- Palmerston North
Te Papaioea (Māori)
— Metropolitan Area — Palmerston North City Council Nickname(s): Palmy, Student City, Knowledge City, Rose City Motto: Palmam Qui Meruit Ferat Coordinates: 40°21.3′S 175°36.7′E / 40.355°S 175.6117°ECoordinates: 40°21.3′S 175°36.7′E / 40.355°S 175.6117°E Country New Zealand Region Manawatu-Wanganui Territorial authority Palmerston North City Electorate Palmerston North; Rangitīkei; Te Tai Hauauru Government – Type City Council – Mayor Jono Naylor Area – Territorial 326 km2 (125.9 sq mi) Population (June 2010 estimate) – Territorial 81,300 – Density 249.4/km2 (645.9/sq mi) – Urban 81,600 – Demonym Palmerstonian Time zone NZST (UTC+12) – Summer (DST) NZDT (UTC+13) Area code(s) 06 Local iwi Ngāti Rangitāne Website http://www.pncc.govt.nz
Palmerston North (Māori: Te Papaioea) is the main city of the Manawatu-Wanganui region of the North Island of New Zealand. It is an inland city with a population of 81,600 (June 2010 estimate) and is the country's seventh largest city and eighth largest urban area. Palmerston North is located in the eastern Manawatu Plains near the north bank of the Manawatu River. The city covers an area of 325.94 square kilometres (126 sq mi) and one million people live within a two-hour drive (200 km/120 mile radius). It is about 140 km (87 mi) north of the capital, Wellington. The city is 35 km (22 mi) from the river's mouth and 12 km (7 mi) from the end of the Manawatu Gorge.
The official limits of the city take in rural areas to the south and north-east of the main urban area, extending to the Tararua Ranges and including the town of Ashhurst at the mouth of the Manawatu Gorge. This is a rich and fertile agricultural area.
Land Area : 325.94 square kilometres (80,540 acres)
Area In Public Reserves : 5.54 square kilometres (1,369 acres)
Highest Point (Elevation): 760 metres (2,493 ft) above sea level (in the ranges south-east of Scotts Road)
Lowest Point (Elevation) : 10 metres (33 ft) above sea level (river bank near Te Puna Road)
Typical Urban Area Elevation : 20–40 metres (65–130 ft)
Length Of River (Within City Boundary) : 29.9 km/18.6 mi (Manawatu River) & 2.6 km/1.6 mi (Pohangina River)
Ngāti Rangitāne were the local Māori iwi (tangata whenua) living in the area known as Te Ahu-a-Turanga, when a trader, Jack Duff, became the earliest known European to explore the area in 1830. He came on a whaling ship, and explored as far inland as the site of Woodville. He reported his discovery on arrival back to Porirua. Colonel Wakefield heard of the potential that the Manawatu had for development and visited in 1840. In 1846 Charles Hartley, another trader, heard from tangata whenua of a clearing in the forest and he proceeded through the dense bush and forest and discovered it for Europeans.
The Government surveyed the area in 1866-67. The original subdivision of Palmerston North was made in 1866, in the natural clearing in the Papaioea Forest, as found by Hartley. A township was laid out by J.T. Stewart, an employee of the Wellington Provincial Government.
Stewart's plan consisted of a series of wide and straight streets, laid out in a rectangular pattern, with the focal point being an open space of 17 acres (7 ha) subsequently known as The Square. Landmarks named after Stewart included Stewart Crescent in Palmerston North and Mt Stewart, near Sanson.
The four original streets meeting at the Square are now called Fitzherbert Avenue (from the south), Main Street East, Main Street West and Rangitikei Street. As the settlement grew, the forest diminished to make way for farms, and today virtually no remnant of it survives.
By 1877, when the Borough Council came into existence, Palmerston North was an isolated village in the midst of the native forest that covered inland Manawatu. The population was approximately 800 people and sawmilling was the main industry of the district. The arrival of the railway in 1886 saw an increase in the speed of growth, and by 1900 the population was 6,000. By this time the town was at the centre of a lucrative agricultural district.
In 1930, the population reached the 20,000 threshold and Palmerston North was officially proclaimed a city. Development was slow due to the great depression and World War II. An airport was established at Milson in 1936, which is now Palmerston North International Airport. After the war, growth was rapid; the population rising to over 50,000 by the mid 1970s.
The city was first named "Palmerston", in honour of Viscount Palmerston, a former Prime Minister of Great Britain. The suffix "North” was added in 1871 by the Post Office to distinguish the settlement from Palmerston in the South Island, though locals still widely refer to the city simply as Palmerston or "Palmy". Locals are known as Palmerstonians.
The Māori transliteration of Palmerston is "Pamutana", but this is largely unused, with Papa-i-oea (commonly contracted to Papaioea) being the preferred option, e.g. Te Kura Kōhine o Papaioea (Palmerston North Girls' High School) and Te Hohipera o Papaioea (Palmerston North Hospital). Papa-i-oea is believed to mean "How beautiful it is".
Palmerston North's climate is temperate with maximum daytime temperatures averaging 22 °C (72 °F) in summer and 12 °C (54 °F) in winter. On average temperatures rise above 25 °C (77 °F) on 20 days of the year. Annual rainfall is approximately 960 mm (37.8 in) with rain occurring approximately 5% of the time. There are on average 200 rain-free days each year.
In the ranges that flank the city there is often sustained wind, especially in spring. Much of this land is within the city boundaries and these ranges have the reputation of providing the most consistent wind in the country.
Close to the city is the largest electricity-generating wind farm in the southern hemisphere, with 158 turbines in the Tararua and Ruahine Ranges providing power for approximately 30,000 homes.
Climate data for Palmerston North Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) 22.4
17.5 Average low °C (°F) 13.4
9.1 Precipitation mm (inches) 65
Source: NIWA Climate Data
At the 2006 census, Palmerston North had a population of 75,543, an increase of 3507 people (4.9%) since the 2001 census. There were 27,849 occupied dwellings, 1,662 unoccupied dwellings, and 189 dwellings under construction.
Of the population, 36,345 (48.1%) were male and 39,192 (51.9%) female. The city had a median age of 32.4 years, 2.5 years below the national median age of 35.9 years. People aged 65 years and over made up 11.6% of the population, compared to 12.3% nationally, and people under 15 years made up 20.3% of the population, compared to 21.5% nationally. Due to Palmerston North being a university city, approximately 36% of the population is aged between 15.0 and 24.9 years.
Palmerston North's ethnicity was made up of (national figure in brackets): 71.4% European (67.6%), 15.4% Maori (14.7%), 7.4% Asian (9.2%), 3.7% Pacific Islanders (6.9%), 1.1% Middle Eastern/Latin American/African (0.9%), 12.5% 'New Zealanders' (11.1%), and 0.05% Other (0.04%).
Palmerston North City had an unemployment rate of 5.3% of people 15 years and over, compared to 5.1% nationally. The average annual income of all people 15 years and over was $23,100, compared with $24,400 nationally. Of those, 44.9% earned under $20,000, compared with 43.2% nationally, while 15.4% earned over $50,000, compared to 18.0% nationally.
A large proportion of its population consists of students attending Massey University, Universal College of Learning (UCOL) and International Pacific College or the various Papaioea Campuses of Te Wananga o Aotearoa during the student year. Over half of the city's population is under the age of 33 and the city has been marketed as 'Student City'.
The tertiary education sector provides NZ$1.4 billion a year to the local economy and the education sector accounted for 11.3% of the Palmerston North workforce in February 2006. Palmerston North has economic strengths in research, especially in the bio-industry, defence, distribution and smart business sectors. The city is home to more than 70 major educational and research institutions, including New Zealand's fastest expanding university, Massey University; the Massey University Sport and Recreation Institute at the Massey University campus, Turitea; Universal College of Learning (UCOL) and Linton Army Camp.
44,870 employees worked in Palmerston North in February 2006, 2.5% of employees in New Zealand. The largest industry in terms of employees was the health and community services industry, which employed 14.9% of employees in the city. The retail trade industry employed 13.3% of employees in the city.
Parks and recreation
The city's main streets are arranged in a grid around The Square, a seven-hectare park of lawn, trees, lakes, fountains, and gardens in the centre of the city. This park contains the city's war memorial, a memorial to Te Peeti Te Awe Awe, the Rangitāne chief who was instrumental in the sale of Palmerston North district to the government in 1865, and a clock tower with an illuminated cross. The Māori name for the Square is Te Marae o Hine. Te Peeti Te Awe Awe was one member of a Māori contingent who gathered around 1878 to choose a Māori name for The Square. The meaning of the name is The Courtyard of the Daughter of Peace chosen in the hope that all people and all races would live together in enduring peace.
There are a number of parks in the city. The foremost is the Victoria Esplanade along the northern bank of the Manawatu River, to the west of Fitzherbert Avenue. The esplanade includes gardens, children's play areas, an aviary, a miniature railway, walking tracks, and sports fields (Ongley-Manawaroa Park).
The Plaza is the largest shopping centre in the Manawatu region and a key shopping centre in the lower North Island, boasting over 100 stores. See: The Plaza Shopping Centre
The city has used many descriptions in advertising and promotion, including "Rose City" (referring to its international rose trial grounds) and "Knowledge City" or "Student City" (referring to the city's many academic institutions). The current slogan, "Young Heart, Easy Living", indicates that Palmerston North is a city of young people and people with a youthful attitude.
Crime and policing
Palmerston North is the main centre of the New Zealand Police's Central District. Palmerston North is a positive 7th in a list of the best places for low crime figures (2008). Overall, crime dropped by 10% in the past year (2008). Violent crime has increased by 5% in the past year but this is compared with an 11% rise nationally. Satisfaction with safety in public places at night has remained at its 2007 level.
Participation in sport is an important and popular pastime in Palmerston North. Representation at a national level is predominantly provincial based meaning most sports teams representing Palmerston North also draw their players from other towns from around the province of Manawatu.
The premier multi-sports venue in Palmerston North is Arena Manawatu. The main stadium of Arena Manawatu is known as FMG Stadium. Other important venues include Memorial Park, Manawaroa-Ongley Park, Skoglund Park, Vautier Park and Massey University sports fields.
Like the rest of New Zealand, Rugby Union is a popular sport in the winter. The city is the home of the Manawatu Turbos. The Turbos play in the ITM Cup, the premiere competition in New Zealand provincial rugby. The home ground is at FMG Stadium. The Manawatu Cyclones (Women's rugby team) also plays at FMG Stadium.
Palmerston North has been confirmed as a venue for two matches of the 2011 Rugby World Cup from 28 September to 2 October at Arena Manawatu.
Robertson Holden International Speedway is a popular participant and spectator sport. The local team is known as the Palmerston North Panthers. The raceway is at FMG Stadium (the track encircles the sports field).
Basketball is played at the premier level in Palmerston North. The Manawatu Jets, formerly the Palmerston North Jets, play in the NZBL. Their home is at the B & M Centre (indoor arena) of Arena Manawatu. Netball is also played here at a local level and sometimes the Central Pulse (ANZ Championship team) and New Zealand Silver Ferns play here.
Hockey is played at a premier level. The main venue is at the Twin Turfs, between Fitzherbert Park and Victoria Esplanade. Hockey in Manawatu is governed by Hockey Manawatu.
Cricket is popular in the city. The Central Districts Stags is the region's premier cricket team and plays in the national State Championship. The team includes of a number of players born and raised or live in Palmerston North. Fitzherbert Park is the premiere cricket ground in Palmerston North and is a home ground of the Central Districts. Fitzherbert Park hosted the 2010 U-19 Cricket World Cup in which 16 teams from around the world took part along with hosts New Zealand. Manawaroa-Ongley Park is another important cricket venue.
Football is another important sport in Palmerston North. The local team, YoungHeart Manawatu is one of 8 franchise teams competing in the New Zealand Football Championship, the premier national competition. The team formerly played at FMG Stadium, now at Memorial Park.
Two large golf courses are here. Administered by Palmerston North Golf Club and Manawatu Golf Club.
Local clubs and venues exist, catering for sports such as those above and athletics, archery, badminton, bowls, croquet, squash and other minority sports. Secondary School and Age Group sport is highly participated in and actively encouraged.
The city is arranged in a grid pattern and is a significant road and rail junction. As such it is an important distribution hub for the lower North Island, with many freight distribution centres based here.
State Highway 3 is the main State Highway in Palmerston North. This enters the city from the north-west as Rangitikei Street before turning left into Grey Street, north of the Square. The highway continues along Princess Street to Main Street East, where it continues eastwards as it exits Palmerston North and Ashhurst as Napier Road.
State Highway 1, New Zealand's main highway, passes about 25 km (16 mi) to the west of the city.
Rangitikei Street is the main portal allowing inwards and outwards traffic to and from the north.
Main Street is the main east-west thoroughfare, broken only by The Square.
Fitzherbert Avenue is the main south portal, crossing the Fitzherbert Bridge, the only bridge over the Manawatu River close to the city. (The other bridge is Fitzherbert East Road in Ashhurst, 14 km (9 mi) away.) Massey University and International Pacific College (IPC), as well as some of the newly developed residential areas (Summerhill, Aokautere), are located east of the river.
Tremaine Avenue in the north of the city is the longest single road.
Palmerston North is perceived as being better for cycling than most New Zealand cities, with 2001 figures putting it a close second only to Blenheim in terms of bicycle modal share. However, there has been a large decline in bicycle use, falling steadily from 13% of all commuting trips in 1986 to 5.42% in 2006, significantly faster than any other transport mode.
Palmerston North has a fairly comprehensive 65km on-road bicycle lane network, particularly in high traffic areas, to make it safer for people to get around the city by bike.
The cycle lane network has been criticised for a number of reasons. Motor traffic is often too fast, and there is no physical barrier between bicyclists and motorists. Most bicycle lanes in the city are marked out with parking spaces for motorist parking, making those lanes 'pointless' and raising the risk of motorists opening car doors into the path of passing bicyclists.
Rebecca Oaten, the so-called 'Helmet Lady' who campaigned nationwide in the late 1980s for a New Zealand bicycle helmet law, is from Palmerston North. 
Five urban buses and one campus bus leave the terminal in Main Street East (in front of Palmerston North Courthouse) at least every half hour. Services are coordinated by Horizons Regional Council and a Masterton-based bus company, Tranzit.
Occasional regional services run to the nearby towns of Linton, Ashhurst and Feilding.
Intercity routes are operated by Intercity and Nakedbus. Intercity's routes run south (to Wellington), north (towards Auckland, via Wanganui, Rotorua and Taupo, or Napier) and east (to Masterton) from a terminus at the intersection of Main and Pitt Sts. Naked Bus runs from outside the iSite in The Square.
Palmerston North International Airport in the suburb of Milson is a secondary international airport. Domestic services are operated mostly by Air New Zealand. There have been no international services since Freedom Air ceased to operate in March 2008, and proposed replacement carrier OzJet cancelled its plans only four days before they were due to commence.
Palmerston North International Airport is the operational base of the Massey University School of Aviation, and by night is as a busy domestic freight hub.
Until 1964, the railway ran through the city centre, with Palmerston North Railway Station in The Square. The station was moved and the track diverted 2.5 km (2 mi) to the north by the Milson Deviation in 1959-1963; work on the deviation had started in 1926. There are only two passenger trains: the weekday-only Capital Connection commuter train once a day to and from Wellington, and the Overlander to Auckland and Wellington.
Near the current railway station, the North Island Main Trunk railway is joined by the Palmerston North - Gisborne Line, which runs through the Manawatu Gorge to Woodville and Hawke's Bay, with a connection to the Wairarapa Line at Woodville.
The large number of students from Massey, UCOL and IPC bring a youth culture to the city, helping to support the many cafes and bars. Highbury is the home of the Papaioea Campus of Te Wānanga o Aotearoa.
- Tertiary Education Institutions
School Name Location Massey University Turitea Massey University College of Education Hokowhitu Universal College of Learning Palmerston North Central International Pacific College Aokautere Te Wānanga o Aotearoa Highbury
- Secondary schools
School Name Location St Peter's College Milson Palmerston North Boys' High School (PNBHS) Palmerston North Hospital Area Palmerston North Girls High School (PNGHS) West End Queen Elizabeth College (QEC) Palmerston North Hospital Area Freyberg High School (FHS) Roslyn Awatapu College Awapuni South Longburn Adventist College (LAC) Longburn
The Council consists of a Mayor and 15 Councillors. The Council's functions are broken down into seven units: City Future, City Contact, City Corporate, City Enterprises, Community and Commercial Services, City Library and City Networks. The Chief Executive is Paddy Clifford.
The current mayor is Jono Naylor, who prior to his election as mayor, was a councillor representing Hokowhitu. Elections for Mayor and local government occur nationwide every three years, with the next election to take place in 2013.
Palmerston North City is divided into five wards since Ashhurst and Fitzherbert wards have amalgamated. Four of these are urban and one rural.
Palmerston North attained city status in 1930.
On 1 November 1989, New Zealand local government authorities were reorganised. Palmerston North City boundaries were extended to include Ashhurst, Linton and Turitea through amalgamation of parts of the former Kairanga County, Oroua County and Ashhurst Town Council.
SuburbsAokautere · Ashhurst · Awapuni · Cloverlea · Highbury · Hokowhitu · Kelvin Grove · Linton · Massey University · Milson · Palmerston North Central · Papaioea · Palmerston North Hospital Area · Roslyn · Takaro · Turitea · Westbrook · Whakarongo · Urban Area Secondary Schools Sports teamsHurricanes (rugby) · Pulse · Manawatu Turbos · Young Heart Manawatu FC (football) Facilities and AttractionsTe Manawa · Palmerston North City Libraries · The Square · Fitzherbert Park · Cathedral of the Holy Spirit · FMG Stadium · Rugby Museum · Massey University Rugby Institute · Victoria Esplanade · Te Apiti Windfarm · Manawatu Gorge · Tararua Wind Farm · Wards of Palmerston North
Ashhurst-Fitzherbert Ward · Awapuni Ward · Hokowhitu Ward · Papaioea Ward ·Takaro Ward ·
OtherManawatu Standard · Rangitane · Palmerston North Hospital · Manawatu River · Toyota New Zealand · Fonterra ·
Palmerston North is represented by 3 electorates.
The boundaries of the electorate of Palmerston North are currently co-terminus with the four urban wards of the PNCC. The electorate is represented (2008- ) by Iain Lees-Galloway of Labour.
The large electorate of Rangitikei extends south to Palmerston North's southern and eastern ward (Ashhurst-Fitzherbert). Therefore completely surrounding the electorate of Palmerston North (the only electorate thus surrounded completely by another). The electorate is represented (1999-2011) by Simon Power of National. Simon Power has confirmed his retirement from politics at the 2011 General Election.
Te Tai Hauauru
This large Maori electorate includes all of the Palmerston North area. The electorate is represented by Tariana Turia of the Maori Party.
Palmerston North has two sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities NZ (SCI):
Palmerston North has a thriving musical scene with many national and international acts touring through the town, and many local acts performing regularly.
Local groups include the Manawatu Sinfonia and Manawatu Youth Orchestra (MYO) who perform throughout the year. Both these groups rehearse at Square Edge under the guidance of Mr Schwabe, the conductor who has been present within the musical community of Palmerston North for a number of years now. The Manawatu Youth Orchestra will celebrate its 50th year in September 2011. Within the community there is also the Manawatu Concert Band (MCB) which holds its practices at Freyberg High School.
Notable personalitiesMain article: List of people from Palmerston North
- ^ a b "Subnational population estimates at 30 June 2010 (boundaries at 1 November 2010)". Statistics New Zealand. 26 October 2010. http://www.stats.govt.nz/~/media/Statistics/Methods%20and%20Services/Tables/Subnational%20population%20estimates/subpopest2001-10.ashx. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- ^ See List of cities in New Zealand
- ^ "Introduction to Palmerston North". Palmerston North City Council. http://www.pncc.govt.nz/About/IntroToPalmerstonNorth/. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
- ^ http://citylibrary.pncc.govt.nz/Chapter1.pdf
- ^ a b PALMERSTON NORTH - 1966 Encyclopaedia of New Zealand
- ^ "Topic: John Tiffin Stewart". Kete Horowhenua. http://horowhenua.kete.net.nz/site/topics/show/218-john-tiffin-stewart. Retrieved 2008-07-04.
- ^ "1890s". Palmerston North City Council. http://www.pncc.govt.nz/About/History/Detail.aspx?id=2043. Retrieved 2008-07-04.
- ^ "1970s". Palmerston North City Council. http://www.pncc.govt.nz/About/History/Detail.aspx?id=2051. Retrieved 2008-07-04.
- ^ "Climate Data". NIWA. July 2011. http://www.niwascience.co.nz/edu/resources/climate/. Retrieved November 2, 2007.
- ^ a b c d e f Quickstats about Palmerston North City
- ^ http://www.ipc.ac.nz
- ^ a b http://www.stats.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/592B0521-E31C-45E9-9F14-E436E5A3319D/0/Sep07_PalmerstonNorthCity.pdf[dead link]
- ^ Dictionary Of New Zealand Biography
- ^ "The Manawatu Community". Manawatu - Our Region. http://www.ourregion.co.nz/community.php?category=clubs&clubCategory=2. Retrieved 2008-07-04.
- ^ NZ Police: Central District
- ^ http://www.palmerstonnorth.com/content/706/2008%20Community%20Outcomes%20Update.pdf
- ^ Hamilton Alternatives to Roading Study (HARTS). "Assessment of Walking and Cycling". October 2005. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- ^ a b Horizons Regional Council. "Annual Report on the Implementation of the Regional Land Transport Strategy", 2009-10. September 2010. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- ^ "Cycling Facilities". Palmerston North City Council. 2010. http://www.pncc.govt.nz/ServicesAndFacilities/Facilities/Cycling/Detail.aspx?id=493. Retrieved 2011-08-31.
- ^ "Cyclist injured in cycle lane - Palmerston North". CAN - Cycling Advocates Network. 17 August 2008. http://can.org.nz/article/cyclist-injured-in-cycle-lane-palmerston-north. Retrieved 2011-08-31.
- ^ "Helmets 'may be deterring cyclists'". Stuff.co.nz. 23 October 2008. http://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/national/686712/Helmets-may-be-deterring-cyclists. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
- ^ Palmerston North City Council website: About Council
- ^ Student City - Swampfest 2007
- Official Website of Palmerston North
- Palmerston North City Council
- Geo-Guide - Official Street Maps and Property Information
- Wikitravel Palmerston North page
- Palmerston North City Portal
The Overlander passenger train stops: (North Island Main Trunk Railway)Auckland (Britomart) • Middlemore • Papakura • Pukekohe • Hamilton • Otorohanga • Te Kuiti • Taumarunui • National Park • Ohakune • Marton • Feilding • Palmerston North • Levin • Paraparaumu • Porirua • Wellington (Railway Station) Capital Connection passenger train stops (North Island Main Trunk Railway)Palmerston North • Shannon • Levin • Otaki • Waikanae • Paraparaumu • Wellington (Railway Station) New Zealand topics History GeographyTime zones · Environment · National Parks · Marine reserves · Islands · Lakes · Rivers · Caves · Cities · Towns · Biodiversity Governance Politics EconomyTransport · Taxation · Rogernomics · Tourism · Companies · Media · Communications · Energy SocietyCitizenship · Crime · Demographics · Education · Immigration · Religion CultureMāori culture · Māori language · NZ English · Art · Cinema · Kiwi (people) · Literature · Music · Sport · Public holidays Main citiesWellington (capital) · Auckland (largest) · Christchurch · Hamilton · Dunedin · Tauranga · Napier-Hastings · Palmerston NorthCategories:
- Manawatu-Wanganui Region
- Main urban areas in New Zealand
- Palmerston North
- University towns
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.