- Lower Hutt
Lower Hutt ( _mi. Awakairangi) is a
cityin the Wellington region of New Zealand. Its council has adopted the name "Hutt City Council", but neither the New Zealand Geographic Board nor the Local Government Act recognise the name Hutt City. This alternative name can lead to confusion, as there are two cities in the Hutt Valley, Lower Hutt and Upper Hutt. The Upper Hutt City Council objects to the name of "Hutt City". The former "Hutt County" included much of the area of both Upper Hutt and Lower Hutt.
Lower Hutt is in the Wellington Region. It is the tenth largest city in New Zealand in population, and covers an area of 376.74 km².
The city centres on the lower (southern) valley of the Hutt River, to the northeast of
Wellington. The valley widens as the river nears its mouth, so the central urban area of the city forms a triangle with its longest side along the shoreline. In the upper reaches of the city the Western and Eastern Hutt Hills become closer, culminating in the Taita Gorgeat the northern end of Lower Hutt, separating the city from neighbouring Upper Hutt.
Lower Hutt includes the cluster of small settlements that extend down the eastern coast of
Wellington Harbour. These include the two large townships of Wainuiomata(inland) and Eastbourne (on the coast). The city also includes a large area of sparsely-populated land to the east of the harbour, extending to Pencarrow Head and into the Rimutaka Ranges.
Lower Hutt includes the islands in Wellington Harbour, the largest of which,
Matiu/Somes Island, is commonly referred to by its former name of Somes Island.
The Hutt River is one of the most significant features of the city, which occupies the lower regions of its flood plain. In the 20th century
stopbanks were built to contain the river, but the threat of flooding as the result of heavy rainfall persists. In 1985 the river bursts its banks, and since then floods have been on a smaller scale. Smaller streams and storm-water drains have also caused occasional problems when rainfall persistently exceeds average levels.
Much of the land adjacent to the river is protected as reserve and provides a much-appreciated recreational feature, with walking tracks and grassed areas over approximately 10 km of river bank.
The central urban area of Lower Hutt has a population of around 75,000 (95,500 including Wainuiomata and Eastbourne).
Listed approximately north to south from the upper valley: Haywards, Manor Park, Holborn, Stokes Valley, Taita, Kelson, Belmont, Avalon, Naenae, Tirohanga, Boulcott, Harbour View, Fairfield, Epuni, Lower Hutt Central, Normandale, Maungaraki, Melling, Korokoro, Waterloo, Alicetown, Woburn, Waiwhetu, Ava, Petone, Moera, Gracefield, Arakura, Seaview, Parkway, Glendale, Point Howard, Lowry Bay, Wainuiomata, Fernlea, York Bay, Mahina Bay, Homedale, Days Bay, Rona Bay, Eastbourne, Muritai.
North of the Central Business District (CBD)
outh of the CBD
Alicetown; Ava; Gracefield; Korokoro; Maungaraki [http://www.maungaraki.com] ; Moera; Normandale; Petone; Waiwhetu; Waterloo; Woburn
:Days Bay; Eastbourne; Homedale; Lowry Bay; Muritai; Point Howard; Rona Bay; Seaview;
Prior to European settlement, the Hutt Valley was thickly forested, with areas of marshland close to the river's mouth.
Māoriinhabited the shoreline, with a pa at each end of Petone beach.
The Māori welcomed the arrival of the New Zealand Company ship "Tory" in 1839, and
William Wakefield(the company's agent) negotiated with local chiefs to allow settlement.
The first immigrant ship, the "Aurora", arrived on
22 January 1840, still celebrated every year as Wellington's Anniversary Day. The settlement, Britannia, was established close to the mouth of the Hutt River, and settlers established the country's first newspaper and bank.
The city got its name from the river, which was named after the founding member, director and chairman of the New Zealand Company, Sir William Hutt.
Within months of settlement the river flooded, and the settlers decided to move the new colony to
Thorndon, in what is now the heart of Wellington, though some settlers remained at the north end of the harbour.
In 1846 there was conflict between settlers and Māori, which led to skirmishes (see
Hutt Valley Campaign). In 1855 a major earthquake raised part of the lower valley, allowing land to be reclaimed from swamp.
The arrival of the railway from Wellington in 1874 and the subsequent location of the railway's engineering works at Woburn led to a rapid expansion of the area's population and economy. Other industries were soon attracted to the district.
In 1987-89 the Government forced local authorities to consolidate, which led to Lower Hutt amalgamating with the adjacent Boroughs of
Petoneand Eastbourne and the WainuiomataDistrict (which had its own independence for barely a year).
Culture and Leisure
Several education and research facilities of national significance are in the southern half of the city. Cultural facilities include the Dowse Art Gallery (now called TheNewDowse) and the former Avalon Television studios, now used for world-class cinematic purposes.
The city possesses civic administration buildings constructed in the 1950s that are regarded as representative architecture of the era. A building of national significance is
Vogel House, a two-storey wooden residence that was the official residence of the Prime Minister of New Zealandfor much of the 20th century.
The city is popular for outdoor sports, especially mountain biking, hiking, fishing, recreational walking and swimming.Lower Hutt is home to the worlds most
southern American Footballteam, the Protein Cookie Spartans.Fact|date=April 2008
Among the filming locations for
The Lord of the Rings film trilogydirected by Peter Jackson, Dry Creek quarry, which dominates the hills above the suburb of Taita, became the site for a huge medieval castle built for scenes of Helm’s Deep and Minas Tirith.
Historically, Petone and nearby parts of Lower Hutt acted as the principal area for light industry in this region, with industries including meat processing and freezing, motor vehicle assembly, and timber processing. This activity has been significantly diminished or discontinued in recent decades with either the transfer of industrial activity to the more heavily populated area of
Aucklandor cessation at a national level. Such movement has often resulted from competitive pressures on commercial organisations for increased efficiency, as a result of opening up the New Zealand economy to international competition since the mid-1980s.
Nevertheless, Lower Hutt is the main location for light industrial activity in the Wellington Region, but it largely lacks heavy industry. Trends over the past 25 years have seen service, distribution, and consumer-oriented activity replace the industrial activity previously a feature of the Petone area.
Lower Hutt also continues to be one of Wellington's dormitory areas and a significant proportion of the population commutes to the commercial and Government offices in Wellington 12 km to the south-west.
David Ogden was elected Mayor in 2004, replacing
Fauna and Flora
Hills to about 350 m (1000 ft) line both sides of the valley within the city limits. The western hills have been populated as residential areas, but the eastern side is protected and clad in native bush and scrub, and the ubiquitous
gorsein areas that have been cleared as a result of scrub fires or earlier human activity.
Native birds are common, including the
kererū(wood pigeon), tui, fantail, waxeye, shining cuckoo(in season), grey warblerand morepork(native owl). Introduced species include the blackbird, song thrush, sparrow, goldfinch, chaffinch, starling, and magpie.
Tempe was the first Sister City, in 1981; Taizhou the most recent, in 2005.
* [http://www.huttcity.govt.nz/ Hutt City Council]
* [http://www.huttvalleynz.com/ Hutt City i-SITE]
* [http://rangi.knowledge-basket.co.nz/gpacts/local/text/1991/an/002.html Lower Hutt City (Name of City Council) Act 1991]
* [http://www.ynui.co.nz/ Ynui Online Community]
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