Nudity in film

Nudity in film

Nudity in film is any presentation in motion pictures of people while naked or wearing less clothing than contemporary norms consider modest. Many actors and actresses have appeared nude, or exposing parts of their bodies or dressed in ways considered provocative by contemporary standards at some point in their careers. Most nude scenes have been justified as being part of the story, in the the concept of "artistically justifiable nudity," while other nudity has been viewed as "superfluous" or "gratuitous".

Nudity in film should be distinguished from sex in film. Nudity of a sexual nature is common in pornographic films. In softcore films there are limitations, such as avoiding the appearance of a penis although it may be depicted. Erotic films are suggestive of sexuality, but need not contain nudity. A film on naturism or about people where nudity is common may contain non-sexual nudity, and some other non-pornographic films show some seconds or fractions of seconds of nude scenes, but the vast majority of nudity in film dis in pornographic films.

Nude scenes can be controversial in some cultures because they may challenge some people's standards of modesty. These standards vary by culture, and depend on the type of nudity, who is exposed, which parts of the body are exposed, the duration of the exposure, the pose, the context, and other aspects. Regardless, in many cultures nudity in film is subject to censorship or rating regimes which control the content of films, with the intention of limiting content that is deemed by the classification authorities and/or the movie industry to be harmful or undesirable, morally or otherwise.

For this reason, it has been said that many directors and producers apply self censorship, limiting nudity (and other content) in their films, to avoid external censorship or a strict rating, in countries that have a rating system.[1] Thus adults are denied images just because these images are not considered suitable for teenagers. This applies even for scenes explicitly about a character showing or seeing nudity. Directors and producers may choose to limit nudity because of objections from actors involved, or for a wide variety of other personal, artistic, genre-bound or narrative-oriented reasons.


Nude photography before cinema

The first entertainer to pose nude for photographs was undoubtedly the stage actress Adah Isaacs Menken (1835–1868). A series of Menken photos survive in near pristine clarity.[2]

Sarah Bernhardt early in her career posed topless on several occasions for French photographer Felix Nadar. She is nevertheless seen with her top covered in surviving stills of these sessions. At least one later topless photograph of the young Bernhardt made in 1873 survives. These nude sessions were not meant for outright public consumption but for the encouraging of theatrical employers or personal guests. Thus nude photos of women like Menken and Bernhardt are known only to scholars and perhaps theater buffs.

If total nudity was not achieved, then sheer nudity was. Skin-tight flesh-colored attire existed in the era immediately before the invention of motion pictures. Stage actresses would pose in very provocative attire leaving little to the imagination, for roles such as Lady Godiva.

In the 1880s Eadweard Muybridge, at the dawn of the invention of the motion picture, used a device he called a zoopraxiscope to project a series of successive still photographs. The photos would then be played one after the other giving the illusion of movement. Sometimes the same sequence would be filmed using several cameras. Many of Muybridge's photographic sessions using the zoopraxiscope had nude anonymous models, both female and male, and indeed even Walt Whitman and George Bernard Shaw posed nude for a session.[3] [4]

U.S. cinema


Film-making started in the 1890s, with the first feature length film being produced in 1896.[5] From the introduction of the new invention nude scenes were filmed. In the 1910s and 20s, Hollywood produced several films which were considered risqué. Various groups objected to films that contained nude scenes on moral grounds, and several states set up film censorship boards, arguing that the scenes are obscene, and other states threatened more. Under pressure, the Motion Picture Association of America brought in the Hays Code, which brought an end to nudity in all its forms in Hollywood films. The Code was adopted in 1930, and began to be effectively enforced in 1934. Social and official attitudes to nudity have eased since those days and the Code came under repeated challenge in the 1950s and 60s. In 1958, the New York Court of Appeal ruled, in the context of prohibition of screenings of films, that a film that merely contains nudity was not obscene.[6] The Code was abandoned in 1968, in favor of a MPAA film rating system.

Early films

Audrey Munson in Inspiration (1915), the first non-pornographic American film containing nude scenes.

Inspiration, a silent film released in 1915, is believed to be the first American motion picture with a leading actor in a nude scene.[7] The context of the nudity in the film was that of an artist's model, played by Audrey Munson, at work. Munson appeared nude again in a similar role in the 1916 film Purity. Annette Kellerman, the famous Australian swimming star, appeared fully nude in an active role in A Daughter of the Gods in 1916. Kellerman had appeared in several lost films prior to 1912, but whether she did nude scenes in them is unknown. A couple of her films from 1910, thought to have been lost, have been rediscovered in Australia.

Several early films of the silent era and early sound era included nude scenes, presented in a historical or religious context. One such film was the anticlerical Hypocrites (1915), directed by Lois Weber, which contained a sequence with a nude woman posing as a statue and impressive (for 1915) traveling double exposure sequences of a young woman nude. Nell Shipman appeared nude in Back to God’s Country (1919). Fox produced The Queen of Sheba in 1921 starring Betty Blythe. The film, now lost, was a huge hit for Fox and Miss Blythe displayed ample nudity even when wearing 28 different diaphanous costumes. Cecil B. DeMille, later known as a family entertainment specialist, included several nude scenes in his early epics such as The Sign of the Cross (1932). Other filmmakers followed suit. Bird of Paradise directed by King Vidor in 1932 featured a nude swimming scene with Delores del Rio, and Harry Lachman's Dante's Inferno featured many naked women suffering in hell. The early Tarzan films with Johnny Weissmuller featured at least partial nudity justified by the natural surroundings in which the characters lived; in Tarzan and His Mate in 1934, Jane (Maureen O'Sullivan, doubled by Olympic swimmer Josephine McKim) swims in the nude. Nudity of natives was portrayed in jungle epics and South Seas island pictures such as Trader Horn (1931), Moana (1926) and Tabu (1931).

In response to objections voiced by several groups – provoked at least partly by the notorious 1933 Czech film Ecstasy, which featured a nude scene by Hedy Lamarr – scenes of nudity were forbidden in films from the major film studios from 1934 until the late 1960s under the Motion Picture Production Code, also known as the Hays Code. During this time, the only acceptable cinematic displays of nudity in the U.S. were in naturist quasi-documentary films and in foreign films. Other portrayals were in early pornographic films which, due to limited means of distribution, were not widely seen.

Exploitation and nudist films

Film producers who were outside the studio system were not bound by the Hays Code, but still had to remain within censorship guidelines, one of which pemitted educational films. These films dealt with taboo topics such as drug parties, prostitution, and sexually transmitted infections. In the course of presenting the message nudity at times made an appearance. These films, which emerge in the 1930s, were obliged to play in independent theaters or traveled across the United States in "roadshow" fashion. They were normally low-budget, and described as sensationalized exploitation films. Using this framework, brief nude scenes of women appeared in Maniac (1934), Sex Madness (1937), and nude swimming sequences in Damaged Lives (1933), Marihuana (1936) and Child Bride (1938).

Nudist films are a genre of films associated with the 1950s and 1960s, although the genre has roots dating back to the 1930s with such titles as This Nude World (1933) and The Unashamed (1938). Nudist films claim to depict the lifestyles of members of the nudism or naturist movement, but were largely a vehicle for the exhibition and commercial exploitation of female nudity within the context of public theatrical screenings.

Famous examples of nudist films are Garden of Eden (1954) directed by Max Nosseck and Naked Venus (1958) from Damaged Lives director Edgar G. Ulmer. Other producers and directors active in the genre included David F. Friedman, Herschell Gordon Lewis, and Barry Mahon. Filmmaker Doris Wishman was probably the most active producer/director in the genre, with seven nudist films to her credit between 1960 and 1964.[8] Exploitation producer George Weiss released films such as Nudist Life (1961), by editing together vintage nudist camp footage. That same year in England, Harrison Marks released Naked as Nature Intended starring Pamela Green to box office success. (Marks soon went to make softcore pornographic and caning/spanking fetish films.)

Nudie-cuties and sexploitation

The Immoral Mr. Teas (1959) by Russ Meyer, in which the main character was overcome with fantasies of nude women, was the first non-naturist feature film to openly exhibit nudity and is, because of that, widely considered the first pornographic feature. For the next few years a wave of films known as "Nudies" or "Nudie-cuties" were produced for grindhouse theatres. Examples from this era include Doris Wishman's science fiction spoof Nude on the Moon (1963), the Herschell Gordon Lewis and David F. Friedman film The Adventures of Lucky Pierre (1961), and Ed Wood's horror-nudie, Orgy of the Dead with its bevy of topless dancers from beyond the grave.

By 1964, underground films with a harder edge such as Russ Meyer's Lorna, and Joseph P. Mawra's misogynistic Olga's House of Shame and White Slaves of Chinatown marked the end of the nudie and the ascent of a mix of sex and violence known as "roughie" sexploitation. Prime examples include R. Lee Frost's The Defilers (1965), a study in abduction and sadism, The Sexploiters (1965), Bad Girls Go to Hell (1965), The Agony of Love (1966), Michael Findlay's psycho-killer trilogy starting with The Touch of Her Flesh (1967), and Frost's Love Camp 7 (1968), which was the forerunner of the women in prison and Nazi exploitation subgenres.

Nudity in mainstream films

1960 - 1965

Michael Powell's film Peeping Tom (1960) contains what may be the first female nude scene in a postwar English language mainstream feature film: a model (Pamela Green) lies naked on the bed to be photographed. Earlier in the movie Green exposes her breasts. The movie was panned by the critics at the time and it destroyed Powell's career. The film was subsequently re-edited leaving out the nude scenes. Martin Scorsese released the film in 1979. It is now a cult classic and a critical favourite, revered as one of the most important films of British postwar cinema and often described as the British Psycho.

In 1963, Tommy Noonan persuaded Jayne Mansfield to become the first mainstream American actress to appear nude with a starring role in Promises! Promises!. Photographs of a naked Mansfield on the set were published in Playboy. In one notorious set of images, Mansfield stares at one of her breasts, as does her male secretary and a hair stylist, then grasps it in one hand and lifts it high. The sold-out issue resulted in an obscenity charge for Hugh Hefner, which was later dropped. Promises! Promises! was banned in Cleveland, but it enjoyed box office success elsewhere. As a result of the film's success, Mansfield landed on the Top 10 list of Box Office Attractions for that year.[9] The autobiographical book, Jayne Mansfield's Wild, Wild World, she wrote together with Mickey Hargitay, was published right after Promises! Promises! and contains 32 pages of black-and-white photographs from the film printed on glossy paper.[10]

The Pawnbroker (1964) was controversial for its breaches of the Motion Picture Production Code by depicting nude scenes in which actresses Linda Geiser and Thelma Oliver fully expose their breasts.[11] The nudity resulted in a "C" (condemned) rating from the Catholic Legion of Decency. Allied Artists refused to cut the film and released it to theaters without a Production Code seal.

1966 – present day

In autumn 1966 the Motion Picture Association of America unveiled a new Production Code. The new Code replaced specific rules, including those on nudity, with more general principles advising caution in matters like nudity and sexual intimacy. It gave the MPAA the power to label certain films as "Suggested for Mature Audiences". Only a handful of Hollywood films dared to show a fleeting glimpse of partial nudity, usually a bare breast seen from a distance or in a dark setting.

In November 1968, the MPAA abandoned the Production Code altogether and replaced it with the voluntary rating system. Nudity could then be legitimately included in a commercially distributed film. Many movie theaters still refused to show films with X ratings, which was frequently a barrier to commercial success. A few X-rated films have been critical successes, including A Clockwork Orange (1971), Last Tango in Paris (1973), and Midnight Cowboy (1969), which won an Academy Award for Best Picture. At present,[when?] genital nudity is still rare in U.S. cinema. Anything more than a very small amount of genital nudity, especially in a sexual context, often leads to an NC-17 (or X, in the past) rating. (One notable exception is Porky's (1982), a broad sex comedy with an R rating that featured several full-frontal nude scenes with multiple men and women, though never both together.)

In the 2000s, most nude scenes led only to an R rating from the MPAA, instead of NC-17. Broken Flowers (2005) was rated R for containing "graphic nudity", though it only contains one brief nude scene featuring Alexis Dziena (her vulva is visible in the scene). Similarly, the 2003 film The Cooler received an NC-17 rating specifically for a scene in which Maria Bello's pubic hair is exposed. Bello appeared in several full-frontal nude scenes in A History of Violence, which was rated R. Many films that were once rated X have been "re-rated" R; the rating on Midnight Cowboy, for instance, was so changed in late 1970 (the year after its original release).

Few mainstream American films show male or female genitalia (in what is often called a full frontal nudity scene). While it is not entirely uncommon for women to appear in full frontal nude scenes, female genitalia commonly remain obscured by pubic hair. In 2007, Judd Apatow announced "I'm gonna get a penis in every movie I do from now on. . . . It really makes me laugh in this day and age, with how psychotic our world is, that anyone is troubled by seeing any part of the human body."[12] The cases where a penis appears fully or semi-erect in mainstream films are very limited, in part due to ratings pressure from the MPAA, which finds it more acceptable for a male's genitals to be depicted in a flaccid state.[citation needed]

Walk Hard: The Dewey Cox Story (2007), Forgetting Sarah Marshall (2008), Zack and Miri Make a Porno (2008), The Hangover (2009) and Observe and Report (2009) all featured male frontal nudity in the context of comedy. Another movie, the mockumentary Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan, has a brief scene in which Borat shows a full-nude frontal picture of his son. Borat and his producer, Azamat Bagatov, have a full nude fight scene, where Borat's genitals were censored with a black bar. Azamat, because of his weight, did not need one, because it was not visible during the film. The film was rated R by the MPAA.

The tastefulness of nude scenes is hotly debated in the United States. In the 2000s, adding nudity to films may hurt a film's commercial potential.[13] Some movie critics[who?] view gratuitous nudity (that which is not necessary for the plot) negatively. Various actors have refused to appear on film in the nude, citing either their personal morals or the risk to their reputations and/or careers. Since 2000s, very few American films featured the nudity of A-list actresses (most of them are arthouse films), like Kate Winslet in The Reader (2008), Amanda Seyfried/Julianne Moore in Chloe (2010), Anne Hathaway in Love & Other Drugs (2010) and Michelle Williams in Blue Valentine (2010). Still, some nudity-required dramatic roles in upscale films could still help some young actresses to gain more acting opportunities in Hollywood, like Eva Green in The Dreamers (2003), Emily Blunt in My Summer of Love (2004), Abbie Cornish in Somersault (2004), Noomi Rapace in The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2009) and Elizabeth Olsen in Martha Marcy May Marlene (2011).

European cinema

Europeans were more relaxed about nudity in film than the U.S. As early as the 1920s a topless Josephine Baker was filmed performing exotic dance routines for French cinema. The 1922 Swedish/Danish silent film Häxan contained nude scenes, torture and perversion; an edited version was shown in the U.S. The 1929 Russian film Man with a Movie Camera by Dziga Vertov features nudity within the context of naturism.

The 1931 Greek film Daphnis and Chloe by Orestis Laskos featured the first nude scene in a European fiction film, showing Chloe bathing in a fountain.[14]

The opening sequence in Leni Riefenstahl's Olympia, a documentary of the 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, is noteworthy for its idealized, non-exploitive use of male and female nudity. Another less artistic film from Germany, Liane, Jungle Goddess (1956), featured Marion Michael as a topless female variant on the Tarzan legend.

Other notable examples from Europe include Gustav Machatý's Extase (1933, with Hedy Lamarr), Era Lui, Si Si (1952, with Sophia Loren), Ingmar Bergman's Summer with Monika (1953), Jean-Pierre Melville's Bob le flambeur (1956, with Isabelle Corey, then aged 16), François Truffaut's Shoot the Piano Player (1960), Brigitte Bardot's casual nude scenes in Contempt (1963) by Jean-Luc Godard, the French film The Game is Over (1966, with Jane Fonda), Luis Buñuel's Belle de jour (1967, with Catherine Deneuve), and Isadora (1968, with Vanessa Redgrave).

In 1966, the British-Italian film Blowup became the first mainstream English-language film to show a woman's pubic hair, although the particular shot was only a few seconds long. (Some sources, such as Playboy magazine's History of Sex in Cinema series, have stated that the pubic hair exposure was unintended.)

Two Swedish films from 1967, I Am Curious (Yellow) and Inga, were ground-breaking—and notorious—for showing explicit sex and nudity. Both were initially banned in the U.S., and were rated X when they were shown in 1968.

In the United Kingdom, the Ken Russell film Women in Love (1969) was especially controversial for showing frontal male nudity in a wrestling scene between Oliver Reed and Alan Bates. Glenda Jackson won the Academy Award for Best Actress in that film, the first performer to win for a role that included nude scenes.

The films of Catherine Breillat, a French filmmaker, are notorious for containing explicit nudity. Her film Une vraie jeune fille (1975) contains close-ups of actress Charlotte Alexandra's vulva and actor Bruno Balp's penis, some of which are particularly graphic in nature (including a sequence where an earthworm is inserted into Alexandra's vagina). This resulted in the film not officially being released until 1999. Other actresses who have appeared in explicit full-frontal nude scenes in Breillat's films include Caroline Ducey in Romance (1999) and Roxane Mesquida in Sex is Comedy (2002).

European attitudes towards depictions of nudity tend to be relatively relaxed and there are few taboos around it. Showing of full frontal nudity in movies, even by major actors, is common and it is not considered damaging to the actors' careers. In recent years explicit unsimulated sexual intercourse occurs in movies which target the general movie-going audience, albeit those usually labeled 'arthouse' product; for example, Michael Winterbottom’s 9 Songs and Lars Von Trier’s The Idiots.

The Finnish documentary Steam of Life about men in saunas shows nudity throughout the film.

In the Dutch movie All Stars 2: Old Stars the main characters stay in a nudist campsite. Much full frontal nudity is displayed, but not of any of the main characters.

East Asian cinema

Full-frontal male nudity (in which genitals are fully revealed) has traditionally been taboo in cinema from East Asia (and for actors of East Asian origin living outside East Asia), in sharp contrast to the situation in mainland Europe, but similar to the US. A rare example of a challenge to this taboo occurred in Japan in 1976, with explicit sexual scenes featuring Tatsuya Fuji in the historical story In the Realm of the Senses. However, the unexpurgated version of the film has never been shown in Japan, and the film negatives had to be secretly shipped out of the country to France for developing.

However, a number of recent films have lifted this taboo. Among them are: the full-frontal appearance of Hong Kong Chinese actor Michael Lam, who was the lead in Bugis Street (1995), as his clothes and underwear are torn off by his lover, fully exposing his genitals; a variety of East Asian actors in The Pillow Book (1996); of Hong Kong Chinese lead actor Sunny Chan in a bathroom scene as he enters a shower, fully revealing his genitals for a few moments, in Hold You Tight (1997); of mainland China lead actor Liu Ye in Lan Yu (2001), whose genitals are shown as lies naked on a bed; a variety of East Asian actors in Under One Roof (2002); of French Vietnamese actor Steve Tran whose genitals are shown as he walks naked in a high school locker room in Cold Showers (2005); of Singapore Chinese actor/director Zihan Loo, who removes all his clothes, uncovering his genitals, and while waiting to meet a prostitute, masturbates on camera, eventually revealing his fully erect penis, in Pleasure Factory (2007); a variety of Taiwanese Chinese actors who dare each other to skinnydip in Winds of September (2008), and of lead actor Ron Heung and the Hong Kong National Baseball Team, who are shown naked in City Without Baseball (2008), with their genitals fully revealed on camera. South Korean lead actor Song Kang-ho appears frontally naked in Thirst (2009). Hong Kong Chinese actors Sean Li and Osman Hung appear frontally naked in Permanent Residence (also 2009), as do the lead Hong Kong Chinese actors Byron Pang and Hong Kong half-Chinese/half-British actor Thomas Price in Amphetamine (2010), and numerous Hong Kong Chinese actors in the film Love Actually... Sucks! (2011). These appearances contrast with those nearer the beginning of the decade: the much briefer nude (side) appearance of young mainland Chinese actor Cui Lin (in which his genitals are shown) at the beginning of the shower scene in Beijing Bicycle (2001), and the brief full-frontal appearance of a Singapore Chinese actor in the film 15 (2003), and of Japanese puppeteer Sota Sakuma, whose body and genitals are fully revealed but shown briefly, in a nude beach scene in EuroTrip (2004), and even the brief frontal view of mainland China lead actor Guo Xiaodong in Summer Palace, later in the decade (2006).

The appearances of mainland Chinese teenage lead actor Xu Dialing in Red Cherry (1995), of Lee Kang-sheng in The Wayward Cloud (2005), of Joseph Chang and Bryant Chang in Eternal Summer (2006), of Korean lead actors Lee Yeong-hoon and Kim Nan-gil in No Regret (also in 2006), of Tony Leung Chiu-Wai in Lust, Caution (2007), and of Qin Hao and Chen Sicheng in Spring Fever (2009), are all described as featuring full-frontal nudity, although no genitals are shown.

Another example of nudity (but with simulated genitals) in East Asian cinema is the Japanese film Hanzo the Razor (1972). It is the first part of a trilogy, depicting Officer Hanzo Itami's foiling of a plot by corrupt officials in Edo period Japan. Simulated male and female genitals are shown in various scenes. There are also scenes showing Hanzo using sexually aggressive tactics in order to extract secrets from women who associated with Hanzo's suspects.


See also: adult animation which includes a mix of adult themes and situations including nudity

In animated films in the U.S., nudity is limited. Only a few mainstream animated films like Fritz the Cat, Fantastic Planet, and Heavy Metal have contained significant nudity. The Simpsons Movie (2007) has a brief scene in which Bart Simpson is fully nude, and carries a PG-13 rating. Another famous exception is South Park: Bigger, Longer and Uncut (1999), which carries an R rating, and shows both nude female breasts and full frontal male nudity.

In the Franco-Belgian Kirikou animated films, full-frontal nudity of the titular little boy appears throughout the film, in addition to female nudity in the form of exposed breasts.

In Canada, Rock & Rule (1983) features brief female toplessness.

In Japanese cinema, nudity taboos have evolved greatly since the dawn of animation, and anime, the general category of animated films, includes some films with a spectrum of nudity and sexual situations. The Toei Animation films Hols: Prince of the Sun in the 1960s and Tatsu no ko Taro in the '70s include brief full nudity of their titular characters. The popularity of OVA (Original Video Animation) direct-to-video series in Japan has been a major factor in the unique blend of content in Japanese anime. Starting in the mid-1980s when video tape players became common home appliances, themes of nudity and sexual content flourished in Japanese animation with the hallmarks of many modern sub-genres being established early with such films and OVA series as Lolita Anime, Cream Lemon and Urotsukidōji. Such sexually explicit films or those with significant nudity are referred to as hentai outside of Japan.

Nudity in film

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ In the US the strict rating NC-17 reduces the number of people going to the movie theater not only because it excludes people under 18, but because few theaters show these films at all.
  2. ^ The Great Bare: Who Is Adah?
  3. ^ FREEZE FRAME Eadward Muybridge's Photography of Motion; National Museum of American History
  4. ^ Eadward J. Muybridge (courtesy of Youtube)
  5. ^ The Story of the Kelly Gang
  6. ^ Excelsior Pictures Corp v Regents of the University of the State of New York.[1]
  7. ^ "IMDB Bio of Audrey Munson". Retrieved 2008-11-26. 
  8. ^ Blaze Starr Goes Nudist (1962), Hideout in the Sun (1960), Diary of a Nudist (1961), Gentlemen Prefer Nature Girls (1962), Playgirls International (1963), Behind the Nudist Curtain (1963), and The Prince and the Nature Girl (1964).
  9. ^ Faris, Jocelyn (1994) Jayne Mansfield: a bio-bibliography. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood; p. 10
  10. ^ Jayne Mansfield's Wild, Wild World on
  11. ^ World Sex Records. Retrieved on 8 March 2009.
  12. ^ Judd Apatow Vows to Include Wangs in Every Film He Makes
  13. ^
  14. ^ Aktsoglou Babis (c. 2003) in CineMythology: Greek Myths in World Cinema, a catalogue published within the frame of the Cultural Olympiad 2001-2004.

Further reading

  • Hosoda, Craig (2001). The Bare Facts Video Guide. Bare Facts. ISBN 0-9625474-9-2.
  • Jones, Marvin (1996). Movie Buff Checklist: Male Nudity in the Movies. (5th ed.) Panorama City, Cal.: Campfire Productions. ISBN 1-888211-04-0.
  • Mr. Skin (2004). Mr. Skin's Skincyclopedia: the A-to-Z guide to finding your favorite actresses naked. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-33144-4.
  • Storey, Mark (2003). Cinema au Naturel: a history of nudist film. Naturist Education Foundation. ISBN 0-9740844-0-9.

External links

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