Samma (tribe)

Samma (tribe)
Jam Tombs at Makli.
Total population
8.4 million
Regions with significant populations
 Saudi Arabia
 United States
 United Arab Emirates

Sindhi, Balochi and Siraiki



Related ethnic groups


Samma (Sindhi: سمو, Urdu: سما) is a Baloch tribe settled in the provinces of Sindh, Balochistan and Punjab of Pakistan.

They are part of the larger Jamot tribe (Jamot means Rajput in Sindhi language and speak the Sindhi, Balochi, and Seraiki. A large number of the Samma tribe live in Sindh and other provinces of Pakistan. The former Chief Minister of Balochistan Jam Mohammad Yousaf is from the same tribe, he is Sardar and head of his tribe.



Asia in 1200 AD, showing the Yadava Dynasty and its neighbors.

There are various theories about the origins of Samma tribe. Some believe they were descendants of Sam (Shem), the eldest of the three surviving sons of the prophet Nuh (Noah). According to others they were the descendants of Sam, the son of Umar, son of Hashim, Some argue that as the Samma rulers used the title of Jam, then Sammas are the descendants of Jamshid, the legendary king of Persia who could see in his wine cup (Jām-e Jam).

It also stated by the history that the Jaam are the Descendents of Hazrat Mir Masoom who is of the 22 sons of Hazrat Syed Hassan Jallaudin Bukhari and trace their origin to Uch Sharif. Hazrat Mir Masoom is also the source of information about the Samma dynasty.

Another theory makes them to be sons of Sames of Sophene. Sames or Samos I was the founder of the Kingdom of Sophene and the city of Samosata first mentioned by Eratosthenes in 245 BC. Ziaelas of Bithynia took refuge at the court of Satrap (Governor) Sames in Samosata in 260 BC. He was succeeded by his son Arsames I.

Family Tree of Samma Kings

Sama tribe migrated from Samosata and built a city of Samasata, Sind, Pakistan.

Another theory makes them out to be Jadaun or Yaduvanshi Rajputs.

(Jam (Urdu: جام) means Sardar, Nawab or King). It is not a tribe, but the title given to the leading Royal family of a Jamot tribe or state.

Between 1351-1551 C.E. the Samma Dynasty ruled in Sindh and parts of Punjab region and Balochistan, with their capital at Thatta. The most famous of these rulers was Jam Nizamuddin. The Samma dynasty left its mark in Sindh and Balochistan by building magnificent structures including the necropolis of kings and royalties in Thatta and many more ruins.

Kalan Kot Fort

Kalan Kot Fort (urdu) كلاں كوٹ قلعه: Old name Tughlikabad تغلق آباد Kalan Kot was built probably in 14th century along with Thatta. Sámúí deserves notice from the attempt which has been made to establish it as the celebrated Minnagara of the ancient geographers. It was the capital of the Jáms of the Samma Dynasty, and, according to the Tuhfatu-l Kirám, it was founded by Jám Pániya,* under the Makli Hill, about three miles north-west of Thatta.

Subsequently, the fort of Tughlikábád was built by Jám Taghúr or Tughlik, on the site of the older Kalá-kot, about two miles south of Thatta; but that, as well as its predecessor, was left unfinished by its founder (p. 272). By a strange vicissitude, the name of Tughlikábád is now comparatively forgotten, and that of Kalá-kot erroneously called Kalán-kot (the great fort), though for a time superseded, has restored the just claims of Rájá Kalá, and still attracts the attention of the traveller. Lt. Burton calls it Kallián-kot. I fear to differ from so good a local authority, but believe Kalá-kot to be more strictly correct.

The ruins of Sámúí, Samúiya, or Samma-nagar, “the city of the Sammas,” are to be traced near Thatta; and, under the wrong and deceptive spelling of Sa-minagar, have induced Col. Tod, Sir A. Burnes, and many who have too readily followed them—including even Ritter, who considers the question settled “incontestably,”— to recognise in that name the more ancient and more famous Minna-gara. The easy, but totally unwarrantable, elision of the first and only important syllable has led to this fanciful identification.



Abro (Urdu: ابڑو ) is a Samma tribe, settled in Balochistan as well as the Sindh province of Pakistan.

During the rule of Kalhora Dynasty in Sindh (1701 to 1783 CE) the Abro and Airi tribe were the ruling tribes of Kachhi (Bhag). Mian Sháh Alí better known as Sháhal Muhammad, the Kalhora king, gave important jobs to the Abro tribe in the state and divided it among his children and brothers. He himself selected his residence in the village of Habibani.

Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro started his career from this small village with the support of the Abro tribe who remained a powerful force behind him. Sardar Khabar Abro, was the first person to enrol as his follower. This small village became the centre for learning for the Mehdvis.


The Burdha (Urdu:برڑو or برہ) clan living in the Punjab speak the Saraiki language and are well aware of there culture, traditions and are highly educated vast majority is doctors, engineers and lawyers, in Sindh and Balochistan people from this tribe are also spell it as Burriro instead of Burdha.


Chutta (Urdu:چھٹو) is a Samma tribe settled in Balochistan and Sindh provinces of Pakistan. The Chief of the tribe is Sardar Saleh Bhootani (chief minister of Balochistan province). They were rulers of Dureji until Bagbana (Khuzdar) during the samma dynasty.


A Jadeja Chief in Kutchi attire during reign of Maharao Deshalji II 1838.

Jadeja (Urdu:جاڑيجو) is the name of a major clan of Rajputs. After the demise of the Samma dynasty the Nawab migrated along with his brothers and tribal members leaving their once thriving land of Nagar-Samma to parts of India and settled in Gujrat. A large village in Gujrat is now settled by the descendants of the 4 tribal leaders who were also blood brothers. One of the brothers is recorded to have migrated back to Sindh and settled the lands on the outskirts of Thatta known as Sikhaat - famous for its rose farms. The village in Gujarat known also Nagar-Samma consists of many thousand of acres of cultivatable and non cultivatable land an accurate size is not known. All these tribes are part of Sindh.


Junejo (Urdu: جونیجو) is the name of a Samma tribe in Sindh, and in some parts of India mostly in Rajasthan. Junejo are also known as Jam in some circles. They are mostly involved in agriculture-related industries and the political arena.

Junejos were the descendants of Jam Juno, brother of Jam Tamachi also an avid lover of Noori (Sindhi folklore, see Noori Jam Tamachi) who became King of Sindh after Jam Tamachi. Jam Tamachi and Jam Juno fought and those who were in favour (sons and followers alike) of Jam Juno came to be known as Junejo. Junejo literally means Sons of Juno; Jo means 'of' in Sindhi and June refers to 'Jam Juno' meaning descendants of Jam Juno, they belonged originally to dadu, thatta and badin side. Jam Sunjar was king of Sindh and his direct family history connects to Junejo tribe.


A tomb at Chaukundi necropolis in karachi.

Jokhio, Jokhia or Jokhiya (Urdu:جوکھيو) is the Samma tribe settled in Sindh and Balochistan, Pakistan. Chaukhandi tombs (چوکنڈی) are attributed to Jokhio tribes and were built between 15th and 18th centuries, situated 29 km east of Karachi on N-5 National Highway near Landhi Town. Chaukhandi cemetery, consisting of names or Quranic Verse. Some of the Jams who were named were said to belong to the Jokhio tribe still resident in the area.and the 1st compiler Mr, Ali Muhammad Jokhio of Jokhio History with coordination of Muhammad Azharuddin Jokhio (A Software Engineer).


The Unar (Urdu:انر) are a clan of the Samma tribe settled in Sindh Pakistan, who was the younger son of JAM MAHARR. According to The News International, the tribe is regarded "as the highest tribe or 'elder brother' of all the Samat tribes of Sindh".[1] The clan traces its lineage back to the 14th century Jam Unar, the founder and first ruler of the Samma Dynasty. As of 2009, the current chieftain is Jam Tamachi, a descendant of the ruler of the same name.[1]


The Simair is a small Samma tribe having villages in Pano Aqil Taluka of Sukkur District, the people belonging to this tribe are educated, religious and mostly practice agriculture. The tribe is known to have resisted against the British, who punished them by forcibly taking away their lands from them.

Other clans

Other clans include the Hingoro, Jamro, Jamot, Khuhro, Lakho, Roonjha, Detho, Marfani, Kakhrani, Rahoja, Sahta,

Samma of Gujarat

The Samma of Gujarat have four sub-divisions, the Gha Samma distributed in the Banni region, the Saheb Samma who are found in other areas of Kutch, the Chudasama, who are still Hindu, and distributed in Junagadh District and finally the Dangar Samma, who are found in Ahmedabad. They have customs similar to other Maldhari communities of the Banni region. In Saurashtra, they from an important element in the Sandhai Muslims.

Other than the Samma proper, the following Muslim tribes the Halaypotra, Hingora, Hingorja, Mutwa, Node and Theba all claim to be of Samma origin.



The Sammas of Lasbela reside in Balochistan and they speak Lasi.


The Nawab Jam Family of Sanghar belong to the Samma dynasty. Al Haj Nawab Jam Kambhu Khan was the chief of Sammat community and Samma Jam Tribe. Jam Sadiq Ali succeeded his father Nawab Jam Kambhu Khan. At present Nawabzada Jam Mashooq Ali, son of the former Chief Minister late Jam Sadiq Ali is a Sardar of the Samma Jam tribe.


was a princely state of India, located in Kathiawar, within the Gujarat division of Bombay Presidency, situated on the south of the Gulf of Cutch. The district is now known as Jamnagar.


Samma people usually speak Sindhi in Balochistan and Sindh their second-most commonly spoken language is Siraiki The Jadgal tribe of Makran and Iran speak Balochi and Persian Language. The Samma of Gujarat speak Gujarati and Kutchi.


Jam or Ja'am (Urdu: جام): means Sardar, Nawab or King. It is not a tribe, but the title given to the leading Royal family of a Jamot/Samma tribe or state.

Arbab (Urdu: ارباب): means "Boss", "Master", "Landlord" in Persian. It was a title used by tribal leaders in Middle East and South Asia. It is the title used by the heads of the Samma tribes in Sindh and Balochistan, Pakistan.

Rais (Urdu: رئیس): (originally an Arabic word borrowed by Urdu) is a title used for Sardar (chieftains, originally a Persian word "Sar Dar" meaning a figure of authority) of tribes in Sindh and Balochistan, Pakistan.

The Samma Chiefs

There are several chiefs of various branches of samma tribe but some mentioned Sheikh Sadik Ali Sher Ali Ansari Deputti collector Sind [1889] written in his book "The Musalman Races found in Sind, Balochistan and Afghanistan"

The Chief of Junejo Jam Mashooq Ali Junejo (Former M.N.A) son of late Jam Sadiq Ali Junejo, district Sanghar.

The Chief of Unar Sardar Jam Tamachi Unar (M.P.A) district Nawabshah.

The Chief of Abro Sardar Himat Ali Khan Son of Sardar Ali Hassan Khan Abro, who lives in Tarai, Taulka Naushehro Abro of the Shikarpur District, he is a 1st class Jagirdar and Zamindar.

Chief of the Numerias Malik Sobdar Khan son of Malik Sardar Khan Numerio, He is the 1st class Jagirdar in Taulka Kotri and mountain range of Kirthar Kohistan.

Chief of Jokhio is Jam Bijar Khan son of Jam Murad Ali grand son of Jam Mihar Ali Jokhio, Resident of Malir, and a 1st class Jagirdar in Taulka Karachi.

See also


  1. ^ a b "Tamachi on politics, Sindh and the past". The News International. February 22, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 

External references

  • Islamic culture - Page 429, by Islamic Culture Board
  • A History of India Under the Two First Sovereigns of the House of Taimur, by William Erskine
  • The History and culture of the Indian people - Page 224, by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti
  • The Ṭabaqāt-i-Akbarī of K̲h̲wājah Nizāmuddīn Ahmad: a history of India, by Niẓām al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Muqīm, Brajendranath De, Baini Prashad
  • Bibliotheca Indica - Page 778, by Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India)
  • Searchlights on Baloches and Balochistan, by Mir Khuda Bakhsh Marri
  • The Delhi Sultanate, by Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Asoke Kumar Majumdar, A. D. Pusalker
  • Babar, by Radhey Shyam
  • Indo-Arab relations: an English rendering of Arab oʾ Hind ke taʾllugat, by Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, Sayyid Sulaimān Nadvī, M. Salahuddin
  • The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period, by Henry Miers Elliot, John Dowson
  • Muslim Kingship in India, by Nagendra Kumar Singh
  • The Indus Delta country: a memoir, chiefly on its ancient geography and history, by Malcolm Robert Haig
  • The Samma kingdom of Sindh: historical studies, by G̲h̲ulāmu Muḥammadu Lākho, University of Sind. Institute of Sindology
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India, by William Wilson Hunter, James Sutherland Cotton, Richard Burn, William Stevenson Meyer, Great Britain. India Office, John George Bartholomew

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