Barbie Fashion Model.JPG
Barbara 'Barbie' Millicent Roberts
First appearance March 9, 1959
Created by Ruth Handler
Nickname(s) Barbie
Occupation See: Barbie's careers
Family See: List of Barbie's friends and family

Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy-company Mattel, Inc. and launched in March 1959. American businesswoman Ruth Handler is credited with the creation of the doll using a German doll called Bild Lilli as her inspiration.

Barbie is the figurehead of a brand of Mattel dolls and accessories, including other family members and collectible dolls. Barbie has been an important part of the toy fashion doll market for fifty years, and has been the subject of numerous controversies and lawsuits, often involving parody of the doll and her lifestyle.



The original Barbie was launched in March 1959

Ruth Handler watched her daughter Barbara play with paper dolls, and noticed that she often enjoyed giving them adult roles. At the time, most children's toy dolls were representations of infants. Realizing that there could be a gap in the market, Handler suggested the idea of an adult-bodied doll to her husband Elliot, a co-founder of the Mattel toy company. He was unenthusiastic about the idea, as were Mattel's directors.

During a trip to Europe in 1956 with her children Barbara and Kenneth, Ruth Handler came across a German toy doll called Bild Lilli.[1] The adult-figured doll was exactly what Handler had in mind, so she purchased three of them. She gave one to her daughter and took the others back to Mattel. The Lilli doll was based on a popular character appearing in a comic strip drawn by Reinhard Beuthin for the newspaper Die Bild-Zeitung. Lilli was a blonde bombshell, a working girl who knew what she wanted and was not above using men to get it. The Lilli doll was first sold in Germany in 1955, and although it was initially sold to adults, it became popular with children who enjoyed dressing her up in outfits that were available separately.

Upon her return to the United States, Handler reworked the design of the doll (with help from engineer Jack Ryan) and the doll was given a new name, Barbie, after Handler's daughter Barbara. The doll made its debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York on March 9, 1959. This date is also used as Barbie's official birthday.

Mattel acquired the rights to the Bild Lilli doll in 1964 and production of Lilli was stopped. The first Barbie doll wore a black and white zebra striped swimsuit and signature topknot ponytail, and was available as either a blonde or brunette. The doll was marketed as a "Teen-age Fashion Model," with her clothes created by Mattel fashion designer Charlotte Johnson. The first Barbie dolls were manufactured in Japan, with their clothes hand-stitched by Japanese homeworkers. Around 350,000 Barbie dolls were sold during the first year of production.

Ruth Handler believed that it was important for Barbie to have an adult appearance, and early market research showed that some parents were unhappy about the doll's chest, which had distinct breasts. Barbie's appearance has been changed many times, most notably in 1971 when the doll's eyes were adjusted to look forwards rather than having the demure sideways glance of the original model.

Barbie was one of the first toys to have a marketing strategy based extensively on television advertising, which has been copied widely by other toys. It is estimated that over a billion Barbie dolls have been sold worldwide in over 150 countries, with Mattel claiming that three Barbie dolls are sold every second.[2]

The standard range of Barbie dolls and related accessories are manufactured to approximately 1/6 scale, which is also known as playscale.[3] The standard dolls are approximately 11 1/2 inches tall.

Barbie products include not only the range of dolls with their clothes and accessories, but also a large range of Barbie branded goods such as books, apparel, cosmetics and video games. Barbie has appeared in a series of animated films and is a supporting character in Toy Story 2 and Toy Story 3.

Barbie has become a cultural icon and has been given honors that are rare in the toy world. In 1974, a section of Times Square in New York City was renamed Barbie Boulevard for a week. In 1985, the artist Andy Warhol created a painting of Barbie.[4][5]

Barbie's 50th anniversary

In 2009, Barbie celebrated her 50th birthday. The celebrations included a runway show in New York for the Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week.[6] The event showcased fashions contributed by fifty well-known haute couturiers including Diane von Fürstenberg, Vera Wang, Calvin Klein, Bob Mackie, and Christian Louboutin.[7][8]

Fictional biography

Barbie's full name is Barbara Millicent Roberts. In a series of novels published by Random House in the 1960s, her parents' names are given as George and Margaret Roberts from the fictional town of Willows, Wisconsin.[9] In the Random House novels, Barbie attended Willows High School, while in the Generation Girl books, published by Golden Books in 1999, she attended the fictional Manhattan International High School in New York City (based on the real-life Stuyvesant High School[10]).

She has an on-off romantic relationship with her boyfriend Ken (Ken Carson), who first appeared in 1961. A news release from Mattel in February 2004 announced that Barbie and Ken had decided to split up,[11] but in February 2006 they were hoping to rekindle their relationship after Ken had a makeover.[12]

From left to right, Barbie's appearance in the 90's, 00's and 10's

Barbie has had over 40 pets including cats and dogs, horses, a panda, a lion cub, and a zebra. She has owned a wide range of vehicles, including pink Corvette convertibles, trailers, and jeeps. She also holds a pilot's license, and operates commercial airliners in addition to serving as a flight attendant. Barbie's careers are designed to show that women can take on a variety of roles in life, and the doll has been sold with a wide range of titles including Miss Astronaut Barbie (1965), Doctor Barbie (1988) and Nascar Barbie (1998).

Mattel has created a range of companions for Barbie, including Hispanic Teresa, Midge, African American Christie, and Steven (Christie's boyfriend). Barbie's siblings and cousins were also created including Skipper, Todd (Stacie's twin brother), Stacie (Todd's twin sister), Kelly, Krissy, and Francie. Barbie was friendly with Blaine, an Australian surfer, during her split with Ken in 2004.[13]

See List of Barbie's friends and family


Barbie's popularity ensures that her effect on the play of children attracts a high degree of scrutiny. The criticisms leveled at her are often based on the assumption that children consider Barbie a role model and will attempt to emulate her.

  • One of the most common criticisms of Barbie is that she promotes an unrealistic idea of body image for a young woman, leading to a risk that girls who attempt to emulate her will become anorexic. A standard Barbie doll is 11.5 inches tall, giving a height of 5 feet 9 inches at 1/6 scale. Barbie's vital statistics have been estimated at 36 inches (chest), 18 inches (waist) and 33 inches (hips). At 5'9" tall and weighing 110 lbs, Barbie would have a BMI of 16.24 and fit the weight criteria for anorexia. According to research by the University Central Hospital in Helsinki, Finland, she would lack the 17 to 22 percent body fat required for a woman to menstruate.[14] In 1963, the outfit "Barbie Baby-Sits" came with a book entitled How to Lose Weight which advised: "Don't eat!."[15] The same book was included in another ensemble called "Slumber Party" in 1965 along with a pink bathroom scale permanently set at 110 lbs.,[15] which would be around 35 lbs. underweight for a woman 5 feet 9 inches tall.[16]
  • In 1997, Barbie's body mold was redesigned and given a wider waist, with Mattel saying that this would make the doll better suited to contemporary fashion designs.[17][18] However, the Silkstone Barbie line introduced in 2000 as well as the Model Muse Barbie body mold introduced in 2004 feature Barbie dolls with dimensions similar to those Barbies manufactured prior to 1997. The Model Muse Barbie has a very small waist, defined abs, a collarbone, defined ankles and even cleavage. The fashion of Barbies created before 1997 will fit both Silkstone dolls and the Model Muse body sculpt, but fashions created after 1997 do not fit either of these Barbie types.
  • "Colored Francie" made her debut in 1967, and she is sometimes described as the first African American Barbie doll. However, she was produced using the existing head molds for the white Francie doll and lacked African characteristics other than a dark skin. The first African American doll in the Barbie range is usually regarded as Christie, who made her debut in 1968.[19][20] Black Barbie was launched in 1980 but still had white features. In September 2009, Mattel introduced the So In Style range, which was intended to create a more realistic depiction of black people than previous dolls.[21]
  • In July 1992, Mattel released Teen Talk Barbie, which spoke a number of phrases including "Will we ever have enough clothes?", "I love shopping!", and "Wanna have a pizza party?" Each doll was programmed to say four out of 270 possible phrases, so that no two dolls were likely to be the same. One of these 270 phrases was "Math class is tough!" (often misquoted as "Math is hard"). Although only about 1.5% of all the dolls sold said the phrase, it led to criticism from the American Association of University Women. In October 1992 Mattel announced that Teen Talk Barbie would no longer say the phrase, and offered a swap to anyone who owned a doll that did.[22]
  • In 1997, Mattel joined forces with Nabisco to launch a cross-promotion of Barbie with Oreo cookies. Oreo Fun Barbie was marketed as someone with whom little girls could play after class and share "America's favorite cookie." As had become the custom, Mattel manufactured both a white and a black version. Critics argued that in the African American community, Oreo is a derogatory term meaning that the person is "black on the outside and white on the inside," like the chocolate sandwich cookie itself. The doll was unsuccessful and Mattel recalled the unsold stock, making it sought after by collectors.[23]
  • In May 1997, Mattel introduced Share a Smile Becky, a doll in a pink wheelchair. Kjersti Johnson, a 17-year-old high school student in Tacoma, Washington with cerebral palsy, pointed out that the doll would not fit into the elevator of Barbie's $100 Dream House. Mattel announced that it would redesign the house in the future to accommodate the doll.[24][25]
  • In March 2000 stories appeared in the media claiming that the hard vinyl used in vintage Barbie dolls could leak toxic chemicals, causing danger to children playing with them. The claim was rejected as false by technical experts. A modern Barbie doll has a body made from ABS plastic, while the head is made from soft PVC.[26][27]
  • In September 2003, the Middle Eastern country of Saudi Arabia outlawed the sale of Barbie dolls, saying that she did not conform to the ideals of Islam. The Committee for the Propagation of Virtue and Prevention of Vice stated "Jewish Barbie dolls, with their revealing clothes and shameful postures, accessories and tools are a symbol of decadence to the perverted West. Let us beware of her dangers and be careful."[28] In Middle Eastern countries there is an alternative doll called Fulla which is similar to Barbie but is designed to be more acceptable to an Islamic market. Fulla is not made by the Mattel Corporation, and Barbie is still available in other Middle Eastern countries including Egypt.[29] In Iran, Sara and Dara dolls are available as an alternative to Barbie.[30]
  • In December 2005, Dr. Agnes Nairn at the University of Bath in England published research suggesting that girls often go through a stage where they hate their Barbie dolls and subject them to a range of punishments, including decapitation and placing the doll in a microwave oven. Dr. Nairn said: "It's as though disavowing Barbie is a rite of passage and a rejection of their past."[31][32]
  • In April 2009, the launch of a Totally Tattoos Barbie with a range of tattoos that could be applied to the doll, including a lower back tattoo, led to controversy. Mattel's promotional material read "Customize the fashions and apply the fun temporary tattoos on you too", but Ed Mayo, chief executive of Consumer Focus, argued that children might want to get tattooed themselves.[33]
  • In July 2010, Mattel released "Barbie Video Girl", a Barbie doll with a pinhole video camera in its chest, enabling clips of up to 30 minutes to be recorded, viewed and uploaded to a computer via a USB cable. On November 30, 2010, The FBI issued a warning in a private memo that the doll could be used to produce child pornography, although it stated publicly that there was "no reported evidence that the doll had been used in any way other than intended."[34][35]

Parodies and lawsuits

Barbie has frequently been the target of parody:

  • In 1993, a group calling itself the "Barbie Liberation Organization" secretly modified a group of Barbie dolls by implanting voice boxes from G.I. Joe dolls, then returning the Barbies to the toy stores from where they were purchased.[36][37]
  • Malibu Stacy from The Simpsons episode "Lisa vs. Malibu Stacy".
  • Aqua's song "Barbie Girl" was the subject of the lawsuit Mattel v. MCA Records, which Mattel lost in 2002, with Judge Alex Kozinski saying that the song was a "parody and a social commentary".[38][39]
  • Two commercials by automobile company Nissan featuring dolls similar to Barbie and Ken was the subject of another lawsuit in 1997. In the first commercial, a female doll is lured into a car by a doll resembling G.I. Joe to the dismay of a Ken-like doll, accompanied by Van Halen's You Really Got Me.[40] In the second commercial, the "Barbie" doll is saved by the "G.I. Joe" doll after she is accidentally knocked into a swimming pool by the "Ken" doll to Kiss's "Dr. Love".[41] The makers of the commercial said that the dolls' names were Roxanne, Nick, and Tad. Mattel claimed that the commercial did "irreparable damage" to its products,[42][43] but settled.[44]
  • Saturday Night Live aired a parody of the Barbie commercials featuring "Gangsta Bitch Barbie" and "Tupac Ken".[45] In 2002, the show also aired a skit, which starred Britney Spears as Barbie's sister Skipper.[46]
  • The Tonight Show with Jay Leno displayed a "Barbie Crystal Meth Lab".[citation needed]
  • Mattel sued artist Tom Forsythe over a series of photographs called Food Chain Barbie in which Barbie winds up in a blender.[47][48][49]
  • In November 2002, a New York judge refused an injunction against the British-based artist Susanne Pitt, who had produced a "Dungeon Barbie" doll in bondage clothing.[50]
  • Mattel filed a lawsuit in 2004 against Barbara Anderson-Walley over her website, which sells fetish clothing.[51][52]


Mattel estimates that there are well over 100,000 avid Barbie collectors. Ninety percent are women, at an average age of 40, purchasing more than twenty Barbie dolls each year. Forty-five percent of them spend upwards of $1000 a year. Vintage Barbie dolls from the early years are the most valuable at auction, and while the original Barbie was sold for $3.00 in 1959, a mint boxed Barbie from 1959 sold for $3552.50 on eBay in October 2004.[53] On September 26, 2006, a Barbie doll set a world record at auction of £9,000 sterling (US $17,000) at Christie's in London. The doll was a Barbie in Midnight Red from 1965 and was part of a private collection of 4,000 Barbie dolls being sold by two Dutch women, Ietje Raebel and her daughter Marina.[54]

In recent years, Mattel has sold a wide range of Barbie dolls aimed specifically at collectors, including porcelain versions, vintage reproductions, and depictions of Barbie as a range of characters from film and television series such as The Munsters and Star Trek.[55][56] There are also collector's edition dolls depicting Barbie dolls with a range of different ethnic identities.[57] In 2004, Mattel introduced the Color Tier system for its collector's edition Barbie dolls including pink, silver, gold and platinum, depending on how many of the dolls are produced.[58]

Competition from Bratz dolls

In June 2001, MGA Entertainment launched the Bratz series of dolls, a move that gave Barbie her first serious competition in the fashion doll market. In 2004, sales figures showed that Bratz dolls were outselling Barbie dolls in the United Kingdom, although Mattel maintained that in terms of the number of dolls, clothes and accessories sold, Barbie remained the leading brand.[59] In 2005 figures showed that sales of Barbie dolls had fallen by 30% in the United States, and by 18% worldwide, with much of the drop being attributed to the popularity of Bratz dolls.[60]

In December 2006, Mattel sued MGA Entertainment for $500 million, alleging that Bratz creator Carter Bryant was working for Mattel when he developed the idea for Bratz.[61] On July 17, 2008, a federal jury agreed that the Bratz line was created by Carter Bryant while he was working for Mattel and that MGA and its Chief Executive Officer Isaac Larian were liable for converting Mattel property for their own use and intentionally interfering with the contractual duties owed by Bryant to Mattel.[62] On August 26, the jury found that Mattel would have to be paid $100 million in damages. On December 3, 2008, U.S. District Judge Stephen Larson banned MGA from selling Bratz. He allowed the company to continue selling the dolls until the winter holiday season ended.[63][64] MGA is currently appealing against the court's ruling.[65] In August 2009, MGA introduced a range of dolls called Moxie Girlz, intended as a replacement for Bratz dolls.[66]

See also


  1. ^ In an interview with M.G.Lord, the author of Forever Barbie, Ruth Handler said that she saw the doll in Lucerne, Switzerland. However, the book points out that on other occasions Handler said that she saw the doll in Zurich or Vienna.
  2. ^ "Vintage Barbie struts her stuff". BBC News. September 22, 2006. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  3. ^ ""Playscale per". 2011-03-02. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ "Who Made America? | Innovators | Ruth Handler". 2004-06-30. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  6. ^ "Barbie Runway Show - Fall 2009 Mercedes Benz Fashion Week New York". 2009-02-14. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  7. ^ "Runway Rundown: The Barbie Show’s 50 Designers!". Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  8. ^ "Christian Louboutin explains Barbie “fat ankle” comments". 2009-10-16. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  9. ^ Lawrence, Cynthia; Bette Lou Maybee (1962). Here's Barbie. Random House. OCLC 15038159. 
  10. ^ Biederman, Marcia (September 20, 1999). "Generation Next: A newly youthful Barbie takes Manhattan.". New York. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 
  11. ^ The Storybook Romance Comes To An End For Barbie And Ken Mattel February 12, 2004
  12. ^ Madeover Ken hopes to win back Barbie CNN February 10, 2006
  13. ^ By Joseph Lee, CNN/Money Staff Writer (2004-06-29). "Aussie hunk wins Barbie's heart". Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  14. ^ What would a real life Barbie look like? BBC News, March 6, 2009
  15. ^ a b Sarah Sink Eames, Barbie Fashion: The complete history of the wardrobes of Barbie doll, her friends and her family, Vol. I, 1959-1967, ISBN 0-89145-418-7
  16. ^ M.G. Lord, Forever Barbie, Chapter 11 ISBN 0-8027-7694-9
  17. ^ "Barbie undergoes plastic surgery". BBC News. November 18, 1997. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  18. ^ Winterman, Denise (2009-03-06). "What would a real life Barbie look like?". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  19. ^ "African American Fashion Dolls of the 60s". Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  20. ^ "Faces of Christie". Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  21. ^ "Mattel introduces black Barbies, to mixed reviews". Fox News. 2009-10-09.,2933,562706,00.html. Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  22. ^ "COMPANY NEWS: Mattel Says It Erred; Teen Talk Barbie Turns Silent on Math". The New York Times. October 21, 1992. Retrieved June 15, 2010. 
  23. ^ [2][dead link]
  24. ^ "Barbie's Disabled Friend Can't Fit". Associated Press. EL SEGUNDO, Calif.: University of Washington. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  25. ^
  26. ^ "Kiss That Barbie! Why There Is No Such Thing As A Toxic Barbie". 2010-06-15. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  27. ^ Malibu Barbie, Holiday Barbie ... Toxic Barbie? 2000/08/25
  28. ^ ""Jewish" Barbie Dolls Denounced in Saudi Arabia". Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  29. ^ "Al-Ahram Weekly | Living | Move over, Barbie". 2006-06-07. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  30. ^ "Muslim dolls tackle 'wanton' Barbie". BBC News. March 5, 2002. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  31. ^ "Barbie dolls become 'hate' figure". BBC News. December 19, 2005. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Press Release - 19 December 2005 University of Bath". Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  33. ^ Sean Poulter (2009-04-30). "Barbie given tattoos by makers to mimic high-profile celebrities like Amy Winehouse". Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  34. ^ "FBI memo raises Barbie child pornography fears". BBC News. December 6, 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2010. 
  35. ^ "FBI: New Barbie 'Video Girl' doll could be used for child porn". CNN. December 4, 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Barbie Liberation". 1996-05-23. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  37. ^ Firestone, David (December 31, 1993). "While Barbie Talks Tough, G. I. Joe Goes Shopping". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  38. ^ "Barbie loses battle over bimbo image". BBC News. July 25, 2002. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  39. ^ "Aqua Barbie Girl lyrics". Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  40. ^ "1990's Nissan 300ZX Commercial" youtube 25 April 2010
  41. ^ "Nissan Toys 2 Barbie Ken Commercial" youtube 25 April 2010
  42. ^ Mattel Sues Nissan Over TV Commercial
  43. ^ After Aqua, Mattel goes after Car Ad September 24, 1997
  44. ^ Battleground Barbie: When Copyrights Clash Peter Hartlaub, The Los Angeles Daily News, May 31, 1998. Accessed July 3, 2009.
  45. ^ Gangsta Bitch Barbie video
  46. ^ Saturday Night Live skit | Inside Barbie's Dream House
  47. ^ Barbie-in-a-blender artist wins $1.8 million award | OUT-LAW.COM
  48. ^ National Barbie-in-a-Blender Day!
  49. ^
  50. ^ The Scotsman
  51. ^ Barbies Shop in the news
  52. ^ Mattel Loses Trade Mark Battle with 'Barbie'
  53. ^ "1959 Blonde Ponytail Barbie Brings Over $3,000!". Scoop. 2004-10-16. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  54. ^ "Midnight Red Barbie Doll sets auction record". Yahoo!. London. September 27, 2006. Archived from the original on Oct 03, 2006. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  55. ^ - Welcome to the official Mattel site for Barbie Collector
  56. ^ - Welcome to the official Mattel site for Barbie Collector
  57. ^ - Welcome to the official Mattel site for Barbie Collector
  58. ^ - Welcome to the official Mattel site for Barbie Collector
  59. ^ "Bratz topple Barbie from top spot". BBC News. September 9, 2004. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  60. ^ "Barbie blues for toy-maker Mattel". BBC News. October 17, 2005. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  61. ^ Goddard, Jacqui (December 11, 2006). "Barbie takes on the Bratz for $500m". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  62. ^ "Jury rules for Mattel in Bratz doll case". New York Times. July 18, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  63. ^ "Barbie beats back Bratz". CNN Money. December 4, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  64. ^ Colker, David (December 4, 2008). "Bad day for the Bratz in L.A. court". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  65. ^ Smith, Joyce (December 4, 2008). "Buy your Bratz dolls while you still can". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  66. ^ Anderson, Mae (August 3, 2009). "Bratz maker introduces new doll line". Associated Press. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 

Further reading

  • Gerber, Robin (2009). Barbie and Ruth: The Story of the World's Most Famous Doll and the Woman Who Created Her. Collins Business. ISBN 978-0-06-134131-1. 
  • Knaak, Silke, "German Fashion Dolls of the 50&60". Paperback
  • Lord, M. G. (2004). Forever Barbie: the unauthorized biography of a real doll. New York: Walker & Co.. ISBN 978-0-8027-7694-5. 
  • Plumb, Suzie, ed (2005). Guys 'n' Dolls: Art, Science, Fashion and Relationships. Royal Pavilion, Art Gallery & Museums. ISBN 0-948723-57-2. 
  • Rogers, Mary Ann (1999). Barbie culture. London: SAGE Publications. ISBN 0-7619-5888-6. 
  • Singleton, Bridget (2000). The art of Barbie. London: Vision On. ISBN 0-9537479-2-1. 
  • Boy, Billy (1987). Barbie: Her Life & Times. Crown. ISBN 978-0517590638. 

External links

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