Sergeant (normally abbreviated to Sgt) is a rank used in some form by most militaries, police forces, and other uniformed organizations around the world. Its origins are the Latin serviens, "one who serves", through the French term Sergent.
In most armies[clarification needed] the rank of sergeant corresponds to command of a squad (or section). In Commonwealth armies, it is a more senior rank, corresponding roughly to a platoon second-in-command. In the United States Army, sergeant is a more junior rank, corresponding to a five-man fireteam leader.
More senior non-commissioned ranks are often variations on sergeant, for instance staff sergeant, sergeant first class, master sergeant, first sergeant and sergeant major. The spelling serjeant is used in a few regiments of the British Army.
In most non-naval military or paramilitary organizations, the various grades of Sergeant are non-commissioned officers (NCOs) ranking above privates and corporals, and below Warrant Officers and commissioned officers. The responsibilities of a sergeant differ from army to army. There are usually several ranks of sergeant, each corresponding to greater experience and responsibility for the daily lives of the soldiers of larger units.
In medieval European usage, a sergeant was simply any attendant or officer with a protective duty. The etymology of the term is from Anglo-French sergant, serjant, from Latin servient, serviens, to serve.
Although the rank insignia of the RAAF rank of Flight Sergeant (FSGT) and the Australian Army rank of Staff Sergeant (SSG) are identical, Flight Sergeant in fact outranks the rank of Staff Sergeant in the classification of rank equivalencies. The Australian Army rank of Staff Sergeant is now redundant and is no longer awarded, due to being outside the rank equivalencies and the next promotional rank is Warrant Officer Class Two. The ranks of Chief Petty Officer, Warrant Officer Class Two and Flight Sergeant fall in-line with US Enlisted Rank Eight (E-8). Chief Petty Officers and Flight Sergeants do not need to provide the courtesy of calling a Warrant Officer Class Two "sir".
The rank of sergeant exists in all Australian police forces and is more senior than a constable or senior constable, but less senior than an inspector.
There are generally two sergeant ranks which are classed as Non-Commissioned Officers:
- Sergeant (SGT) (three chevrons); and
- Senior Sergeant (SENSGT) (three chevrons, crown surmounted by a laurel leaf)
Some state police forces have slightly different variations of the sergeant structure.
- New South Wales Police Force, for example, have the additional rank of Incremental Sergeant (SGT) (three chevrons and a crown). This is an incremental progression, following appointment as a Sergeant for 7 years. This rank is less senior than senior sergeant. Upon appointment as a Sergeant or Senior Sergeant, the Sergeant is given a Warrant of Appointment under the Commissioners hand and seal. In addition, the Sergeant is given a Navy Blue backing (which replaces a light blue backing to the officer's police badge), a navy blue name plate (which replaces a light blue nameplate), and a silver chin strap positioned above his peaked cap on his headdress, replacing a black chinstrap.
- South Australia Police have the additional rank of Brevet Sergeant (two chevrons below an inverted arrow head) which is an authorization for a temporarily higher rank. A brevet sergeant is less senior than a sergeant.
All three sergeant ranks are informally referred to as "Sergeant", "Boss", or "Sarge". However at the New South Wales Police College, recruits must address all ranks of Sergeants as "Sergeant" and this is rigidly enforced by members of the NSW Police College Professional Standards Unit.
Sergeants are usually Team Leaders in charge of an entire team of Constables to Senior Constables at large stations, to being in charge of sectors involving several police stations. In country areas, sergeants are often in charge of an entire station and its constabulary. Senior Sergeants are usually in specialist areas and are in charge of Sergeants and thus act as middle management.
Sergeant (Sgt) (French: sergent or sgt) is an Army or Air Force non-commissioned officer (NCO) rank of the Canadian Forces. Its Naval equivalent is Petty Officer 2nd Class (PO2) (French: maître de 2e classe or m2). It is senior to the appointment of Master Corporal (MCpl) and its equivalent naval appointment, Master Seaman (MS), and junior to Warrant Officer (WO) and its naval equivalent, Petty Officer 1st Class (PO1). Sgts and PO2s together make up the cadre of senior non-commissioned officers (Sr NCOs).
In army units, Sergeants usually serve as section commanders; they may often be called to fill positions normally held by Warrant Officers, such as Platoon or Troop Warrant, Company Quartermaster Sergeant, Chief Clerk, etc.
The rank insignia of a Sergeant is a three-bar chevron, worn point down, surmounted by a maple leaf. Embroidered rank badges are worn in "CF gold" thread on rifle green melton, stitched to the upper sleeves of the Service Dress jacket; as miniature gold metal and rifle-green enamel badges on the collars of the Army dress shirt and Army outerwear jackets; in "old-gold" thread on air force blue slip-ons on Air Force shirts, sweaters, and coats; and in tan thread on CADPAT slip-ons (Army) or dark blue thread on olive-drab slip-ons (Air Force) on the Operational Dress uniform.
Colour Sergeant in the Canadian Forces is not a rank of Sergeant, but a Warrant Officer in one of the two Foot Guards regiments (the Governor General's Foot Guards and the Canadian Grenadier Guards). Likewise, a Sergeant-Major (including Regimental Sergeant-Major) is not a Sergeant rank, but an appointment held by a Master Warrant Officer or Chief Warrant Officer.
Sergeants generally mess and billet with Warrant Officers, Master Warrant Officers, and Chief Warrant Officers, and their naval counterparts, Chief Petty Officers and Petty Officers. Their mess on military bases or installations is generally named the Warrant Officers and Sergeants Mess.
Historically, the rank of sergeant was severely downgraded after unification of the three services in 1968. An Army Sergeant before unification was generally employed in supervisory positions, such as the second in command of a platoon sized unit (i.e. an infantry Platoon Sergeant, or Troop Sergeant in an armoured unit). After unification sergeants were downgraded in status to section commander, a job previously held by Corporals, and the former "Platoon/Troop Sergeant"s were replaced by "Platoon/Troop Warrant Officers."
Police forces across Canada also use this rank for senior non-commanding officers above the rank of Constable or Corporal. Staff Sergeants are responsible for a unit or team within a station or division.
Kersantti is in Finnish Defence Forces the second and highest NCO rank that a conscript can possibly reach before entering the reserve. The beginning and most common NCO rank is alikersantti (lit. lower sergeant); see Corporal.
Only a few NCOs in each conscript company reach the higher rank of full three-chevron kersantti. There's no difference between the 4-month squad leader training and service time of alikersantti and kersantti; all start their squad leader tour with the lower rank and the optional promotion is based on superior's assessment of individual performance and intended duties in the war-time organization; special roles such as that of Platoon Sergeant or Company First Sergeant are typically reserved for kersantti and upwards.
A Corporal can also obtain the rank of Sergeant (and possibly above, the next rank being four-chevron ylikersantti, which is comparable to Staff Sergeant) by taking some military refresher courses while in reserve, or by enlisting to (short-term) professional service in the military.
The ranks of "Brigadier"(Corporal), "Brigadier-Chef"(Senior Corporal) and "Brigadier-Major"
There are three sergeant ranks in France, although the most junior, contract sergeant, is rare now that conscription has been suspended. In general the term sergeant is used for both contract sergeant and career sergeant. Contract sergeant is classified as the lowest NCO rank, the rank below being chief corporal.
- Contract sergeant (Sergent sous contrat): One chevron, gold or silver.
A rank used for junior sergeants, either conscripts or reservists. Junior to commonwealth sergeant but senior to commonwealth corporal. The rank insignia is used nowadays for NCOs-in-training.
- Career sergeant (Sergent de carrière): Two chevrons.
Normal sergeant rank, though normally directly recruited from civilian life into this rank, so the rank implies less experience than for a commonwealth sergeant. Normally simply referred to as sergeant, dropping the "de carrière". With long service, promotion to chief sergeant is automatic. Equivalent to a US sergeant. Roughly equivalent to, but slightly junior to, a commonwealth sergeant.
- Chief sergeant (Sergent-chef): Three chevrons.
With long service, a sergeant's promotion to chief sergeant is automatic. This rank corresponds exactly to a US staff sergeant. There is no commonwealth equivalent, this rank lying between commonwealth staff sergeant and commonwealth sergeant. The rank may be said to be roughly equivalent to, but perhaps slightly superior to, a commonwealth sergeant. The next rank up is adjutant.
French sergeant ranks are used by the entire Air Force, by the Engineers, the Infantry, the Foreign Legion, the Troupes de marine, the Communications, the Administration, all part of the French Army, and the Gendarmerie mobile, part of the Gendarmerie Nationale. Other corps in the Army and the Gendarmerie use three equivalent ranks of maréchal des logis ("marshal of lodgings" in English) instead.
In German the rank of Sergeant is known as Feldwebel. The rank has existed since the 18th century, with usage as a title dating to the Middle Ages. One important difference between Sergeants and Feldwebel exists: in a typical Bundeswehr company, only two Züge (platoons) are under the command of an officer, while the other Zugführer (platoon leader) positions are held by Feldwebel-ranked NCOs (typically Hauptfeldwebel and above). In the German Navy the rank is called Bootsmann.
In the modern German Army, Feldwebel and Oberfeldwebel have a NATO rank code of OR-6, with Unteroffizier (historically considered generically equivalent to Corporal) and Stabsunteroffizier having a rank code of OR-5.
The rank order is: Feldwebel, Oberfeldwebel, Hauptfeldwebel, Stabsfeldwebel and Oberstabsfeldwebel.
Army and air force
The rank was held by local enlisted men with the Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) and Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) Regimental Police.
Hong Kong Police Force Sergeants are in charge of a section or commander of a vehicle on patrol. Their ranks is symbolized by three chevrons and worn on their arm and/or lapel. The rank is also used by the Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force (Station Sergeant (Auxiliary) and Sergeant (Auxiliary)). There also Sergeants in the Hong Kong Police Force Pipe Band, who carry their rank from their regular policing duties.
Two other non-military organizations use the ranks of Sergeant:
- Sergeant Instructor
- Cadet Sergeant
- Hong Kong Adventure Corps also used the rank of Sergeant:
- Staff Sergeant
- Cadet Staff Sergeant
- Cadet Sergeant
India and Pakistan
In many metropolitan police forces in both India and Pakistan e.g. Kolkata Police, a Sergeant is equivalent to Police Head Constable and senior to Police Constable in the Indian police. Head Constables or Police Sergeant wear three point-down chevrons on their sleeve or three bars on their epaulettes.
In the Indian Air Force and the Pakistan Air Force, the rank of Sergeant is above a Corporal and below of Junior Warrant Officer (JWO). The rank insignia is a three pointed-down chevron. The rank of Flight Sergeant is now obsolete with the responsibilities given to Junior Warrant Officer.
The Rank sergeant is included in SNCO i.e. Senior Non commissioned Officer
this rank is above Corporal i.e. NCO Non Commissioned Officer
The Army rank insignia consists of three winged chevrons (or "stripes"). The Service Dress Insignia consists of three wavy red chevrons 9 cm wide bordered in yellow. The main infantry role of a Sergeant is as Second in Command of a platoon or commander of a Fire Support Section of a weapons platoon, such as an anti-tank or mortar platoon. Another role is that of Company Clerk and Instructor. There are higher ranks of Company Sergeant and Company Quartermaster Sergeant. Artillery Sergeants are usually assigned as Detachment and Section Commanders, as well as in administrative roles. The difference in roles of Sergeant and Corporal in the Artillery Corps is not as clearly defined as in the Infantry Corps.
Sergeant is also the second rank of NCO in the Irish Air Corps. Before 1994, the Air Corps was considered part of the Army and wore Army uniforms with distinct Corps Badges, but the same rank insignia. With the introduction of a unique Air Corps blue uniform in 1994, the same rank markings in a white colour were worn, before the introduction of a new three-chevron with wing rank marking. There are higher ranks of Flight Sergeant and Flight Quartermaster Sergeant.
Sergeant is the second rank in the Garda Síochána.
In the Israel Defense Forces, soldiers are promoted from Corporal to Sergeant (Samál, originally the Hebrew abbreviation for Non Commissioned Officer) after approximately 18 months of service, if they performed their duties appropriately during this time, and did not have disciplinary problems. Soldiers who take a commander's course may become Sergeants earlier. Sergeants get a symbolic pay raise of 1.80 NIS.
In the Italian Army the rank of Sergeant, Sergente, is the first rank of the Warrant Officers Sergeant Role, Sottufficiali ruolo sergenti, followed by Sergente Maggiore (literally Major Sergeant) and Sergente Maggiore Capo (literally Chief Major Sergeant). The ranks of Sergente and Sergente Maggiore intended for paratroopers are bordered in blue.
In the Mexican Army the "Cabo" (Corporal) is upgraded to "Sargento segundo" (2nd Sergeant) and then to "Sargento primero" (1st Sergeant).
Only the Royal New Zealand Air Force and New Zealand Army use Sergeant as a rank, identifiable by the three chevrons. The Royal New Zealand Navy has the equivalent rank of Petty Officer. Promotion to Sergeant in the New Zealand Defence Force is usually around nine to ten years service and commands considerable responsibility and an increase in pay.
The ranks of enlisted personnel in Filipino are just the same as their U.S. counterparts but, they never use "Specialist", "Sergeant First Class", "First Sergeant" (for Philippine Army and Philippine Air Force except the Philippine Marine Corps), "Lance Corporal", "Gunnery Sergeant", "Master Gunnery Sergeant" in the Philippine Army and Marine Corps. They simply start to address their ranks from Private Second Class up to Sergeant Major. Sergeant Majors in the AFP are only appointments rather than ranks.
In the Philippine Air Force, they also use Airman Second Class up to Chief Master Sergeant, the same as in its U.S. counterparts.
In the Polish Army rank insignia system there are two grades of sergeant: Sierżant (OR-6 in NATO code) and Starszy Sierżant (OR-7). The rank first appeared in Henryk Dąbrowski's Polish Legions in Italy in the late 18th century. Both ranks are used in the infantry, armoured forces, air force and cavalry. In the artillery the equivalent is Ogniomistrz (literally Firemaster). In the Polish Navy, the equivalent is Bosman (literally Boatswain).
In the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF), there are five different grades of sergeant along with apple pie
- Third Sergeant (3SG), Second Sergeant (2SG), First Sergeant (1SG), Staff Sergeant (SSG), and Master Sergeant (MSG). Sergeants are considered Specialists in the SAF. They are equivalent to the non-commissioned officers of other militaries.
Soldiers must complete their Specialist course at the Specialist Cadet School, formerly known as the School of Infantry Specialists (SISPEC) or other training institutes before being promoted to Third Sergeant. While active duty National Servicemen may be promoted to Second Sergeant, most personnel holding ranks above that are career soldiers.
Promotion from 3SG to SSG takes an average of 6 years, although there are many factors which may cause a soldier's promotion to cease. These factors include failure to pass an annual physical fitness proficiency test, poor performance, or being charged for offences.
3SGs are usually section commanders. They may also hold certain logistics or administrative posts such as Company Quartermaster Sergeant. 2SGs usually serve as Platoon Sergeants. 1SGs, SSGs, and MSGs usually serve as Company Sergeant Major or administrative Specialists at company level or higher.
- Police Sergeant Class 1 (PS)
- Police Sergeant Class 2 (PS)
In the Republic of Korea Armed Forces, Byeong-Jang (병장) is equivalent to US Army's rank of Sergeant. It is typically attained after 15–18 months of service as an enlisted personnel. The rank insignia for Byung-Jang is four horizontal bars.
In addition, there are four non-commissioned officer ranks above Byeong-Jang: Ha-Sa (하사), Jung-Sa (중사), Sang-Sa (상사), and Won-Sa (원사). Ha-Sa is equivalent to US Army's rank of Staff Sergeant and its rank is one chevron. Jung-Sa is equivalent to US Army's Sergeant First Class and its rank is denoted by two chevrons. Sang-Sa is equivalent to the US Army Master Sergeant and its rank is denoted by three chevrons. Won-Sa, the most senior NCO rank, is denoted by three chevrons and a star above the chevrons and is equivalent to the US Army Sergeant Major rank.
Army Navy Airforce
Within the British police, Sergeant is the first supervisory rank. Sergeant is senior to the rank of Constable, and junior to Inspector. The rank is mostly operational, meaning that Sergeants are directly concerned with day-to-day policing. Uniformed Sergeants are often responsible for supervising a shift of Constables and allocating duties to them. Large stations have a separate Custody Sergeant who is responsible for authorising detention of arrested persons under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act, along with effective running of the custody suite.
Uniformed Sergeants' epaulettes feature three down-pointed chevrons, above a personal identification number. Sergeants in service with the Metropolitan Police, which is responsible for law enforcement in Greater London, also have a divisional call sign attached to the epaulette, due to the size of the force.
Until the abolition of 1st Class Detective Sergeants in 1973, Metropolitan Police Detective Sergeants were officially known as 2nd Class Detective Sergeants.
Unlike in the military, addressing a police Sergeant as "Sarge" is not seen as incorrect. Constables in some forces (including the Metropolitan Police) refer to their Sergeants as "Skipper".
In the case of the Police Service of Northern Ireland, Sergeants' chevrons point upwards. This is derived from the practices of the Royal Irish Constabulary, who were a mounted police force and followed a tradition of upward-pointing ranks.
A Sergeant (Sgt) in the British Army wears three point-down chevrons on their sleeve and usually serves as a platoon or troop sergeant, or in a specialist position. Staff Sergeant or Colour Sergeant (in the Royal Marines and the Infantry), is the next most senior rank, above which come Warrant Officers. The Household Cavalry use the rank of Corporal of Horse instead, the only regiments to preserve the old cavalry tradition of having corporals but not sergeants.Informally, a sergeant is often referred to as either "sarnt'" or "stripey".
A Lance-Sergeant (LSgt) was formerly a Corporal acting in the capacity of a Sergeant. The appointment now survives chiefly in the Guards, where it is awarded to all Corporals. A Lance-Sergeant in the Guards and Honourable Artillery Company wears three chevrons, belongs to the Sergeants' Mess, however, for functionally he remains a Corporal rather than an acting Sergeant (e.g., he will typically command a section). In the Household Cavalry, the equivalent appointment is Lance-Corporal of Horse.
A Sergeant in infantry regiments usually holds the appointment of "platoon sergeant" and is second in command of a platoon. Some British infantry regiments, such as The Rifles, still use the pre-1953 spelling 'Serjeant'.
Between 1950 and 1964 in technical trades there was a rank of Senior Technician which was the equivalent of a Sergeant. Senior Technicians wore their chevrons point up.
On 1 July 1946, aircrew sergeants were re-designated as Aircrew IV, III or II, replacing the chevrons with one, two or three six-pointed stars within a wreath and surmounted by an eagle. This was unpopular and in 1950 they returned to the old rank, but have worn an eagle above their chevrons ever since.
Sergeants of the Royal Flying Corps wore a four-bladed propeller above their chevrons.
In the United States Army, although there are several ranks of sergeant, the lowest carries the title of Sergeant (SGT). Sergeant is the enlisted rank in the U.S. Army above specialist and corporal and below staff sergeant, and is the second-lowest grade of non-commissioned officer. Sergeants in the infantry, for example, lead fire teams of four men. There are two fire teams in a 9-man rifle squad, which is led by a staff sergeant.
In the United States Army, sergeants, staff sergeants, sergeants first class, and master sergeants are typically referred to in short form by their subordinates as "Sergeant", except in some training environments, or "First Sergeant" in the case of First Sergeants and "Sergeant Major" in the case of Sergeants Major (SGM), Command Sergeants Major (CSM) and the Sergent Major of the Army (SMA).
Drill sergeants are typically addressed as "Drill Sergeant" regardless of rank, though this term is used depending on post policy. When serving a tour as drill sergeant this is indicated by the traditional campaign hat, commonly referred to as the "Brown Round" or "Smokey Bear". The drill sergeant will always wear the drill sergeant badge indicating he completed the school. The Army drill sergeant badge appears on the right breast pocket.
American Civil War
The rank was used by both the Union Army and the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. The same rank insignia was used similarly by both armies. Both varied the color of the stripes by assigning red for artillery, yellow for cavalry, blue for infantry and later in the war, green for sharpshooters. Some militia units varied these colors even further and had other colors including black and red with gold piping for various units. The rank was just below First Sergeant and just above Corporal. They usually commanded a section of twenty men with two corporals under him. As the war progressed these men were often in command of platoons and even companies as the units were depleted of officers during combat.
The United States Marine Corps has several ranks that carry the title of Sergeant, the lowest of which is Sergeant (Sgt). Marine Sergeants are the fifth enlisted rank in the U.S. Marine Corps, just above Corporal and below Staff Sergeant. The rank of Sergeant is the oldest rank in the Marine Corps. Once a Marine reaches Sergeant, their promotion no longer derives from a composite or cutting score; instead, they receive a Fitrep (Fitness Report). Sergeants serve as squad leaders in an infantry company while staff sergeants serve the billet of "platoon sergeant", supervising squad leaders and the platoon as a whole, and are second in command under the platoon commander.
In the Marine Corps, enlisted ranks above Sergeant are referred to as Staff Non-Commissioned Officers (Staff NCOs or SNCOs). These ranks, Staff Sergeant through Sergeant Major, are always referred to by their full rank and never merely as "Sergeant". Gunnery Sergeants are commonly addressed as simply "Gunny" informally.
Master Sergeants are addressed as "Master Sergeant" or "Top" at the preference of the Marine wearing the rank and dependent on the MOS community. This privilege is usually extended to Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) or SNCOs and above, and even Marines that are the same rank or higher. Master Gunnery Sergeants follow the same protocol but are commonly referred to as "Master Guns", or "Master Gunny".
The U.S. Air Force rank of Sergeant (E-4) was phased out in the 1990s. Previously, Senior Airmen were promoted to Sergeant and granted NCO status after 12 months time in grade; this lateral promotion is no longer conferred and Senior Airmen compete directly for promotion to Staff Sergeant. The old rank of Sergeant was commonly referred to in the Air Force as "Buck" Sergeant. In today's Air Force, the term Sergeant refers to all Air Force NCOs up to Senior Master Sergeant (E-8). An airman who has achieved the rank of Chief Master Sergeant (E-9) is referred to as Chief. This does not distract, however, from the differentiation between junior and senior non-commissioned officers in the U.S. Air Force. In the U.S. Air Force, NCOs in the grade of Staff Sergeant (E-5) and Technical Sergeant (E-6) are referred to as non-commissioned officers (NCOs), while those in the grade of Master Sergeant (E-7) through Chief Master Sergeant (E-9) are referred to as Senior Non-commissioned Officers (SNCOs). The attainment of SNCO status confers additional responsibilities and obligations beyond those of NCOs, such as the ability to be the senior rater for those below SNCO status. In this way, the U.S. Air Force places great responsibility upon its SNCO corps to mentor and develop future leaders.
Police and corrections
Sergeant is also a commonly-used rank within United States police departments. It ranks above "officer" and "corporal", and it represents the first level of management within the organization. The Washington, D.C. Police Department and Fire Departments both have the rank Sergeant though they have different roles for each department.
The rank of Sergeant is often used in corrections. It is a supervisory rank above the rank-and-file correctional officer.
Types of sergeant
"Sergeant" is generally the lowest rank of Sergeant, with individual military entities choosing some additional words to signify higher ranking individuals. What terms are used, and what seniority they signify, is to a great extent dependent on the individual armed service. The term "sergeant" is also used in many appointment titles.
- Chief Master Sergeant
- Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force
- Colour Sergeant
- Command Sergeant Major
- Company Sergeant
- First Sergeant
- Flight Sergeant
- Gunnery Sergeant
- Master Gunnery Sergeant
- Master Sergeant
- Senior Master Sergeant
- Senior Sergeant
- Senior Staff Sergeant
- Sergeant First Class
- Sergeant Major
- Sergeant Major of the Army
- Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps
- Staff Sergeant
- Station Sergeant
- Technical Sergeant
- Academy Sergeant Major
- Band Sergeant Major
- Battery Quartermaster Sergeant
- Battery Sergeant Major
- Company Quartermaster Sergeant
- Company Sergeant Major
- First Sergeant
- Garrison Sergeant Major
- Lance Sergeant
- Platoon Sergeant Major
- Platoon Sergeant
- Provost Sergeant
- Quartermaster Sergeant Instructor
- Recruiting Sergeant
- Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant
- Regimental Sergeant Major
- Sergeant Major Instructor
- Squadron Quartermaster Sergeant
- Squadron Sergeant Major
- Staff Sergeant Major
- Troop Sergeant Major
- Sergeant Pilot
- Comparative military ranks
- Military rank
- Military unit
- ^ The French military, as many others, does not use the term "non-commissioned officer" but instead sous-officier, meaning "sub-officer" (compare to German unteroffizier).
- ^ The color of the chevrons of the sergeant depends on his unit: the vast majority of infantry units use gold, but a few, such as the chasseurs alpins, use silver.
- ^ "Police Pay". Police-information.co.uk. http://www.police-information.co.uk/policepay.htm#sergeants. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- ^ http://www.joinpsni.co.uk/resources/1/PSNI%20Badges%20of%20Rank%20pictures.doc.
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