official_name = Pagename
other_name = Al Baṣrah
native_name = ArB|البصرة
image_caption = Basra city
map_caption = Location of Basra
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = Iraq
subdivision_type1 = Governorate
established_title = Founded
established_date = 636 CE
unit_pref = Imperial
population_total = 2,600,000|population_density_sq_mi =
latd=30 |latm=30 |lats= |latNS=N
longd=47 |longm=49 |longs= |longEW=E
footnotes = Otheruses4|the city of Basra|the card game of the same name|Basra (game)dablink|For the archaeological site in Morocco see:
Basra (ArB|البصرة; BGN: Al.Basrah, also called Basorah, Abillah and Uruk), or IRAQ: The name that British colony has adopted for Basra, Baghdad, and Mosul states after
British Mandate of Mesopotamiaand Sykes–Picot Agreementto create Kingdom of Iraq1921. Albasra is the second largest province in Iraq, with an estimated population of 2,600,000 while the population of Basra City was 1,880,100 in 2003. [http://hhcom1.co.cc/english/Basrah.html] The capital city of Basra Provinceis Basra City, and, since they share the same name, many people cannot distinguish between the two. Basra has Iraq's main ports. Basra is also the location of the Garden of Eden, Sumeria, as well as home to Sinbadthe sailor. It also played an important role in early Islamic history, being built in 636 CE, or 14 AH.
The city is located along the
Shatt al-Arabwaterway near the Persian Gulf, km to mi|55 from the Persian Gulf and km to mi|545 from Baghdad, Iraq's capital and largest city.
The area surrounding Basra has substantial
petroleumresources and many oil wells. The city also has an international airport, which recently began restored service to Baghdad with Iraqi Airways—the nation's flag airline. Basra is in a fertile agricultural region, with major products including rice, maize corn, barley, pearl millet, wheat, dates, and livestock. The city's oil refinery has a production capacity of about 140,000 barrels a day (22,300 m³).
Muslim adherents of the area are primarily members of the Jafari Shi`a sect. A sizable number of Sunnis, 35% [http://www.fnoor.com/fn1923.htm موقع فيصل نور - نسبة السنة والشيعة في العراق ] ] of Basra, also live there—although after the war it decreased to less than 10%, as well as a small number of Christians. There are also remnants of the pre-Islamic
gnosticsect of Mandaeans, whose headquarters were in the area formerly called Suk esh-Sheikh.
A network of
canals flowed through the city, giving it the nickname "The Venice of the Middle East" at least at high tide. The tides at Basra fall by about m to ft|2.7. Fact|date=March 2007 For a long time, Basra was known for the superior quality of its dates. ["Produced the finest dates known" 1st paragraph. [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Basra] retrieved 08/26/2007]
Islamic theology and scholarship
Wael Hallaqnotes that by contrast with Medina (and to a lesser extent Syria), in Iraq there was no unbroken Muslim population dating back to the Prophet's time. Therefore, Maliki (and Azwaʿi) appeals to the practice ("ʿamal") of the community could not apply. Instead, the people of `Iraq relied upon those Companions of the Prophet who settled there, and upon such factions of the Hijaz whom they respected most.
Shirazi's "Tabaqat", which
Wael Hallaqlabels "an important early biographical work dedicated to jurists", covered 84 "towering figures" of Islamic jurisprudence, to which Basra contributed 17. It was therefore a center surpassed only by Medina (with 22) and Kufa (20). Among the Companions who settled in Basra were Abu Musa and ` Anas ibn Malik. Among its jurists, Hallaq singles out Muhammad ibn Sirin, Abu `Abd Allah Muslim ibn Yasar, and Abu Ayyub al-Sakhtiyani. Qatada ibn Di`ama(680-736) attained respect as a traditionist and Qur'anic interpreter. In the late 750s, Sawwar ibn Abd Allahbegan the practice of paying salaries to the court's witnesses and assistants, ensuring their impartiality. Hammad ibn Salama(d. 784), mufti of Basra, was a teacher of Abu Hanifa. Abu Hanifa's student Zufar ibn al-Hudayllater moved from Kufa to Basra. Basran and Kufan law, under the patronage of the early `Abbasids, became a shared jurisprudence called the "Hanafi Madhhab"; as opposed to others, like the practice of Medina which became the Maliki Madhhab. Sufyan al-Thawriand Ma`mar ibn Rashidcollected many legal and other teachings and traditions into books, and migrated to the Yemen; there 'Abd al-Razzaqincluded them into his Musannafduring the 9th century. Back in Basra, Musaddad ibn Musarhadcompiled his own collection arranged in "Musnad" form.
Basra also spawned heterodox interpretations of Islam.
Rabi`ah al-`Adawiyya al-Qaysiyya(born 717), lived there and became popular as poet, mystic, and teacher. It was also among the first bases of the Qadariyya. Qadarismin Islam corresponds to the doctrine of human free will in Christianity, as opposed to such doctrines of predestination as later proposed by, for instance, John Calvin. The traditionist Yahya ibn Ya`marattributed the introduction of Qadari doctrines into Basra to a Ma'bad al-Juhani(d. 80). Al-Hasan (scholar)developed a moderate form of this in his " Risala": God may command, forbid, punish, and test; but He does not force ordinary mortals to evil or good despite that He has the power. According to al-Dhahabi("Siyar A`lam al-Nubala" 6:330 #858), al-Hasan's student Abu `Uthman `Amr ibn `Ubayd(d. ~144) left al-Hasan's teaching circle and "isolated" himself by taking these doctrines further. In Syria, the reigning Marwanidsrelied on predestination to justify their hold on secular authority. Imam Malikin his " Muwatta" recorded (with approval!) that caliph `Umar ibn `Abd al-Azizhad recommended putting Qadarists "to the sword". Syrian hadith transmitters invented traditions of the Prophet that denounced Qadarism as a heresy, and labeled its believers and Basra as a whole as "monkeys and swine"—as sura 5 had said of the Jews.
Abu 'l-Hudhayl al-`Allaf(d. 841), the Basrans are also credited (or blamed) for the Mutazilist school, a form of rationalism which included the Qadari doctrines of al-Hasan and attracted the support of `Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun.
According to Arthur Jeffery, Basra also at first held to an idiosyncratic pronunciation of the Qur'an, which they put to paper as the "
Lubab al-Qulub" and attributed to Abu Musa. For instance, this codex used the more Biblically correct "Ibraham", as against the "Ibrahim" which is forced by sura 21's rhyme; in addition there are no Abu Musa variants recorded for sura 21. This was also the reading of Ibn Al-Zubayrwhen he came to Mecca (although his variants did encompass sura 21). The likely solution is that the first Qur'an text at Basra was "defective", which is to say it lacked long vowel signs; and that Basra accepted sura 21 as part of Qur'an later than it accepted other suras—most likely during or after the mid-680s.
The present city was founded in 636 as an encampment and garrison for the Arab tribesmen constituting the armies of amir `
Umar ibn al-Khattab, a few kilometres south of the present city, where a tellstill marks its site. While defeating the Sassanidforces there, the Muslim commander Utba ibn Ghazwan first set up camp there on the site of an old Persian settlement called Vaheštābād Ardašīr, which was destroyed by the Arabs [according to " Encyclopædia Iranica", E. Yarshater, Columbia University, p851 ] . The name Al-Basrah, which in Arabic means "the over watching" or "the seeing everything", was given to it because of its role as a Military base against the Sassanidempire. Other sources however say its name originates from the Persian word Bas-rāh or Bassorāh meaning "where many ways come together" [See Mohammadi Malayeri, M. "Dil-i Iranshahr".] .
639: Abu-Musa al-Asha'ari
Umarestablished this encampment as a city with five districts, and appointed Abu-Musa al-Asha'arias its first governor. Abu Musa led the conquest of Khuzestanfrom 639 to 642. After this, `Umar ordered him to aid `Uthman ibn Abu al-`As, then fighting Iran from a new, more easterly "misr" at Tawwaj.
650: `Abdallah ibn `Amir
In 650, the amir `
Uthmanreorganised the Persian frontier, installed `Abdallah ibn `Amir as Basra's governor, and put the invasion's southern wing under Basra's responsibility. Ibn `Amir led his forces to their final victory over Yazdegard III, king of Persia. Basra accordingly had few quarrels with `Uthman and so, in 656, sent few men to the embassy against him. On `Uthman's murder, Basra refused to recognise ` Ali ibn Abu Talib; instead supporting the Meccan aristocracy then led by `Aisha, al-Zubayr, and Talha. `Ali defeated this force at the Battle of the Camel.
In 656, the Sayabiga (possibly of Indian/Indonesian origin) were ordered to guard the treasury.
6??: `Uthman ibn Hanif
Ali first installed `Uthman ibn Hanif as Basra's governor and then `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas. These men held the city for `Ali until the latter's death in 661.
661: Umayyad `Abd Allah
Sufyanidsheld Basra until Yazid I's death in 683. Their first governor there was an Umayyad `Abd Allah, who proved to be a great general (under him, Kabul was forced to pay tribute) but a poor mayor.
661: Ziyad ibn Abu Sufyan
In 664, Mu`awiyah replaced him with
Ziyad ibn Abu Sufyan, often called "Ibn Abihi (son of his own [unknown] father)", who became famed for his Draconian methods of public order.
673: Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad
On Ziyad's death in 673, his son
Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyadbecame governor. In 680, Yazid Iordered Ubayd Allah to keep order in Kufa as a reaction to Hussein ibn `Ali's popularity there; Hussein had already fled, and so Ubayd Allah executed Hussein's cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel.
684: Abd-Allah ibn al-Harith
Abd Allah ibn Zubayrwas hailed as the new caliphin the Hijaz. In 684 the Basrans forced Ubayd Allahto take shelter with Mas'ud al-Azdiand chose Abd Allah ibn al-Harithas their governor. Ibn al-Harith swiftly recognised Ibn al-Zubayr's claim, and Ma'sud made a premature and fatal move on Ubayd Allah's behalf; and so `Ubayd Allah felt obliged to flee.
Ibn al-Harith spent his year in office trying to put down
Nafi' ibn al-Azraq's Kharijite uprising in Khuzestan. Islamic tradition condemns him as feckless abroad and corrupt at home, but praises him on matters of doctrine and prayer.
684: Umar ibn Ubayd Allah
In 685, Ibn al-Zubayr required a practical man, and so appointed Umar ibn Ubayd Allah ibn Ma'mar [(Madelung p. 303-4)]
684: Mus`ab ibn al-Zubayr
Finally, Ibn al-Zubayr appointed his own brother Mus`ab. In 686, the self-proclaimed prophet
Mukhtarled an insurrection at Kufa, and put an end to Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad near Mosul. In 687, Mus`ab defeated Mukhtar, with the help of Kufans whom Mukhtar had exiled [(Brock p.66)] .
Abd al-Malikreconquered Basra in 691, and Basra remained loyal to his governor al-Hajjaj during Ibn Ash`ath's mutiny 699-702. However, Basra did support the rebellion of Yazid ibn al-Muhallab against Yazid IIduring the 720s. In the 740s, Basra fell to al-Saffahof the `Abbasids.
During the time of the Abbasid dynasty Basra became an intellectual center as it was the home city of the Arab universal genius
Ibn al-Haytham, the Arab literary giant al-Jahiz, and the Sufimystic Rabia Basri. Zanj Rebellionled by Ali bin Muhammad, or Sahib az-Zanji
This was a rebellion by the low land slaves who were agricultural slaves, brought from different fringes of the empire.
In 871, the Zanj sacked Basra.
In 923, the Qarmatians, an extremist Muslim sect, invaded and devastated Basra (Encyclopaedia Britannica).
In 965, Alhazen, was born in Basra.
From 945 to 1055, a Buwayhid dynasty ruled Baghdad and most of Iraq (from Buwayhid page). Abu al Qasim al Baridis, who still controlled Basra and Wasit, were defeated and their lands taken by the Buyids in 947.
Sanad Al-Daula (al-habashi) was the governor of Basra and built a library of 15,000 books.Diya' al-Daula was the Buyid ruler of Basra during the 980s. He was the son of 'Adud al-Daula: see Samsam al-Daula page for more details as there appears to have been a great deal of rivalry in the al-Daula group.
The Great Friday Mosque was constructed in Basra.
In 1122, Zengi received Basra as a fief. (Penny Encyclopedia)
In 1126, Zengi suppressed a revolt.
In 1129, Dabis looted the Basra state treasury.
A 1200 map "on the eve of the Mongol invasions" shows the Abbasid Caliphate as ruling lower Iraq, and presumably Basra.
In 1258, the Mongols sacked Bagdhad and end Abbasid reign. By some accounts, Basra capitulated to the Mongols to avoid a massacre.
The Mamluk Bahri Dynasty map (1250–1382) shows Basra as being under their area of control, and the Mongol Dominions map (1300-1405) shows Basra as being under "their" control.
In 1290, Buscarello_de_Ghizolfi page: internal fight erupted at the Persian Gulf port of Basra among the Geneose (between the Guelfe and the Gibelin families).
In 1327, Ibn Battuta visited Basra, which was in decline with the great mosque being 2 miles out of town. An Ilkhanid Governor received him.
In 1411, Jalayrid leader was ousted from Basra by Kara Koyunlu of the Black Sheep Turkmen.
In 1523, the Portuguese Antonio Tenreiro crossed from Aleppo to Basra.
By 1546, the Turks had reached Basra.
In 1550, the Portuguese threatened Basra.
In 1624, the Portuguese assisted Basra Pasha in repelling a Persian invasion. The Portuguese were granted a share of customs and freedom from tolls.
From about 1625 until 1668, Basra and the Delta marshlands were in the hands of local chieftains independent of the Ottoman administration at Baghdad.
1668: Ottoman Empire
Basra was, for a long time, a flourishing commercial and cultural center, until it was captured by the
Ottoman Empirein 1668, after which it declined in importance, but it was fought over by Turks and Persiansand was the scene of repeated attempts at resistance.
1911: Ottoman Empire
In 1911, the "Encyclopaedia Britannica" reported some Jews and a few Christians living in Basra, but no Turks other than Ottoman officials. The wealthiest and most influential personage in Basra was the "nakib", or marshal of the nobility (i.e. descendants of the family of the prophet, who are entitled to wear the green turban). In 1884 the Ottomans responded to local pressure from the
Shi'as of the south by detaching the southern districts of the Baghdad vilayet and creating a new vilayet of Basra.
1914 : World War I
1939 : World War II
World War IIit was an important port through which flowed much of the equipment and supplies sent to Russiaby the other allies. At the end of the second world war the population was some 93,000 people.
1945-1990: peacetime and the Iran–Iraq War
University of Basrahwas founded in 1964.
By 1977, the population had risen to a peak population of some 1.5 million. The population declined during the
Iran–Iraq War, being under 900,000 in the late 1980s, possibly reaching a low point of just over 400,000 during the worst of the war. The city was repeatedly shelled by Iranand was the site of many fierce battles, such as Operation Ramadan.
1991: Persian Gulf War
After the first Persian Gulf War in 1991, Basra was the site of widespread revolt against
Saddam Hussein, which was violently put down with much death and destruction inflicted on the city.
1999: Second revolt
On January 25, 1999, Basra was the scene of scores of civilian casualties when a missile fired by a U.S. warplane was dropped in a civilian area. Eleven persons were killed and fifty-nine injured. General
Anthony Zinni, then commander of U.S. forces in the Gulf, acknowledged that it was possible that "a missile may have been errant". While such casualty numbers pale in comparison to later events, the bombing occurred one day after Arab foreign ministers, meeting in Egypt, refused to condemn four days of air strikes against Iraq in December of 1998. This was described by Iraqi information minister Human Abdel-Khaliq[His proper name and position description appears to be in error, in that he appears to have held a more junior role at the time. Humam Abd al-Khaliq Abd al-Ghafur was Iraqi Information Minister between 1997 and 2001. The Iraqi Information Minister between 1991 and 1996 was Hamid Yusuf Hammadi. See List of Iraqi Information Ministers. ] as giving the United States and Britain "an Arab green card" to attack Iraq. [Paul Koring, "U.S. air strikes kill 11, injure 59: Iraq". The " Globe and Mail" (Toronto), January 26, 1999: A8. These air strikes, by British and U.S. warplanes and U.S. cruise missiles, were said to be in response to a release of a report by UN weapons inspectors stating that, as of 1998, the government of Iraq was obstructing their inspection work. Following the four days of bombing in December, the Iraqi government commenced challenging the "no fly zones" unilaterally imposed on the country by the United States, following the 1991 Persian Gulf war. During the month of January, 1999, there were more than 100 incursions by Iraqi aircraft and 20 instances of Iraqi surface-to-air missles being filed. The January bombing of Basra occurred in the context of retaliatory attacks by the United States.]
A second revolt in 1999 led to mass executions in and around Basra. Subsequently the Iraqi government deliberately neglected the city, and much commerce was diverted to
Umm Qasr. These alleged abuses are to feature amongst the charges against the former regime to be considered by the Iraq Special Tribunalset up by the Iraq Interim Governmentfollowing the 2003 invasion.
Workers in Basra's oil industry have been involved in extensive organization and labour conflict. They held a two-day strike in August 2003, and formed the nucleus of the independent
General Union of Oil Employees(GUOE) in June 2004. The union held a one-day strike in July 2005, and publicly opposes plans for privatizing the industry.
2003: Iraq War and occupation
In March through to May 2003, the outskirts of Basra were the scene of some of the heaviest fighting in the
2003 invasion of Iraq. British forces, led on foot by units of the 3rd Battalion, The Parachute Regiment and supported by 7th Armoured Brigade, took the city on 6 April 2003. This city was the first stop for the United Statesand the United Kingdom, during the 2003 Invasion of Iraq.
2004: Car bomb
21 April 2004, a series of bomb blasts ripped through the city, killing 74 people.
The Multi-National Division (South-East), under British Command, is engaged in Security and Stabilization missions in
Basra Governorateand surrounding areas.
Political groups and their ideology which are strong in Basra are reported to have close links with political parties already in power in the Iraqi government, despite opposition from Iraqi
Sunnis and the more secular Kurds. January 2005 elections saw several radical politicians gain office, supported by religious parties.
eptember 3rd: UK troops withdraw to Basra Airport
British troops pull out of Basra city and the palace and move to a base at Basra International Airport.
December 16th: UK troops transfer control to Iraqi authorities
British troops transfer control of Basra province to the Iraqi authorities, four-and-a-half years after the invasion. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/7146507.stm|title=UK troops return Basra to Iraqis|date=2007-12-16|publisher=BBC News] A BBC survey of local residents finds that 86% think the presence of British troops since 2003 has had an overall negative effect on the province. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/7144437.stm|title=Basra residents blame UK troops|date=2007-12-14|publisher=BBC News]
New Police Chief
Abdul Jalil Khalafwas appointed Police Chief by the central government with the task of taking on the militias. He has been outspoken against the targeting of women by the militias. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7095209.stm|title=Basra militants targeting women|publisher=BBC News] . Talking to the BBC, he said that his determination to tackle the militia has led to almost daily assassination attempts [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/7148670.stm|title=Basra: The Legacy|publisher=BBC News] . This has been taken as sign that he is serious in opposing the militias [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/7145597.stm|title=Uncertainty follows Basra exit|publisher=BBC News] .
In March 2008, the Iraqi Army launched a major offensive, code-named Saulat al-Fursan (Charge of the White Knights), aimed at forcing the
Mahdi Armyout of Basra. The assault was planned by Gen Mohan Furaiji and approved by Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki. [cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/27/world/middleeast/27iraq.html|title=Iraqi Army’s Assault on Militias in Basra Stalls|publisher=New York Times|date= 2008-03-27|accessdate=2008-03-27]
ecurity commanders removed
In April 2008, following the failure to disarm militant groups, both Maj-Gen Abdul Jalil Khalaf and Gen Mohan Furaiji are removed from their positions in Basra. [cite news|publisher=BBC News|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/7350434.stm|title=Basra security leaders removed|date=2008-04-16]
Killing of Rand Abdel-Qader
In March 2008, Rand Abdel-Qader, a 17 year old local girl, was killed by her father in a so-called
honour killingafter she developed a friendship with a 22 year old British soldier.cite news|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/apr/27/iraq.military1|title=Her crime was to fall in love. She paid with her life|author=Afif Sarhan in Basra, Mark Townsend and Caroline Davies|date=2008-04-27|publisher=The Guardian] [cite news|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/girl-17-killed-in-iraq-for-loving-a-british-soldier-816301.html|title=Girl, 17, killed in Iraq for loving a British soldier|author=Sadie Gray|date=2008-04-27|publisher=The Independent] Her mother Leila Hussein said "When he entered the house, his eyes were bloodshot and he was trembling. I got worried and tried to speak to him but he headed straight for our daughter's room and he started to yell at her. He asked if it was true that she was having an affair with a British soldier. She started to cry. She was nervous and desperate. He got hold of her hair and started thumping her again and again. I screamed and called out for her two brothers so they could get their father away from her. But when he told them the reason, instead of saving her they helped him end her life. I just couldn't stand it. I fainted. I woke up in a blur later with dozens of neighbours at home and the local police". Sergeant Ali Jabbar said "Not much can be done when we have an 'honour killing' case. You are in a Muslim society and women should live under religious laws. The father has very good contacts inside the Basra government, and it wasn't hard for him to be released and what he did to be forgotten. Sorry, but I cannot say more about the case". In 2007, according to the Basra Security Committee, 47 Basra women were killed by "honour killings", resulting in only three convictions for murder.
On September 11, 2008, during a routine tour of Basra, the Iraqi Parliament’s Human Rights Commission found up to 200 malnourished and disease-stricken Iraqi detainees locked in a secret prison in Basra. The commission’s spokesman,
Amer Thamer, stated that many of the detainees bore signs of torture. The prison is operated by the Defense Ministry, and none of the inmates has ever been tried or given access to legal assistance. Thamer said that the 200 prisoners only had access to one flooded and dirty latrine, and the commission has demanded the authorities shut down the prison immediately.
H.G. Wells and Basra
The city of Basra has a major role in
H.G. Wells' 1934 future history" The Shape of Things to Come", where the Iraqi city is at the center of a world stateemerging after a collapse of civilization, and becomes in effect the capital of the world (see [http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/w/wells/hg/w45th/chapter33.html] ).
Detroit, Michigan, United States[ [http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/MiddleEast/Iraq From Basra to Detroit: Sister Cities] ]
*Hallaq, Wael. The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law. Cambridge University Press, 2005
*Hawting, Gerald R. The First Dynasty of Islam. Routledge. 2nd ed, 2000
*Madelung, Wilferd. "Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr and the Mahdi" in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies 40. 1981. pp.291-305.
*Vincent, Stephen. "Into The Red Zone: A Journey Into the Soul of Iraq". ISBN 1-890626-57-0.
List of places in Iraq
Basra International Airport
Basra Reed Warbler
University of Basrah
* [http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/basrah_2003.jpg2003 Basra map (NIMA)]
* [http://www.polosbastards.com/artman/publish/basra.shtml Boomtown Basra]
* [http://www.san.beck.org/AB13-MuhammadandIslam.html Muhammad and the Spread of Islam by Sanderson Beck]
* [http://www.diafrica.org/nigeriaop/kenny/Theol/T21.htm Theological Themes]
* [http://www.sunnah.org/aqida/Main_Sects.htm The Qadariyya, Mu'tazila, and Shi'a]
* [http://www.bible.ca/islam/library/Jeffery/thq.htm The Textual History of the Qur'an] , Arthur Jeffery, 1946
* [http://www.bible.ca/islam/library/Jeffery/Materials/al-ashari.htm Codex of Abu Musa al-Ashari] , Arthur Jeffery, 1936
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