Astronomical object

Astronomical object

Astronomical objects or celestial objects are naturally occurring physical entities, associations or structures that current science has demonstrated to exist in the observable universe.[1] The term astronomical object is sometimes used interchangeably with astronomical body. Typically an astronomical (celestial) body refers to a single, cohesive structure that is bound together by gravity (and sometimes by electromagnetism). Examples include the asteroids, moons, planets and the stars. Astronomical objects are gravitationally bound structures that are associated with a position in space, but may consist of multiple independent astronomical bodies or objects. These objects range from single planets to star clusters, nebulae or entire galaxies. A comet may be described as a body, in reference to the frozen nucleus of ice and dust, or as an object, when describing the nucleus with its diffuse coma and tail.

The universe can be viewed as having a hierarchical structure.[2] At the largest scales, the fundamental component of assembly is the galaxy, which are assembled out of dwarf galaxies. The galaxies are organized into groups and clusters, often within larger superclusters, that are strung along great filaments between nearly empty voids, forming a web that spans the observable universe.[3] Galaxies and dwarf galaxies have a variety of morphologies, with the shapes determined by their formation and evolutionary histories, including interaction with other galaxies.[4] Depending on the category, a galaxy may have one or more distinct features, such as spiral arms, a halo and a nucleus. At the core, most galaxies have a supermassive black hole, which may result in an active galactic nucleus. Galaxies can also have satellites in the form of dwarf galaxies and globular clusters.

The constituents of a galaxy are formed out of gaseous matter that assembles through gravitational self-attraction in a hierarchical manner. At this level, the resulting fundamental components are the stars, which are typically assembled in clusters from the various condensing nebulae.[5] The great variety of stellar forms are determined almost entirely by the mass, composition and evolutionary state of these stars. Stars may be found in multi-star systems that orbit about each other in a hierarchical organization. A planetary system and various minor objects such as asteroids, comets and debris, can form in a hierarchical process of accretion from the protoplanetary disks that surrounds newly created stars.

The various distinctive types of stars are shown by the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (H-R diagram), which is a plot of absolute stellar luminosity versus surface temperature. Each star follows an evolutionary track across this diagram. If this track takes the star through a region containing an intrinsic variable type, then its physical properties can cause it to become a variable star. An example of this is the instability strip, a region of the H-R diagram that includes Delta Scuti, RR Lyrae and Cepheid variables.[6] Depending on the initial mass of the star and the presence or absence of a companion, a star may spend the last part of its life as a compact object; either a white dwarf, neutron star or black hole.


Location or structure

The table below lists the general categories of objects by their location or structure.

Solar System Extrasolar objects
Simple objects Compound objects Extended objects

See also


  1. ^ Task Group on Astronomical Designations from IAU Commission 5 (April 2008). "Naming Astronomical Objects". International Astronomical Union (IAU). Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  2. ^ Narlikar, Jayant V. (1996). Elements of Cosmology. Universities Press. ISBN 8173710430. 
  3. ^ Smolin, Lee (1998). The life of the cosmos. Oxford University Press US. p. 35. ISBN 0195126645. 
  4. ^ Buta, Ronald James; Corwin, Harold G.; Odewahn, Stephen C. (2007). The de Vaucouleurs atlas of galaxies. Cambridge University Press. p. 301. ISBN 0521820480. 
  5. ^ Elmegreen, Bruce G. (January 2010). "The nature and nurture of star clusters". Star clusters: basic galactic building blocks throughout time and space, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, IAU Symposium. 266. pp. 3–13. Bibcode 2010IAUS..266....3E. doi:10.1017/S1743921309990809. 
  6. ^ Hansen, Carl J.; Kawaler, Steven D.; Trimble, Virginia (2004). Stellar interiors: physical principles, structure, and evolution. Astronomy and astrophysics library (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 86. ISBN 0387200894. 

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