognition of the usurpation of Magnus Maximus in Britannia, Gaul and Hispania.
*Macedonia Salutaris (or "Macedonia Secunda")
Praetorian Prefecture of Oriens
As the rich home territory of the eastern emperor, the "Oriens" ("East") prefecture would persist as the core of the
Byzantine Empirelong after the fall of Rome. Its praetorian prefect would be the last to survive, but his office was transformed into an essentially internal minister.
Diocese of Thrace
Thrace was the eastern-most corner of the Balkans (the only part outside the Illyricum prefecture) and the European hinterland of Constantinople.
Diocese of Asiana
Asia (or Asia Minor) in Antiquity stood for Anatolia. This diocese (the name means 'the Asian ones') centred on the earlier Roman province of Asia, and only covered the rich western part of the peninsula, mainly near the Aegean Sea.
Hellespontus(i.e. near the Sea of Marmara, so closest to Greece)
*and the adjoining (now mostly Greek) Aegean islands in the aptly named province
Diocese of Pontus
" Pontus" is Latinized from Greek
Pontos: the name of a Hellenistic kingdom derived from "Pontos (Euxinos)", i.e. the (Black) Sea, earlier used for a major Hellenistic kingdom.
It mainly contains parts of Asia minor near those coasts (as well as the mountainous centre), but also includes the north of very variable border with Rome's enemy Parthia/Persia.
Diocese of Oriens
The Eastern diocese shares its geographic name with the prefecture, even after it lost its rich part, Egypt, becoming a separate diocese; but militarily crucial on the Persian (Sassanid) border and unruly desert tribes.
It comprised mainly the modern Arabic Machrak (
Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Israel, the Palestinian Territoriesand Jordan) except for the desert hinterland:
Iudaea Province(after the Romans crushed Bar Kokhba's revoltthey renamed it Palestina):
Further it contained the southeastern coast of Asia Minor and the close island of Cyprus
Diocese of Aegyptus
This diocese, comprising north eastern Africa — mainly Egypt, the rich granary and traditional personal domain of the emperors — was the only diocese that was "not" under a vicarius, but whose head retained the unique title of "
Praefectus Augustalis". It was created by a split of the diocese of Oriens.
All but one, the civilian governors were of the modest rank of "Praeses provinciae".
*Aegyptus came to designate Lower Egypt around Alexandria. Originally it was named "Aegyptus Iovia" (from Jupiter, for the "Augustus" Diocletian). Later it was divided into two provinces
Augustamnicawas the remainder of Lower Egypt, together with the eastern part of the Nile delta (13 'cities') - the only Egyptian province under a " Corrector", a lower ranking governor. Originally it was named "Aegyptus Herculia" (for Diocletian's junior, the "Caesar"; with ancient Memphis). Later it was divided in two provinces
Thebaiswas Upper Egypt. Nubia south of Philae had been abandoned to tribal people. Later it was divided into two provinces, "Superior" and "Inferior".
*Arcadia (also Arcadia Ægypti; not
Apart from modern Egypt, Aegyptus also comprised the former province of
Cyrenaica, being the east of modern Libya (an ancient name for the whole African continent as well). Cyrenaica was split into two provinces, each under a "praeses":
* [http://www.livius.org/gi-gr/governor/provinces.html Early Imperial Roman provinces, at "livius.org"]
* Westermann, "Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte" (in German)
* cite book |last=Loewenstein |first=Karl |title=The Governance of Rome
year=1973 |publisher=Springer |isbn=9024714583
* Chris Scarre, "The Eastern Provinces," "The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome" (London: Penguin Books, 1995), 74-75.
* [http://intranet.dalton.org/groups/Rome/RMap.html Map of the Roman Empire]
* [http://www.euratlas.com/big/big0300.htm Map of the Roman Empire in year 300]
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