Infobox Ethnic group
group = Jamot
جاموٹ, سماٹ
poptime = 4.6 million
region1 = flagcountry|PAK,Fact|date=January 2008
pop1 = 3,046,000
region3 = flag|Iran,Fact|date=January 2008
pop3 = 11,1000
langs = Sindhi,Siraiki and Balochi
rels = Islam
related = Sindhi,Baloch
The "Jamot"' (Urdu: جاموٹ ) is a tribe in Balochistan and Sindh provinces of Pakistan.


This tribe is mainly divided into many subtribes
# Jam (tribe)
# Samma
# Lasi
# Burfat
# Arbab
# Abro
# Jokhio
# Chutta
# Airi
# Bohar
# Attar

Further Divisions

Jam: The word Jam means sardar, Nawab or king its not a tribe but the leading family of Jamot tribe or state.


They live in district (Bolan, Jaffarabad, Khuzdar, Lasbela,Sibi) in Balochistan province and in Sind (Shikarpur, Larkana, Sangar, Karachi, Hyderabad, Dadu and Umarkot).

First they migrated from Arabia and came to Sindh and then some of their forefathers migrated to Balochistan.Basically they are linked to samman or Sammat.In Makran and Iran the tribe known as Jadgal and Sind Sammat too. They have spent many centuries in Balochistan and Sindh.As well as the tribe live in other provinces of Pakistan.The Burdha clan living in the Punjab speak Siraiki and are well aware of there culture, traditions and are highly educated vast majority is doctors, engineers and lawyers, in Sindh and Balochistan people from this tribe are also spell it as Burriro instead of Burdha.

The tribe also found in India and Iran the ruling prince of Junagar Jamnagar (known as Jam Sahib) belongs to sub tribe Jareja.


On the origins of Jamot (Sammatt) several theories have been put forward. They are believed their name from and are considered decendants of Sam (Shem), the eldest of the three surviving sons of the prophet Nuh (Noah). According to others they are the descendants of Sam, the son of Umar, son of Hashim, son of Abu Lahab, an uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (SAW). Yet others believe Sam was the son of Umar, son of Akrama, son of Abu Jahal, the tormentor of Muhammad (SAW). Some argue that rulers used the title of Jam, than Sammas are also considered by some to be the descendants of Jamshid, the legendary king of Persia who could see in his wine cup (magical jams).

The Jamot are an old tribe settled in Sindh and Balochistan.the sub tribe of Jamot Rulers named Samma creat kingdom in Lower Sind Sibi Kachhi of upper Balochistan and in Lasbela lower Balochistan and the Run of Kachh(gujrat) and in Multan(1351-1517). The ruling tribe Sammas were fiercely independent and rebelled against Delhi Sultanate. They reached the height of their power during the reign of Jam Nizamuddin II, the Jam Nindo (1461-1509) who is still recalled as a hero, and his rule as a golden age. The Capital of all the early dynasties was the city of Thatta. Jam Nizamuddin II or Jam Ninda, as he was affectionately known, ruled in golden age as the leader of Jamot Dynasty from 866 to 1461. The rise of Thatta as an important commercial and cultural center was directly related to his patronage and policies. The Sammat civilization contributed significantly to the evolution of the prevailing architectural style that can be classified as Sindhi-Islamic.The British East India Company had earlier described Thatta as ``a great citie as large as London". It now had more than 50,000 houses, of which many were made of stone and mortar with vast verandahs, sometimes three or four storeys high. The textiles of Sindh were ``the flower of the whole produce of the East". The international commerce of Thatta ``gave Sindh a place among the nations". The city had 400 schools and 4000 boats. The Sindhis sipped the cups that cheered and sweetly inebriated.

Later the descendants of this tribe settled in Balochistan and Sindh. The Jam Family of Sanghar belong to the Dynasty of Samo Jam who ruled Sindh in 1500AD. Nawabzada Jam Mashooq Ali, son of late Jam Sadiq Ali is a Sardar of the Samo Jam tribe .

The Jams of Lasbela reside in Balochistan and they speak Lasi.The current Chief Minister of Balouchistan is Jam Mohammad Yousaf, he is Sardar and head of his Tribe. They are the former rulars of the Lasbela state.From the early period of history till the rise of the Aliani family of the Jamoot tribe in the middle of the eighteenth century, only a few facts are known regarding the early history of Lasbela.The chiefs of the Gujar, Ronjha, Gunga and Burfat tribes, who are still to be found in Lasbela, are said to have exercised a semi-independent power previous to the rise of the Aliani family of the Jamot tribe, to which the present Jam of Lasbela belongs.

Some people claim Ronjha tribe as Indian Rajputs but the research of the Dr N A Baloch and kako Peiromall the Ronjha tribe belongs to the Jam Unars faimily wich was the first ruler of the Samma dynasty thats why 50 graves between Gunkko hill and Bawani village are said to be those of Samma are suggested by C_R Roy in annual biography of Indian archeology VOL.X11 1937. A famous ruler of Ronjha tribe was the Jam Sapar who leaves mark with his honesty and faith(Reff: Kingdom of Samma VOL.11).

The Samma dynasty ruled in Sindh and parts of Punjab and Balochistan from 1351-1551 A.D. The Samma dynasty declined and was replaced by the Arghun Dynasty. Jam Unar was the founder of Samma Dynasty mentioned by Ibn Battuta, the famous travellor from North africa. Jam Unar, the Samma chief, taking advantage of the strained relation between Sumras (Soomra) and the Sultanate of Dehli, defeated the last Sumra rules, son of Dodo, and established Sammatt rule in 752/1351.

After the demise of the Jam Tamachi Samma dynasty the Nawab migrated along with his brothers and tribal members leaving their once thriving land of Nagar-Samma to parts of India and settled in Gujrat. A vast Village in Gujrat is now settled by the descendants of the 4 tribal leaders who were also blood brothers.

The founder of the princely state of Jamnagar was the Jam Rawal, who descended on the northern coast of Kathiawar in 1535 A.D. Jam Rawal's father Jam Lakhaji ruled in Terabanu in Kutch.

One of the brothers is recorded to have migrated back to Sindh and settled the lands on the outskirts of Thatta known as Sikhaat - famous for its rose farms. The village in Gujrat Known also Nagar-Samma consists of many thousand of acres of cultivatable and non cultivatable land an accurate size is not known. The Samma dynasty has left its mark in Sindh by the building magnificent structures including the necropolis of kings and royalties in Thatta and many more ruins. Jam dynasty also ruled in Balochistan and leaves marks in Balochistan too. During the rule of Jam Nizamuddin II the Sibi was the part of his kingdom and he support the Lashari tribe during the Rind Lashar war thats why after the war some Lashari tribes enter in Samma dynasty.In the last part of Jam Nizamuddin’s reign, a Mughul army under Shahbeg came from Kandhar invading the town of Agrí, Ohándukah, Sindichah and Kót Máchián near at Sibbi. Jam Nizamuddin sent a large army which arriving at the village known by the name of Halúkhar, defeated the Mughuls in a single pitched battle in which Sháhbeg’s brother Abú Muhammad Mirzá was killed and the Mughuls fled back to Kandhar and never made their appearance again during the reign of Jam Nizamuddin.

During the rule of kalhora kings the Abro and Airi tribe was ruling tribe of kachhi (Bhag) Mian Shah Ali better known as Sháhal Muhammad (the kalhora king) gives important job to Abro tribe in state and divided it among his children and brothers, and himself selected his residence in the village of Habíbání.Adam Shah Kalhoro was awarded a jagir in Larkana by the Commander-in-Chief of Emperor Akbar's forces Abdul Rahim Khan Khanan at the eve of conquering Sindh. In those days Adam Shah Kalohor gifted this area to his devotee Panjoo Khan Abro. At that time there was a village in the west of Panjoo dero, which at the moment is present in the form abandoned mounds. Panjoo khan established a village adjacent tp that ruins, and called it Panjoo dero.

In the year 1142 A.H. (1729 A.D.) Murad Kaleri, Certain chiefs of the country near Siwí brought into subjection.known as Ganjah, was appointed as an agent in charge of Siwí, and brought into subjection powerful chiefs like Kaisar Khan Magsí, the zamindar of Ganjo­bah, Miru Kodri Rind, the chief of Shoran, descendants of Guhram Lasharí, the chief of Siwí, Miro Buldí, the chief of Kachhi, Sardar Abra chief of Nousharo, Mahyan Eri and Lahná Machhi, big land owners of Bhag Nari, Kala Khan and other chiefs of the tribe of Bazoi, the owners of Dhadhar.

Mián Núr Muhammad now commenced hostilities with Hostilities with Mír Abdulláh the Khán of Kalát.the Khán of Kalát, who was a Bróhí and who proudly called himself “the Eagle of Kóhistán” In 1143 A.H. (1730 A.D.) he marched and took the fort of Kartah from Mubárak Khán, after a severe blockade and fight, in which Ismáíl Khán Bróhí was defeated and Kákar Bróhí was killed. After these events Mír Abdul­láh Khán, the Khán of Kalát thought it expedient to conclude peace with the Mián, which was ratified by his giving two daughters in marriage to the two sons of Mián.

Unfortunately, in 1144 A.H. (1731 A.D.) a force of Bróhís, in open contravention of the terms of the peace, invaded the land of Káchhah and plundered that part of the country. To punish them for this, Mián Núr Muhammad himself marched out and encamped at Ládkanah. From there he despatched some brave chiefs to fight with Mír Abdulláh Khán. At Jandehar, where Mír Abdulláh Khán had arrived in advance, a pitched battle was fought which ended in the complete overthrow of the Brohís and the death of their ruler.

In 1145 A.H. (1732 A.D.) the Mián’s son Muhammad Marriage connections between the Kalhórah and Bróhí chiefs.Murádyáb Khán went to Khiár and Wankár with a few selected chiefs and celebrated his marriage with a daughter of Murádalí Khán, a cousin of Mír Abdulláh Khán; and in the next year his other son Khudádád Khán also married a daughter of a kinsman of his. Thus the connection between the Siráís and the Bróhís became stronger and closer by these marriages.Reff [http://persian.packhum.org/persian/main?url=pf%3Ffile%3D81101010%26ct%3D18]

A period of expansion then commenced. Mir Ahmad made successive descents on the plains of Sibi. Mir Samandar extended his raids to Zhob, Bori, and Thal-Chotiali, and levied an annual sum of Rs. 40,000 from the Kalhoras. [16]

Mir Abdullah was eventually slain in a fight with the Kalhoras at Jandrihar near Sanni in Kachhi. During the reign of Mir Abdullah's successor, Mir Muhabbat, Nadir Shah rose to power; and the Ahmadzai ruler obtained through him in 1740 the cession of Kachhi, in compensation for the blood(khoonbaha) of Mir Abdullah and the men who had fallen with him.Reff [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V06_283.gif]

Jamot People

Such were the literary and cultural heights attained by stste in the days of the Sammat. Two centuries later, Shah Latif was still singing their praises in `Sur Bilawal': ``When Alauddin came astride his furious elephants, Jam Abro tied his shield and the whole field shone with sabres. The Sammat came to the rescue of damsels in distress --- and then all was well.his some verses translated in english as

Sultan Alaudin marched with a huge force,

None could dare to face him, who would bear his strokes?

To save Soomra womens' honour, saddled his camel brave Abro.

To redress and protect the helpless ones, he rose,

No tax would be paid by those, who his guidance chose.

Others gave up their proteges but not the mountain king,

Protector of strangers, how could he give up those known to him?

This brave leader saved many a supplicants, who came to his door.

Abro is the greatest refuge of all supplicants,

He gave up all rest, to attend to the call of complainants,

He is the care-taker of the suppressed, and the weak.

Abro amidst all other leaders, a forest's shady tree resembles,

The plains where this skilled one went, none before traversed.

Compassionate and generous Abro, is the best of all leaders,

Many come to him, this king of Katch avoids them not.

Sammat, who ruled from 1333 to 1524. Jam Nizamuddin was an illustrious and beloved ruler: his 50-year reign was an age of peace and prosperity, when the mosques were all full at namaz time, when robberies were rare. Every morning when he groomed his horses, he prayed that he might never ride them out into battle. Fittingly, his tomb is the finest at Makli — an exquisite marriage of ornate carving and elegant simplicity.

The ancient Jamot tradition of Saam (protection) was in vogue. The following contemporary evidence exists.Abro, the protector of Soomra womenfolk in DastanDodo-Chanesar, says.

As Nawab Bugti Said "The people of Jam Mohammad Yousaf's Jamoot tribe might also be there in these organizations," Nawab Bugti said, adding that people of all Baloch tribes had started joining the BLA and the BLF.Reff [http://www.dawn.com/2005/02/09/top2.htm]

See also

* Jam (tribe)
* The Great Jam Nizamuddin II
* Battle of Fatehpur (1519)
* Samma
* Las Bela (princely state)
* Jam Sahib
* Makli
* Lasi
* Abro
* jadgal


* Gezeter of india [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V06_283.gif]
* History of Sind (Dr N A Baloch)
* Tarikh-e-Balochistan (Roy bahadur Hathuram)
* History of Islam (Dr Sarwat Solat)
* Kingdom of Sammas by Gulam Mohammad Lakho
* The Chach Nama- English translation by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Delhi Reprint, 1979.
* Tarikh-i Hind Wa Sindh, Arabic (تاريخ الهند والسند )

External links

* [http://persian.packhum.org/persian/main?url=pf%3Ffile%3D81101010%26ct%3D18 A History of Sind, Volume II, Translated from Persian Books by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg, chpt. 14]

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