Muslim Kamboh (Uttar Pradesh)

Muslim Kamboh (Uttar Pradesh)
Muslim Kamboh
Total population
12,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
 India Pakistan
Languages

• Urdu • English

Religion

Allah-green.svg Islam 100% •

Related ethnic groups

• Kamboh • Shaikh of Uttar Pradesh • Shaikh

The Muslim Kamboh of Uttar Pradesh are a Muslim community that is part of the wider Kamboh ethnic group of South Asia. They are also known as Zubairi. The Muslim Kamboh are found mainly in the Rohilkhand and Doab region. They are entirely Sunni and speak Urdu. As much as half the community has emigrated to Pakistan, and are now found mainly in Karachi.[2]

Contents

Origin

There are a number of different traditions as to the origin of the Kamboh. Some Kamboh claim Afghan origin, others claim Arab origin, while others simply claim to be Muslim converts from the Hindu Kamboh caste.[3]

  • Those who claim Indian ancestry claim descent from Raja Sodakhsh of Kamboja, an ancient Indian kingdom. The Rajah was a descendent of the god Chandra Verman, and the Kambojas are referred to in the Mahabharata. They are said to have inhabitted Afghanistan, which was known as Kamboja desa, or land of the Kamboh.
  • Those who claim Afghan origin, claim to belong to the famous Kayani dynasty of ancient Iran. The word Kamboh is said to be a compound of the word Kai Ambo, after an ancestor. The descendents of this king were known as the Kamboh, and Ghazni in Afghanistan was a centre of their power.
  • Those who claim Arab ancestry claim descent from Zubair ibn al-Awam, the first cousin of the Prophet Mohammad. According to this tradition, the original homeland of the Kamboh was Multan and not Afghanistan.

Hindu Origin

The tradition of an Hindu origin seems more prevalent among the Kamboh of Saharanpur District. According to their traditions, during the early years of Islam in India, one of the groups of this clan embraced Islam at the instance of Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariya Suhrawardi (of Multan) and his son Shaikh Sadruddin. Their tradition refers to their migration from Multan to Saharanpur under the Lodhi dynasty. It is interesting that Saharanpur District is also home to a large community of Hindu Kambohs, and may be the site of their earliest settlement in Uttar Pradesh.[4].

Arab Origin

The tradition of an Arab origin is more common among the Kamboh of Etah and Bareilly districts. They generally now prefer to be known as Zubairi. Zubairi literraly means in Arabic a descendent of Zubair, and the Zubairi Kamboh claim descent Zubair ibn al-Awam. Zubair ibn al-Awam was the first cousin of the Prophet but was also one of his closest companions. He was known for his valor and bravery and is remembered as the conqueror of Egypt in 19 AH. He embraced martyrdom in 36 AH. Zubair was laid to rest in Basra, near the borders of Kuwait and Iraq. This town was named as Al-Zubair. Zubair had twelve sons and nine daughters. Three of his famous sons were Abdullah, Musab and Urwah. Abdullah was a Muslim caliph at Makkah, Musab was the governor of Kufa in 73 AH and Urwa was the first Muslim historian.

After almost fifty years of the conquest of Sindh by Muhammad Bin Qasim, Zuberis started migrating from Makkah and Medina towards Sindh. Most of them settled at place near modern Dadu. By the end of 4th century AH Zuberis started migrating from Sindh to Multan. During 14th century AD portion of Zuberi clan migrated to Delhi. Sheikh Samauddin Zuberi was a famous Sufi who led this migration.

Afterwards Zuberi family flourished in Lahore, Panipat, Delhi and Sambhal. During the regime of Mughal Emperor Akbar Zuberis also got settled in Meerut. Marehra also became centre of the family activities in 15th century AD. In Marehra “Kanboh Mohallah” was having largest concentration of Zuberis. Around a hundred of the houses at Marehra were then owned by Zuberis.

Afghan Origin

The Muslim Kambohs of Meerut, in Uttar Pradesh had a tradition that they belonged to a distinguished Kamboh (Sanskrit Kamboj) family of Ghazni which had come to India in early eleventh century in the invading army of Sulatn Mahmud of Ghazni (rule: 997 AD - 1030 AD). According to their own accounts the name "Kamboh" of the family is derived from that of their original home (i.e. Kamboh in Afghanistan--Ancient Kamboja). The Muslaman Kambohs of Meerut stated that that one of their ancestors, Hasan Mahmudi Kamboh was the Wazir (minister) of Sultan Mahmud Ghazni and came to India in first decade of eleventh century AD in the army of the Sultan. Their ancestors succeeded in capturing the city of Meerut from Raja Mai of Meerut [5]. Hassan Mahmudi Kamboh built the Jama Masjid in the city and around it stand buried the Kamboh heroes from Ghazni who fell in the attack on Meerut. The Masjid was later repaired in 16th century during the rule of Mughal Emperor Humayun. The early members of the Kamboh family built the Sangi Mahal which was later known as Permit House and another elegant palace known as Rangi Mahal-- the remains of both these once-elegant palaces are still in existence.

History

Muslim Kambojs were influential during Lodhi and Moghul rule. Miyan Jumman Khan Kamboh was "Hajib-i-Khas" (Special Lord of Bed Chamber) [6], Umar Khan Kamboh was Amir-i-Akhur (Minister of Cavalry department) [7] and Miyan Ladan Khan Kamboh was an Imam [8] and Royal Nadim of Sikandar Lodhi [9]. Shaikh Itmad-ul-Malik Sambhal was Amir-i-Arz (Paymaster General) and then Prime Minister of Sher Shah Suri. General Shahbaz Khan Kamboh was the most capable and trusted general of the Akbar [10][11][12]. He had been "Mir Tozak" (Quarter Master General/Master of Ceremonies), "Mir Bakshi" (Lord Pay Master General/Chief Military Adviser), and "Wakil" (Highest Mughal Administrative Officer, Prime Minister) of Emperor Akbar [13][14]. As a Governor of Bengal in 1581, Shabaz Khan had distinguished himself greatly and had commanded 9000 strong cavalry in Bengal when operating in Brahmputra,[15]. Shaikh Gadai Kamboh had been "Sadru-s-Sadur" or "Sadar-i-Jahan" (Administrator General or Lord Chief Justice) in Akbar's reign.[16][17]. Nawab Saddullah Khan Chanyoti was the Prime Minister [18] and General Nawab Bahadur Kamboh had been very active and intelligent military officer and Vizier (Minister) in the court of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan [19]. General Nawab Khair Andesh Khan held a mansab of 5000 horsemen during reign of Aurangzeb and of 6000 during Bahadur Shah's reign [20] and had been governor of Katehr (Rohilkhand), Bihar, Etawah, Bengal, Kalabagh and Hamuiri at different times of his life [5][21][22].

Numerous other Kamboj are known to have occupied very key military and civil positions during Lodhi, Pashtun and the Moghul reign in India. "The Sayyids and the Kambohs among the Indian Muslims were specially favored for high military and civil positions during Moghul rule" [23][24][25][26].

"The Kambo, Indian Shaikhzadas and local Saiyid nobles rose to prominence during the period under review" (i.e. Lodi dynasty of Delhi) [27].

Muhammad Umar writes: "The (Muslim) Kamboh distinguished themselves by their courage, generosity and high spirits. They were famous for their excellent manners and were particularly gifted with wisdom and nobility....In terms of social stratification, the Kambohs were counted among the Shaikhs.....Among the Indian Muslims, the Kambohs were regarded as the noblest of all. However, perhaps with a view to maintaining the purity of their descent, or because of pride of nobility, they confined their matrimonial relationships within their own groups and did not establish marriage connections with other Muslim groups including even the Saiyids and the Mughals. Some members of this clan like Shahbaz Khan Kamboh, Nawab Abu Muhammad Khan, Bahadur Khan and Nawab Khair Andesh Khan rose to high positions during the reign of Mughals" [28].

Ain-i-Akbari of Abu-Al-Fazal Alami (Trans. H. Blochman) informs us that it was a matter of distinction to belong to the Kamboh lineage during the reigns of Mughal emperors like Akbar and Jahangir [29][30][31][32].

The Kambohs held Nakodar in Jullundur [33][34] and Sohna in Gurgaon some centuries ago; and the tombs and mosques that they have left (in Sohna) show that they must have enjoyed considerable position.[35][36][37]

Distribution

The Muslim Kamboh are found in the districts of, Bareilly, Moradabad, Jyotiba Phule Nagar, Saharabpur, Meerut and Etah. In Moradabad District, they are found in the towns of Sambhal and Hasanpur, and the Sambhal Kambohs were at one time substantial landowners. In Jyotiba Phule Nagar District, the Kamboh families of the city of Amroha have also played an important role in the affairs of that city.[38] The Kamboh of Saharanpur District are found mainly in villages near the city, and differ from other Kambohs as they are largely farmers.In Etah District, there are several families in the town of Marehra.[39] Other Kamboh communities are found in the cities of Bareilly, Meerut and Ghaziabad.

Prominent Kamboh personages of Meerut

Soon afterward, all the Kambohs except Khawaja-ud-din and Khawaja Meta left Meerut and from these two, the Kambohs of the later-day Meerut derived their origin.

This Meerut Kamboh family had produced many distinguished nobles during Mughal rule in India.

  • Hasan Mahmudi Kamboh: Hasan Mahmudi (or Mahdi) Kamboh was a Wazir (minister) of Mahmud of Ghazni (971 A.D. - 1030 A.D) and came to India during one of latter's war expeditions against the country during tenth/eleventh centuries. Hasan Mahmudi Kamboh captured the city of Meerut from its Raja Mai. Many Kamboh soldiers of his regiment are stated to have fallen during the attack. To perpetuate their memory, Husan Mahmudi in 1019 AD erected Jama Masjid adjacent to where his Kamboh soldiers fell fighting during attack on Meerut. The Masjid was later repaired by Mughal Emperor Humayun in sixteenth century.
  • Shaikh Abdul Moman Dewan: Though he was a noble from Sambhal, but otherwise was related to Meerut Kambohs. He held the office of Dewan-e-tan (Accountant General) under Shah Jahan. He performed the duties of granting and taking back the grants and pensions and promoting or demoting the officers of the Crown. Two of his sons also held the offices of Dewan-e-tan and Dewan-e-Khals under Nawab Saddula Khan Chanyoti, the Prime Minister of Shah Jahan. The Muslim nobles of Meerut trace their lineage to Dewan-e-tan Shaikh Abdul Moman Kamboh [40]. Nawab Vakar Almalik Maulvi Mushtaq Hussain (Kamboh), a well-known Muslim leader of pre-independence days, the founding father of Muslim League was also from the lineage of Shaikh Abdul Moman Kamboh.
  • Nawab Dadan Khan Kamboh: He was a governor of Lahore. He descended from the line of Hasan Mahmudi Kamboh and has his Maqbara at Meerut.
  • Nawab Muhabbat Khan Kamboh: He was grandson of Nawab Dadan Khan Kamboh and remained a governor of Peshawar. His Maqbara is located in Meerut.
  • Nawab Khair Andesh Khan: He was son of Nawab Muhabbat Khan and is the most noted member of the Kamboh family of Meerut who flourished during the reign of Shah Jehan and Aurangzeb. He held a five thousand mansab under Aurangzeb and later six of thousand under Bahadur Shah. He was conferred the title of Khair Andesh Khan and was also awarded a prize of seven lakh Dirhams. Nawab Muhabbat Khan alias Khair Andesh Khan Kamboh built the Khairnagar Gate and Fort in the city of Meerut. He also built a fine Mosque called Kheir-ul-Masjid wald Muahib in 1691 AD and founded Khairandesh Pur in Etawah and also gave his own name to Mohallas in Etawaha and Delhi. He had been governor of Katehr (Rohilkhand), Bihar, Etawah, Bengal, Kalabagh and Hamuiri at different times of his life [41]
  • Nawab Khair Andesh Khan Sani: He was son of Nawab Khair Andesh Khan. His original given name was Muhammad Masih. He held five thousand manasab and the title of Nek Andesh Khan under Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and also a six thousand mansab and a title of Khair Andesh Khan under Emperor Bahadur Shah. He built Khair Nagar in Bareilly and also built an Idgah, a Mubarak palace and many other buildings in Khair Nnagar. He also waged war against king of Bundelkhand and reduced him. His son was given the title of Nek Andesh Khan and a big fief or Jagir in Bareilly [42].
  • Nawab Khairiyat Andesh Khan: He was second son of Khair Andesh Khan. Held a mansab of five thousand and remained governor of Kashmir where he constructed a Bazar known as Nawab Bazar.
  • Khair Andesh Khan Salas: He was third son of Khair Andesh Khan and brother Nawab Khairiyat Andesh Khan. He received title of Khair Andesh Khan Salas under Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah and also held the governorship of Kashmir.
  • Afiyat Andesh Khan: He was another son of Khair Andesh Khan and remained deputy governor of Etawah.
  • Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk Kamboh (or Nawab Waqarul Mulq Maulvi Mushtaq Hussain) : He was born in the Meerut in 24 March 1841[43] and came of lineage of Shaikh Abdul Momin Kamboh who held the office of Dewan-e-Tun in Shah Jahan's reign. Vaqar Mulq did his engineering from Engineering College Roorki and served as a Law Secretary in the Government of Hyderabad Daccan for some time and then joined Revenue Department. Later he was appointed Governor of newly established State of "VRARANGLE" and with his untiring efforts, the state soon became very prosperous. Waqaul Mulq received the title of Nawab Intezar Jung from the Government of Hydrabad. Then he was appointed Revenue Secretary with the orders of Nizam of Daccan. He served as Secretary, Personal Secretary & Advisor to the Prime Minister Nawab Bashirul Daulla and eventually became deputy Prime Minister of Hydrabad.[44]. On December 9, 1890, he was conferred the title of Nawab Waqarul Mulq. On October 1892, Nawab Waqarul Mulq joined M.A.O. college in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. In December 1906, the quartet Nawab Waqarul Mulq, Sir Agha Khan, Sir Shafi of Lahore and Nawab Salimullah Khan of Dhaka organized a Mohammdan Educational Conference in Calcutta and on the same occasion, they also launched a new party called All India Muslim League of which Nawab Waqarul Mulq became the first General Secretary. In 1907, he was appointed Honorary Secretary of M.A.O. College. In the same year he resigned from the Secretaryship of the All India Muslim League on health grounds. In 1908, the Government of India honored him with the title of Nawab. It was the magnetizing personality of Nawab Waqarul Mulq which had induced Quaid-e-Azam to join the All India Muslim League which fact changed the history of Indian sub-continent. The welcome address given by Nawab Waqarul Mulq on this occasion is an important document for the Muslims. On account of bad health, Nawab Waqarul Mulq gave up the Secretaryship of Aligarh in 1912 and after a prolonged illness, he died on January 27, 1917. Nawab Waqarul Mulq also remained a member of Scientific Society since 1866 [44].
  • Other important personages of this Kamboh family included Azamu-du-din, Mohammad Muazam, Farhat Andesh Khan; Mubarak Ali Khan; Ahmad Ullah Khan; and Nawab Khan Bahadur Asadullah Khan, Altaf Ali Khan, and Sheikh Lali, Aijaz Hussain Kamboh, Sir Yamin Khan etc. etc. Azamu-du-din and Mohammad Muazam were class I Umras during Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah [45]. Mubarak Ali Khan held the office of honorary Magistrate and died in 1876. His son Ahmad Ullah Khan was also honorary Magistrate and exercised special Magisterial powers throughout the whole district. He was conferred the title of Nawab by Indian Government and died in 1892. The next representative of the family was Nawab Asadullah Khan, who, like his father, was also an honorary Magistrate as well as Vice-Chairman and then a Chairman of the Meerut Municipal Boards. He was conferred the title of Khan Bahadur in 1888 and that of Nawab in 1895 by the Indian Government. Islamulla, brother of Asadullah Kahan was District Superintendent of Police in the erstwhile provinces and his another brother Saifullah Khan was also a deputy collector. Altaf Ali Khan was from the lineage of Khair Andesh Khan Sani and was great aristocrat of Bareilly where he held a big Jagir (fief). Aijaz Hussain Kamboh, a descendant relative the Kamboh Nawabs of Meerut was unanimously elected Chairman of the District Board in 1835 AD. Sheikh Lali had constructed the Lala Bazar of Meerut.
  • Nawab Sir Muhammad Yamin Khan: a near relative of the Kamboh Nawabs, was a prominent legal luminary, statesman, politician, parliamentarian and one of the senior most members of the All India Muslim League. British Government recognized him for his outstanding social and legal services and conferred upon him the titles of "Sir" and "Nawab". A close confidant of Quaid-e-Azam, Sir Yamin Khan was a member of the working committee of All India Muslim League. He also remained Deputy President of the Indian legislative Council. Sir Muhammad Yamin Khan was also the President of the third Kamboh Conference held in Bareilly in 1936. His brother Chaudhry Muhammad Yamin Khan was also a highly educated person and a prominent Judge of pre-independence period. After partition, the family had moved to Karachi, Pakistan where Yamin Khan soon died. Muhammad Yamin was the second Kamboj member to be knighted as Sir and also was the second Kamboj member of the Indian Parliament (M.P.)[46]. He had also been a member of the Municipal Board since 1918 and served it as Vice-Chairman & Chairman for a long time. The Chairmanship of the Meerut Municipal Board remained for the first half century of its existence with the Nawab family of the Meerut Kambohs [47][48].

Besides the above, there were many other members of the family who occupied distinguished positions and served with distinction during the Mughal and British reigns.

There was another family of Musalman Kambohs of Meerut related to the above which was headed by Khan Bahadur Muhammad Sadik (born 1833 AD). This family traced descent from Nawab Asad Khan who settled in Meerut three centuries ago and was Wazir (minister) during time of Mughal Emperors. Muhammad Sadik's father Haji Mumtaz Ali Khan Kamboh who has served the Government as Revenue Officer and Honorary Magistrate. Muhammad Sadik had been Deputy Magistrate in irrigation department and received Sanad in Darbar as well as Khilat from Lord Cunning. He also received Certificate at the Imperial Assemblage of Delhi in 1877 on the occasion of Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India and a title of Khan Bahadur in 1887 on the occasion of Jubilee of Her Majesty's reign [49].

The important Gate of Meerut known as Kamboh Gate was built by Nawab Abu Mohammad Khan Kamboh (1658 AD) belonging to this family. Mausoleum or Maqbara of Abu Muhhamad Kamboh is also located in Meerut which was built by his family members in 1688 AD. There is another Maqbara of the same family containing the remains of Abu Yar Muhhamad in Meerut (1039H).

After partition

After partition and creation of Pakistan, the all descendants of the above Kamboh families threw their lot with Pakistan and migrated to Karachi during 1947.

See also

General references

  • Statistical, descriptive and historical account of the North-western, 1876, North-western provinces
  • District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 1904 edition
  • The Golden Book of India: A Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the Ruling Princes, Chiefs, Nobles, and Other Personages, Titled Or Decorated of the Indian Empir, 1900, Roper Lethbridge
  • A Cultural History of India, 1975, Arthur Llewellyn Basham - History
  • Abu Al Fazl Alami, The Aina-i-Akbari, Trans H Blochman, 1989 ed. D. C. Phillot.
  • Chaudhry Muhammad Yusuf Hasan, Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996.
  • S Kipal Singh, The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005
  • S Kirpal Singh , These Kamboj People, 1978.
  • H. S. Thind, Kamboj Itihas, 1972.
  • A Draft on Kamboj Itihaas, Roshan Din Nizampur (Pakistan) (yet to be published)
  • Rajindraraja Mitra, Indo-Aryans, Contribution Towards the Elucidation of Their Ancient and Mediaeval History, 1969.
  • Hakim Anayat Hussain Mahravi, Silsila Aliya
  • Al-Badauni, Muntakhab al-Tawarikh (trans. Wolseley)
  • Denzil Charles Ibbetson, Punjab Castes (1970 Edition)
  • H. A. Rose, Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab & N.W.F Province, 1882
  • Chaudhry Wahabuddin, Tarikh-i-Kambohan (Urdu), 1917, Amritsar.
  • C. A. Storey, Persian Literature, part II, 1999 edition
  • Statistical, descriptive and historical account of the North-western, 1876, North-western provinces
  • Leadership and Local Politics: A Study of Meerut District in Uttar Pradesh, 1979, Shree Nagesh Jha - Social Science
  • Muslims in India: A Biographical Dictionary, 1983, Naresh Kumar Jain - Muslims
  • Urban Politics in India, 1987, Mohamed Ahmad Hussain
  • Aligarh Muslim University: Perfect Past and Precarious Present, 2001, Anil Maheshwari
  • Indo-Aryans: Contributions Towards the Elucidation of Their Ancient and Mediaeval History, 1881, Rājendralāla Mitra
  • Memoirs on the History, Folk-lore, and Distribution of the Races..., 1869, Henry Miers Elliot - Ethnology
  • Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part - II, ISBN 8124110662, Satish Chandra
  • The Tribes and Castes of the North-western Provinces and Oudh, 1896, W. Crooke
  • Leadership and Local Politics: A Study of Meerut District in Uttar Pradesh, 1979, Shree Nagesh Jha
  • District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 1904, H. R. Nevill, I.C.S.
  • Uttar Pradesh District Gazetteers: Lucknow, 1959, Uttar Pradesh (India)
  • The Golden Book of India: A Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the Biography & Autobiography, 2001, Roper Lethbridge

References

  1. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php?peo3=17581&rog3=IN
  2. ^ People of India: Uttar Pradesh Volume XLII Part Two editors Amir Hasan, B R Rizvi and J C Das Anthropological Survey of India
  3. ^ A Glossary of the tribes and castes of Punjab by H. A Rose pages 444 to 445
  4. ^ Muslim Society in Northern India During the Eighteenth Century, 1998, pp 24, 25 Muhammad Umar.
  5. ^ a b Statistical, descriptive and historical account of the North-western, 1876, p 292, North-western provinces; District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 1904 edition, p 87.
  6. ^ Medieval India: A Miscellany, 1972, p 31, edited by K.A. Nizami - History; History of Sher Shah Sur, 1971, p 137, Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi.
  7. ^ Religious and Intellectual History of the Muslims in Akbar's Reign, with Special Reference to Abuʾl Fazl, 1556-1605: with special reference to Abul Fazi: (1556-1605), 1975, p 186, Saiyid Ather Abbas Rizvi.
  8. ^ Medieval India: A Miscellany, 1972, p 31, Editor: K.A. Nizami - History; History of Sher Shah Sur, 1971, p 171, Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi - India; Shershah Suri and His Dynasty, 1995, p 185, Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi.
  9. ^ Medieval India: Essays in Intellectual Thought and Culture, 2003, p 100, Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi - India; Indo-iranica, 1990, p 9, Iran Society; Hamdard Islamicus: Quarterly Journal of the Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan, 1987, p 65, Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan - Islam.
  10. ^ Islamic Thought and Movements in the Subcontinent, 711-1947, 1979, p 278, Syed Moinul Haq - Islam.
  11. ^ Discovery of Pakistan: By A. Aziz. [2d Rev. Ed.], 1964, p 71, Abdul Aziz - Pakistan.
  12. ^ The Sikhs, p 57, A. H. Bingley.
  13. ^ The Dhakhirat Ul-Khawanin of Shaikh Farid Bhakkari: A Biographical Dictionary of Mughal Noblemen, 1993, p 107, Farīd Bhakkari, Shaikh Farid Bhakkari, Ziyaud-Din A. Desai.
  14. ^ The Ain i Akbari, 1873, p 399, Abū al-Faz̤l ibn Mubārak, Trans: Henry Blochmann, Henry Sullivan Jarrett.
  15. ^ Aina-i-Akbari, Blochman’s trans, I, p 399-402.
  16. ^ Muntak̲h̲abu-t-tawārīk̲h̲, p 7, Abd al-Qādir ibn Mulūk Shāh Badāʼūnī.
  17. ^ Glossary of Tribes, Vol I, H. A. Rose
  18. ^ Kamboj Itihaas, 1972, p 79, H. S. Thind.
  19. ^ Shah Jahan, 1975, p 35, Henry Miers Elliot; A Short History of Muslim Rule in India, from the Advent of Islam to the Death of Aurangzeb: From the Advent of Islam to the Death of Aurangzeb, 1965, p 490, Ishwari Prasad; History of India, 1906, p 279, Abraham Valentine Williams Jackson, Romesh Chunder Dutt, Vincent A. Smith, Stanley Lane-Poole, Henry Miers Elliot, William Wilson Hunter, Alfred Comyn Lyall, Amil-i-Salih, III, 247, Muhammad Sallih.
  20. ^ Tarikh-i-Qaum kamboh, p 317-18, Chaudhry Muhammad Yusuf Hasan; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 244, Kirpal Singh; Kamboj Itihaas, 1972, p 79, H. S. Thind.
  21. ^ Leadership and Local Politics, 1979, p 158, Shree Nagesh Jha
  22. ^ Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, p 317-18, Muhammad Yousaf, The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 244, Kirpal Singh.
  23. ^ See: The composition of the Mughal nobility, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1993, p 70, Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc., Robert McHenry; See also: Concise Encyclopedia Britannica, Online.
  24. ^ The Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb, 2002, p 21, M. Athar Ali.
  25. ^ cf: Cultural History of India, 1975, p 261, A. L. Basham.
  26. ^ Cf: Aristocracy in Medieval India, 1993, p 124, Dhirendra Nath Ojha.
  27. ^ Some Aspects of Afghan Despotism in India, 1969, pp 59, 23 Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi - Lodi dynasty.
  28. ^ Muslim Society in Northern India During the Eighteenth Century, 1998, pp 24, 25 Muhammad Umar; See also: observations made by Saiyid Shah Hamza of Marehra (UP) on the early history of the Kambohs in his Kashif-ul-astar, ca 1277 H/1860 AD).
  29. ^ Ain-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazal, English Trans by H. Blochmann, Part I, p 614.
  30. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol III, p 120, William Crooke.
  31. ^ REPORT ON THE REVISED LAND REVENUE SETTLEMENT OF THE MONTGOMERY DISTRICT IN ..., 1878, p 50, fn, W. E. Purser, C. A. Roe.
  32. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1899, p 14, Sir James MacNabb Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven [1].
  33. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, p 180, William Wilson Hunter.
  34. ^ Punjab gazetteers, 1883, bound in 10 vols., without title-leaves, 1883, p 159, Punjab.
  35. ^ Glossary of Tribes, p 443, H. A. Rose; Panjab Castes, p 148, Denzil Ibbetson .
  36. ^ Punjabi Musalmans, 1991, p 89, J. M. Wikeley.
  37. ^ Panjab Castes: "Being a Reprint of the Chapter on "The Races, Castes, and Tribes of the People" in the Report on the Census of the Panjab Published in 1883 by the Late Sir Denzil Ibbetson, K.C.S.I., p 201, Denzil Ibbetson.
  38. ^ A Gazetteer of Moradabad District Volume XX: Gazetteers of the United Provinces edited by H. R Neville page 104
  39. ^ A Gazetteer of Saharanpur District District Volume XIV: Gazetteers of the United Provinces edited by H. R Neville
  40. ^ Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, pp 313-314; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 243, Kirpal Singh.
  41. ^ Ibid., 1876, p 292, North-western provinces; Ibid., 1904 edition, p 87; Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, p 317-18, Muhammad Yousaf, The kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 244, Kirpal Singh.
  42. ^ Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, p 318, Muhammad Yousaf.
  43. ^ According to Nizami Badayuni, he was born in 1837 but according to Saksena in 1839...see Persian Literature, Vol 3, Part II, p 383, C. A. Storey.
  44. ^ a b Persian Literature, Vol 3, Part II, p 383, C. A. Storey.
  45. ^ See: A Draft on Kamboj Itihaas, Roshan Din Nizampur (Pakistan) (yet to be published), p, 226; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 245, Kirpal Singh.
  46. ^ Tarikh-i-Qaum Kamboh, 1996, p 385.
  47. ^ Leadership and Local Politics: A Study of Meerut District in Uttar Pradesh, 1923-1973, 1979, p 43, Shree Nagesh Jha; Urban Politics in India, 1987, p 69, Mohamed Ahmad Hussain.
  48. ^ The whole above account/text is based on the following texts:
    (1) Statistical, descriptive and historical account of the North-western, 1876, p 292, North-western provinces
    (2) District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, 1904 edition, pp 87-88.
    (3) The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 18896, William Wilson Hunter - India
    (4) Urban Politics in India, 1987, Mohamed Ahmad Hussain
    (5) Tarikh-i-Qaum Kqaumamboh, 1996, Muhammad Yousaf
    (6) Urban Politics, 1987, M. A. Hussain (Ph.D. Thesis).
    See also: The Golden Book of India: A Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the Ruling Princes, Chiefs, Nobles, and Other Personages, Titled Or Decorated of the Indian Empire, 1900, p 199, Roper Lethbridge - History - 1900
  49. ^ The Golden Book of India: A Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the Ruling Princes, Chiefs, Nobles, and Other Personages, Titled Or Decorated of the Indian Empire, 1900, p 199, Roper Lethbridge.

External links

  • District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh:[2]
  • Statistical, descriptive and historical account of the North-western: [3]

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