name = Wellington
native_name = "Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara (in Māori)"
Wellywood, the Windy City, Windy Wellington
settlement_type = main urban area
imagesize = 300px
image_caption = Wellington central business district
mapsize = 150px
map_caption = Location of Wellington within New Zealand
dot_x = |dot_y =
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = NZ
subdivision_type1 = Region
subdivision_name1 = Wellington
subdivision_type2 = Territorial authorities
Lower Hutt City
Upper Hutt City
parts = 5 Wards
government_footnotes = [cite web |url=http://www.wellington.govt.nz/haveyoursay/elections/voting/voting.html |title= Voting Systems |accessdate=2008-08-05 |work= |publisher= Wellington City Council |date= ]
government_type = Council elected by STV
established_title = Settled by the British
established_date = 1839
established_title1 = Became capital of New Zealand
established_date1 = 1865
leader_title = Mayor
area_footnotes = [cite web |url=http://www.wellington.govt.nz/aboutwgtn/glance/index.html. |title=About Wellington - Facts & Figures |accessdate=2008-08-05 |work= |publisher=Wellington City Council |date= ]
area_total_km2 = 290
area_land_km2 = 8130
elevation_min_m = 0
elevation_min_ft = 0
population_footnotes = [cite web |url=http://www.wellington.govt.nz/plans/annualplan/0708/pdfs/03snapshot.pdf |title=Wellington City Council Annual Plan 2007-2008|accessdate=2008-08-05 |work= |publisher= |date= ] [cite web |url=http://www.stats.govt.nz/products-and-services/info-releases/subnat-pop-est-info-releases.htm |title=Statistics New Zealand subnational population estimates for the Wellington Urban Area and its constituent urban zones |accessdate=2008-08-05 |work= |publisher= |date= ]
population_density_km2 = 620.9
timezone = NZST
utc_offset = +12
timezone_DST = NZDT
utc_offset_DST = +13
latd=41 |latm=17 |lats=20 |latNS=S
longd=174|longm=46 |longs=38 |longEW=E
Ngāti Poneke, Ngāti Tama, Te Āti Awa
postal_code_type = Postcode(s)
postal_code = 6000 group, and 5000 and 5300 series
area_code = 04 (local) +64 4 (from overseas)
website = http://www.wellingtonnz.com
footnotes = Wellington (pronEng|ˈwælɪŋtən) is the
capitalof New Zealand, the country's second largest urban area, the most populous national capital in Oceaniaand the southern-most capital city in the world. [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nz.html CIA - The World Factbook - New Zealand ] ] It is in the Wellington Regionat the southern tip of the North Island, near the geographical centre of the country.
Wellington's urban area is constrained by mountainous terrain and stretches north from the central city along two corridors, the Porirua Basin and the Hutt Valley. The combined area and adjacent rural area is administered by four city councils.
Wellington Regionis a larger administrative area that includes the Kapiti Coast to the north and the area known as the Wairarapaacross the Rimutaka Rangeto the east.
Wellington was named in honour of Arthur Wellesley, the first
Duke of Wellingtonand victor of the Battle of Waterloo. The Duke's title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset.
In Māori, Wellington goes by three names. Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara refers to
Wellington Harbourand means "the great harbour of Tara".cite web|url=http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MaoriNewZealanders/TeAtiAwaWellington/mi|title=Te Āti Awa ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara|publisher= Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand|language= Māori, orthographic conventions sourced from cite web|url=http://www.tetaurawhiri.govt.nz/english/pub_e/conventions2.shtml|title=Māori Language Commission] Pōneke is a transliteration of "Port Nick", short for "Port Nicholson" (the city's central marae, the community supporting it and its kapa hakahave the pseudo-tribal name of Ngāti Pōneke). [cite web|url=http://www.doc.govt.nz/templates/placeprofilesummary.aspx?id=35015|title=Poneke|publisher= New Zealand Department of Conservation] Te Upoko-o-te-Ika-a-Māui, meaning "The Head of the Fish of Māui" (often shortened to Te Upoko-o-te-Ika), a traditional name for the southernmost part of the North Island, derives from the legend of the fishing up of the island by the demigod Māui.
Wellington also goes by a number of nicknames including "The Harbour Capital", "
Wellywood" and (now rarely) the "Windy City" .
Wellington is New Zealand's political centre, housing Parliament and the head offices of all Government Ministries and Departments, plus the bulk of the foreign diplomatic missions based in New Zealand.
Wellington's compact city centre supports an arts scene, café culture and nightlife much larger than most cities of a similar size. It is a centre of New Zealand's film and theatre industry.
Te Papa Tongarewa(the Museum of New Zealand), the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra, the Royal New Zealand Ballet, Museum of Wellington City & Seaand the biennial New Zealand International Arts Festival are all sited there. Wellington has the 12th best quality of living in the world, according to a 2007 study by consulting company Mercer. Of cities with English as the primary language, Wellington ranked fourth. [cite web|url=http://www.mercer.com/referencecontent.jhtml?idContent=1128060|title=Mercer 2007 World-wide quality of living survey] Only Auckland of New Zealand cities rated higher as it was ranked fifth in the world in 2006 and 2007.
Legend recounts that
Kupediscovered and explored the district in about the tenth century. European settlement began with the arrival of an advance party of the New Zealand Companyon the ship "Tory", on 20 September 1839, followed by 150 settlers on the "Aurora" on 22 January 1840. The settlers constructed their first homes at Petone(which they called Britannia for a time) on the flat area at the mouth of the Hutt River. When that proved swampy and flood-prone they transplanted the plans, which had been drawn without regard for the hilly terrain.
and thus indicate the extent of the uplift and of subsequent reclamation.
The area has high seismic activity even by New Zealand standards, with a major fault line running through the centre of the city, and several others nearby. Several hundred more minor fault lines have been identified within the urban area. The inhabitants, particularly those in
high-risebuildings, typically notice several earthquakes every year. For many years after the 1855 earthquake, the majority of buildings constructed in Wellington were made entirely from wood. The 1996-restored Government Buildings, [ [http://www.historic.org.nz/Register/ListingDetail.asp?RID=37&sm= Historic Places Trust] ] near Parliament is the largest wooden office building in the Southern Hemisphere. While masonry and structural steelhave subsequently been used in building construction, especially for office buildings, timber framingremains the primary structural component of almost all residential construction. Residents also place their hopes of survival in good building regulations, which gradually became more stringent in the course of the twentieth century.
New Zealand's capital
In 1865, Wellington became the capital of New Zealand, replacing
Auckland, where William Hobsonhad established his capital in 1841. Parliament first sat in Wellington on 7 July 1862, but the city did not become the official capital for some time. In November 1863 the Premier Alfred Domettmoved a resolution before Parliament (in Auckland) that "... it has become necessary that the seat of government... should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait." Apparently there was concern that the southern regions, where the gold fields were located, would form a separate colony. Commissioners from Australia (chosen for their neutral status) pronounced the opinion that Wellington was suitable because of its harbour and central location. Parliament officially sat in Wellington for the first time on 26 July 1865. The population of Wellington was then 4,900. [Phillip Temple: "Wellington Yesterday"]
Wellington is the seat of New Zealand's highest court, the
Supreme Court of New Zealand. The historic former High Court building is to be enlarged and restored for the court's use.
Location and geography
Wellington stands at the south-western tip of the
North Islandon Cook Strait, the passage that separates the North and South Islands. On a clear day the snowcapped Kaikoura Rangesare visible to the south across the strait. To the north stretch the golden beaches of the Kapiti Coast. On the east the Rimutaka Rangedivides Wellington from the broad plains of the Wairarapa, a wine region of national acclaim.
Wellington is the southernmost national capital city in the world, with a
latitudeof about 41°S. It is also the most remote capital in the World (i.e. the furthest from any other capital). It is more densely populated than most other settlements in New Zealand, due to the small amount of building space available between the harbour and the surrounding hills. Wellington has very few suitable areas in which to expand and this has resulted in the development of the surrounding cities in the greater urban area. Because of its location in the roaring forties latitudes and its exposure to omnipresent winds coming through Cook Strait, the city is known to Kiwis as "Windy Wellington".
More than most cities, life in Wellington is dominated by its central business district (CBD). Approximately 62,000 people work in the CBD, only 4,000 fewer than work in
Auckland's CBD, despite that city having three times Wellington's population. Wellington's cultural and nightlife venues concentrate in Courtenay Place and surroundings located in the southern part of the CBD, making the inner citysuburb of Te Arothe largest entertainment destination in New Zealand.
Wellington has a median income well above the average in New Zealand [cite web|url=http://www2.careers.govt.nz/life_wellington.html|title=Living in Wellington|publisher=Career Services|date=
1 May 2007] and a much higher proportion of people with tertiary qualifications than the national average. [cite web|url=http://www.wellington.govt.nz/aboutwgtn/glance/census/occupation.html|title=Wellington Facts & Figures - Census Summaries - 2006 - Occupation & Qualifications|publisher= Statistics New Zealand]
Wellington has a reputation for its picturesque natural harbour and green hillsides adorned with tiered suburbs of colonial villas. The CBD is sited close to Lambton Harbour, an arm of
Wellington Harbour. Wellington Harbour lies along an active geological fault, which is clearly evident on its straight western coast. The land to the west of this rises abruptly, meaning that many of Wellington's suburbs sit high above the centre of the city.
There is a network of bush walks and reserves maintained by the Wellington City Council and local volunteers. The Wellington region has convert|500|km2|sqmi|-1 of regional parks and forests.
In the east is the
Miramar Peninsula, connected to the rest of the city by a low-lying isthmus at Rongotai, the site of Wellington International Airport. The narrow entrance to Wellington is directly to the east of the Miramar Peninsula, and contains the dangerous shallows of Barrett Reef, where many ships have been wrecked (most famously the inter-island ferry Wahine in 1968).
On the hill west of the city centre are Victoria University and
Wellington Botanic Garden. Both can be reached by a funicularrailway, the Wellington Cable Car.
Wellington Harbour has three islands:
Matiu/Somes Island, Makaro/Ward Islandand Mokopuna Island. Only Matiu/Somes Island is large enough for settlement. It has been used as a quarantine station for people and animals and as an internment camp during the First and Second World Wars. It is now a conservation island, providing refuge for endangered species, much like Kapiti Islandfurther up the coast. There is access during daylight hours by the [http://www.eastbywest.co.nz/ Dominion Post Ferry] .
, and the curves and vibrant colours of post-modern architecture in the CBD.
The oldest building in Wellington is the Colonial Cottage in Mount Cook [http://www.colonialcottagemuseum.co.nz/home.html Colonial Cottage] . The tallest building in the city is the
Majestic Centreon Willis Street at 116 metres high [http://skyscrapercity.com/archive/index.php/t-121304.html SkyScraper City archive] (accessed September 22, 2006)] , the second tallest being the structural expressionist BNZ Towerat 103 metres [http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=stateinsurancetower-wellington-newzealand Emporis.com] . Futuna Chapelis located in Karori, was the first bicultural building in New Zealand, and is thus considered one of the most significant New Zealand buildings of the twentieth century.
Old Saint Paul's is an example of 19th-century
Gothic Revival architectureadapted to colonial conditions and materials, as is Saint Mary of the Angels. The Museum of Wellington City & Seabuilding, the Bond Store is in the Second French Empire style, and the Wellington Harbour Board Wharf Office Buildingis in a late English Classical style. There are several restored theatre buildings, the St. James Theatre, the Opera House and the Embassy Theatre.
Being the capital, there are many memorable government buildings in Wellington. Both the
National Library of New Zealand, located on Molesworth Street, and the Te Puni Kōkiri building on Lambton Quay are aesthetically unique . The circular-conical Executive Wing of New Zealand Parliament Buildings, located on the corner of Lambton Quay and Molesworth Street, was constructed in the mid-60s and is commonly referred to as the Beehive. Across the road from the Beehive is the largest wooden building in the Southern Hemisphere[http://www.doc.govt.nz/templates/page.aspx?id=34143 Department of Conservation] , part of the old Government Buildings which now houses part of Victoria University of Wellington's Law Faculty. The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewais located on the waterfront.
As tastes and trends in architecture have come into and fallen out of fashion, many memorable buildings have been lost.
Wellington also contains many iconic sulptures and structures.
Elijah Woodmentioned that he urinated from the Bucket Fountain in Cuba Streetin an interview with Jay Leno[http://tbhl.theonering.net/tbhlnews/news-archive-12-2003.html The Bastards have Landed: The Peter Jackson Fanclub] .
The city averages 2025 hours (or about 169 days) of sunshine per year. [cite web
url = http://www.niwascience.co.nz/edu/resources/climate/sunshine/
title = Mean Monthly Sunshine (hours)
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research]
location = Wellington, New Zealand
Jan_Hi_°C = 20.3
Feb_Hi_°C = 20.6
Mar_Hi_°C = 19
Apr_Hi_°C = 16.7
May_Hi_°C = 14.2
Jun_Hi_°C = 12
Jul_Hi_°C = 11.4
Aug_Hi_°C = 12
Sep_Hi_°C = 13.5
Oct_Hi_°C = 15
Nov_Hi_°C = 16.6
Dec_Hi_°C = 18.5
Year_Hi_°C = 15.8
Jan_Lo_°C = 13.4
Feb_Lo_°C = 13.6
Mar_Lo_°C = 12.6
Apr_Lo_°C = 10.9
May_Lo_°C = 8.8
Jun_Lo_°C = 6.9
Jul_Lo_°C = 6.3
Aug_Lo_°C = 6.5
Sep_Lo_°C = 7.7
Oct_Lo_°C = 9
Nov_Lo_°C = 10.3
Dec_Lo_°C = 12.2
Year_Lo_°C = 9.9
Jan_Precip_cm = |Jan_Precip_mm = 72
Feb_Precip_cm = |Feb_Precip_mm = 62
Mar_Precip_cm = |Mar_Precip_mm = 92
Apr_Precip_cm = |Apr_Precip_mm = 100
May_Precip_cm = |May_Precip_mm = 117
Jun_Precip_cm = |Jun_Precip_mm = 147
Jul_Precip_cm = |Jul_Precip_mm = 136
Aug_Precip_cm = |Aug_Precip_mm = 123
Sep_Precip_cm = |Sep_Precip_mm = 100
Oct_Precip_cm = |Oct_Precip_mm = 115
Nov_Precip_cm = |Nov_Precip_mm = 99
Dec_Precip_cm = |Dec_Precip_mm = 86
Year_Precip_cm = |Year_Precip_mm = 1249
source = NIWAcite web
url = http://www.niwascience.co.nz/edu/resources/climate/
title = NIWA Climate Data 1971-2000
publisher = | language = English] |accessdate =Oct 2007
The energy needs of Wellington are increasing, and one new source is the wind. Project West Wind was granted resource consent for 66 turbines, which is estimated to generate approximately 140MW [cite web|url=http://tvnz.co.nz/view/page/411415/642358|title=Makara Wind Farm] . Meridian Energy's Project West Wind is located a few kilometres west of Wellington's CBD, located on Meridian's Quartz Hill and
The urban area of Wellington stretches across the city council areas of Wellington, Lower Hutt, Upper Hutt and Porirua.
As of 2007, the four cities had an estimated total population of 382,700 and the Wellington Urban Area contained 99% of that population. The remaining areas are largely mountainous and sparsely farmed or parkland and are outside the urban area boundary.
Demographic statistics from the 2006 census are not readily available for the Wellington Urban Area, so the following demographic statistics detailed in this section are for the four city council areas:
The relative lack of older people in Wellington is less marked when the neighbouring Kapiti Coast District is included. Nearly 7% of Kapiti Coast residents are over 80. Overall, Wellington's age structure closely matches the national distribution.
Arts and culture
Wellington is the centre of the nation's film industry.
Peter Jacksonfamous for "The Lord of the Rings", Richard Taylor, and a growing team of creative professionals have turned the eastern suburb of Miramar into one of the world's most acclaimed film-making infrastructures. Directors like Jane Campionand Vincent Wardhave managed to reach the world's screens with their independent spirit. Emerging Kiwi film-makers, like Robert Sarkies, Taika Waititi, Costa Botesand Jennifer Bush-Daumec [http://www.bushcraft.co.nz] , are extending the Wellington-based lineage and cinematic scope.
Museums and cultural institutions
Wellington is home to Te Papa Tongarewa (the Museum of New Zealand), the
Museum of Wellington City & Sea, the Katherine Mansfield Birthplace Museum, Colonial Cottage, the New Zealand CricketMuseum, the Cable Car Museum, Old Saint Paul's, and the Wellington Law school (largest wooden building in the southern hemisphere) and the Wellington City Art Gallery.
Wellington's cafe culture is extremely strong. The city has more cafes per capita than New York City. [cite web|url=http://www.careers.govt.nz/default.aspx?id0=19906&id1=wellington|title=Living and working in Wellington]
Wellington has become home to a myriad of high-profile events and cultural celebrations, including the biennial New Zealand International Arts Festival, annual International Jazz Festival, and major events such as World of
Wearable Art, Cuba Street Carnival, New Zealand Fringe Festival, New Zealand International Comedy Festival(also hosted in Auckland), Summer City, The Wellington Folk Festival (in Wainuiomata), New Zealand Affordable Art Show, Out in the Square and numerous film festivals.
The local music scene has, over the years produced bands such as
The Warratahs, The Phoenix Foundation, Shihad, Fly My Pretties, Fat Freddy's Drop, The Black Seeds, Fur Patrol, Flight Of The Conchordsand Connan and the Mockasins. The New Zealand School of Music was established in 2005 through a merger of the conservatory and theory programmes at Massey Universityand Victoria University of Wellington. New Zealand Symphony Orchestra, Nevine String Quartetand Chamber Music New Zealand are based in Wellington.
Wellington is home to the National Opera Company, [http://www.citygallery.org.nz City Gallery] , the
Royal New Zealand Ballet, St James' Theatre, Downstage Theatre, Bats Theatre, the Arts Foundation of New Zealand and the New Zealand International Arts Festival, the Wellington Performing Arts Centre is also an important local source for theatre.
Wellington is also home to groups that perform Improvised Theatre and
Improvisational comedy, including Wellington Improvisation Troupe(WIT), The Improvisors and youth group, Joe Improv. Poet Bill Manhire, director of the International Institute of Modern Letters, has turned the Creative Writing Programme at Victoria University of Wellingtoninto a forge of new literary activity. Te Whaea, New Zealand's university-level school of dance and drama, and tertiary institutions such as The Learning Connexion, offer training and creative development.
From 1936 Wellington was home to the
National Art Gallery of New Zealandup until 1992 when it was amalgamated into Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Wellington is also home to the New Zealand Academy of Fine Arts. The city's new arts centre, Toi Poneke, serves as a nexus of creative projects, collaborations, and multi-disciplinary production. Arts Programmes and Services Manager Eric Vaughn Holowacz and a small team based in the Abel Smith Street facility have produced ambitious new initiatives such as Opening Notes, Drive by Art, the annual Artsplash Festival, and new public artprojects. The city is also home to experimental arts publication White Fungus Magazine.
Wellington is served to the north by both State Highway 1 in the west, and State Highway 2 in the east, meeting at the
Ngauranga Interchangenorth of the city centre, where State Highway 1 takes the traffic into the city, and further to the airport. Road access into the capital is lower in grade that most other cities in New Zealand - between Wellington and the Kapiti Coast, State Highway 1 travels along the Centennial Highway, an narrow accident-prone section of road, and between Wellington and Wairarapa, State Highway 2 must transverse the Rimutaka Rangeson a similar narrow accident-prone road. Wellington does have two short motorways: the Johnsonville-Porirua Motorwayand the Wellington Urban Motorway, which in combination with a small non-motorway section in the Ngauranga Gorge, connect Porirua with Wellington City.
Bus transport in Wellington is supplied by several different operators under the control of Metlink Wellington. Buses serve almost every part of Wellington City, with most of them connecting with each other along the "Golden Mile", a section running from
Wellington Railway Stationto Courtenay Place.Wellington lies at the southern end of the North Island Main Trunk Railway(NIMT) and the Wairarapa Line, with both lines converging at Wellington Railway Stationat the northern end of central Wellington. Two long-distance services leave from Wellington Railway Station: the Capital Connection, which allows commuters to travel between Wellington and Palmerston North, and The Overlander, which connect Wellington to Auckland.
Four electrified suburban lines radiate out of Wellington Railway Station to the outer suburbs - the
Johnsonville Linetravels north to the northern Wellington City suburbs, ending at Johnsonville; the Paraparaumu Linetravels along the NIMT to Porirua and to Paraparaumu on the Kapiti Coast; the Melling Linetravels to the Lower Hutt City centre via Petone, and the Hutt Valley Linetravels along the Wairarapa Line via Waterloo and Taita to Upper Hutt. A diesel-hauled carriage service, known as the Wairarapa Connection, connects several times daily to Masterton in the Wairarapa, via the convert|8.8|km|adj=on long Rimutaka Tunnel.
Wellington is the northern terminus of
Cook Strait ferriesconnecting to Picton in the South Island, with services provided by both state-owned Interislanderand private Bluebridge. Local ferries connect Wellington City with Eastbourne and Petone. Wellington International Airportis the city's major airport, and lies convert|6|km south-east of the city. The airport is serviced by flights from across New Zealand, and several flights to Australiaand the Pacific Islands. Flights to other international destinations require a transfer at another airport, as many larger aircraft cannot use Wellington's short (convert|1936|m|disp=/|adj=on) runway.
Wellington is the home to:
* The Hurricanes -
Super 14rugby team representing the Lower North Island, primarily based in Wellington
* Wellington Lions -
Air New Zealand Cuprugby team
Wellington Phoenix FC- Football club playing in the Australian A-League
Team Wellington- Wellington's franchise in the New Zealand Football Championship
Central Pulse- netballfranchise representing the Lower North Island in the ANZ Championship, primarily based in Wellington
Wellington Firebirdsand Wellington Blaze - men's and women's cricketteams
Wellington Saints- The National Basketball League basketballteam
Sporting events hosted in Wellington include:
Wellington Sevens- a round of the IRB Sevens World Series. Held at the Westpac Stadiumover a weekend every February, this rugby sevenstournament contributes $6.8 million to the local economy each year.
* the World Mountain Running Championships in 2005.
Wellington 500street race for touring cars, between 1985 and 1996
"smaller|(Alphabetically by surname)"
Ivan Bootham- novelist, short storywriter, poet and composer
* John Campbell - broadcaster and news journalist
Jane Campion- Oscar winning film-maker
Jemaine Clement- musician, member of Flight of the Conchords
Robin Cooke, Baron Cooke of Thorndon(dec) - barrister and jurist
Russell Coutts- professional sailor
Russell Crowe- Oscar-winning actor
Rod Drury- technology entrepreneur
Lauris Edmond(dec) - poet
Brooke Fraser- multi-platinum selling singer
Patricia Grace- writer
Peter Jackson- Oscar-winning film-maker
* Lloyd Jones - award winning writer
Raybon Kan- comedian
Elizabeth Knox- celebrated author
Ben Lummis- singer, 2004 New Zealand Idolwinner
Alan MacDiarmid(dec) - scientist
Katherine Mansfield(dec) - writer
Jack Marshall(dec) - former Prime Minister
Bret McKenzie- musician, member of Flight of the Conchords
Melissa Moon- two time world mountain running champion
* Sam Morgan - founder of online auction site "TradeMe"
Anna Paquin- Oscar-winning actress
William Hayward Pickering(dec) - electrical engineer, former head of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California
Antonia Prebble- actress
John Psathas- composer
Christopher Pugsley- writer
Wynton Rufer- footballer
Jonathan Sarfati- chess masterand author, raised in Wellington
* Tom Scott - cartoonist, political commentator
* Richard Taylor - head of film prop and
special effects company Weta Workshop. Multiple Oscar winner.
Jon Toogood- singer and guitarist for the rock band Shihad
Tana Umaga- former captain of the All Blacks
Karl Urban- actor
Rosita Vai- singer, 2005 New Zealand Idolwinner
Peter Vincent- entrepreneur, founder/CEO of Vincent Aviation, NZ's only 100% Kiwi owned international airline
Fran Walsh- Oscar-winning screenwriter
* [http://www.gw.govt.nz Greater Wellington Regional Council]
* [http://www.wellingtonnz.com Official NZ Tourism website for Wellington]
* [http://www.wellington.govt.nz Wellington City Council]
* [http://www.teara.govt.nz/Places/Wellington/ Wellington] in Te Ara the Encyclopedia of New Zealand
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