List of Nepenthes species

List of Nepenthes species
Sympatric upper pitchers of N. jamban (left) and N. lingulata (right) in Sumatran upper montane forest

This list of Nepenthes species is a comprehensive listing of all known species of the carnivorous plant genus Nepenthes. It includes 132 recognised extant species, 3 incompletely diagnosed taxa, and 3 nothospecies. Three possible extinct species are also covered.

The conservation status of each species is taken from the IUCN Red List.[1] Unless otherwise stated, taxonomic determinations and all other information are sourced from Stewart McPherson's two-volume Pitcher Plants of the Old World, published in 2009.[2] Where recent literature provides an altitudinal distribution that falls outside the range given in Pitcher Plants of the Old World, the discrepancy is noted.

All major islands within a species's geographic range are included, although smaller surrounding islands have been omitted for the sake of brevity. In the case of larger island groups such as the Philippines, the individual islands to which the species is native are shown in brackets.

Authorities are presented in the form of a standard author citation, using abbreviations specified by the IPNI.[3] Years given denote the year of the species's formal publication under the current name, thus excluding the earlier basionym date of publication if one exists.


Extant species

Species Authority Year Image Distribution Altitudinal distribution IUCN conservation status
Nepenthes adnata Tamin & M.Hotta ex Schlauer 1994          Nepenthesadnata2.jpg Sumatra 600–1200 m Data Deficient
Nepenthes alata Blanco 1837 Nepenthes alata ASR 062007 mt ambucao luzon.jpg Philippines (all major islands, possibly except Palawan)[4] 0–1900 ma Least Concern
Nepenthes alba Ridl. 1924 Nepenthes alba3.jpg Peninsular Malaysia 1600–2187 m
Nepenthes albomarginata T.Lobb ex Lindl. 1849 Nep alb265.jpg Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra 0–1100 mb Conservation Dependent
Nepenthes ampullaria Jack 1835 Nep amp 295.jpg Borneo, Maluku Islands, New Guinea, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Thailand 0–2100 m Least Concern
Nepenthes andamana[5] M.Catal.[5] 2010[5] N. andamana2 cropped.jpg Thailand[5] 0–50 m[6]
Nepenthes angasanensis Maulder, D.Schub., B.R.Salmon & B.Quinn 1999 Sumatra 2200–2800 m Conservation Dependent
Nepenthes argentii Jebb & Cheek 1997 Nepenthes argentii ASR 062007 mt guitingguiting sibuyan.jpg Philippines (Sibuyan) 1400–1900 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes aristolochioides Jebb & Cheek 1997 Nepenthes aristolochioides5.jpg Sumatra 1800–2500 m Critically Endangered
Nepenthes attenboroughii A.S.Rob., S.McPherson & V.B.Heinrich 2009 Attlwr.jpg Philippines (Palawan) 1450[4]–1726 m
Nepenthes beccariana Macfarl. 1908 Nepenthes beccariana1.jpg Nias, Sumatra?[7] unknown
Nepenthes bellii K.Kondo 1969 Nepenthes bellii upper pitcher.jpg Philippines (Dinagat, Mindanao) 0–800 m Endangered
Nepenthes benstonei C.Clarke 1999 Nbenstonei.jpg Peninsular Malaysia 450–600 m
Nepenthes bicalcarata Hook.f. 1873 Nepenthesbicalcarata1.jpg Borneo 0–?950 mc Vulnerable
Nepenthes bokorensis Mey 2009 Nepenthes bokorensis upper.jpg Cambodia 800–1080 m
Nepenthes bongso Korth. 1839 Nepenthes bongso 1.JPG Sumatra 1000–2700 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes boschiana Korth. 1839 Nepenthes boschiana1.jpg Borneo 1200–1800 md Endangered
Nepenthes burbidgeae Hook.f. ex Burb. 1882 Pig Hill Kinabalu N. burbidgeae.jpg Borneo 1200–1800 me Endangered
Nepenthes burkei Hort.Veitch ex Mast. 1889 Nepenthes burkei ASR 062007 mt halcon mindoro.jpg Philippines (Mindoro, Panay?) 1100–2000 m
Nepenthes campanulata Sh.Kurata 1973 Nepenthes campanulata.jpg Borneo 300–500 m Data Deficient
Nepenthes ceciliae[4] ined.[4] Philippines (Mindanao)[4] 1500–1800 m[4]
Nepenthes chang[8] M.Catal.[8] 2010[8] Nepenthes chang rosette cropped.jpg Thailand[8] 300–600 m[8]
Nepenthes chaniana C.Clarke, Chi C.Lee & S.McPherson 2006 Nepenthes chaniana 1.jpg Borneo 1100–1800 m
Nepenthes clipeata Danser 1928 Borneo 600–800 m Critically Endangered
Nepenthes copelandii Merr. ex Macfarl. 1908 Nepenthes copelandii2.jpg Philippines (Mindanao) 1100–2400 m[4]
Nepenthes danseri Jebb & Cheek 1997 Maluku Islands (Halmahera), Waigeo 0–320 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes deaniana Macfarl. 1908 Nepenthes deaniana ASR 062007 pulgar palawan.jpg Philippines (Palawan) 1180–1296 m Data Deficient
Nepenthes densiflora Danser 1940 Nepenthes densiflora Mount Kemiri cropped.jpg Sumatra 1700–3200 m Conservation Dependent
Nepenthes diatas Jebb & Cheek 1997 Sumatra 2400–2900 m Conservation Dependent
Nepenthes distillatoria L. 1753 Nepenthes distillatoria 5.jpg Sri Lanka 0–700 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes dubia Danser 1928 Nepenthesdubia1.jpg Sumatra 1600–2700 m Critically Endangered
Nepenthes edwardsiana H.Low ex Hook.f. 1859 Nepenthes edwardsiana entire ASR 052007 tambu.jpg Borneo 1600–2700 mf Vulnerable
Nepenthes ephippiata Danser 1928 Borneo 1300–2000 mg Vulnerable
Nepenthes eustachya Miq. 1858 Nepeustachya5.jpg Sumatra 0–1600 Least Concern
Nepenthes eymae Sh.Kurata 1984 Nepenthes eymae upper pitcher.jpg Sulawesi 1000–2000 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes faizaliana J.H.Adam & Wilcock 1991 Pinnacles N. faizaliana 10.jpg Borneo 400–1600 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes flava Wistuba, Nerz & A.Fleischm. 2007 Nepenthes flava13.jpg Sumatra 1800–2200 m
Nepenthes fusca Danser 1928 N.fusca up3.jpg Borneo 300[9]–2500 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes gantungensis[10] S.McPherson, Cervancia, Chi C.Lee, Jaunzems, Mey & A.S.Rob.[10] 2010[10] Nepenthes gantungensis1.jpg Philippines (Palawan)[10] 1600–1784 m[10]
Nepenthes glabrata J.R.Turnbull & A.T.Middleton 1984 Nepglabrata5.jpg Sulawesi 1600–2100 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes glandulifera Chi C.Lee 2004 Borneo 1100–1700 m
Nepenthes gracilis Korth. 1839 Pitcher plant2.JPG Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand 0–1100 mh Least Concern
Nepenthes gracillima Ridl. 1908 Nepenthes gracillima1.jpg Peninsular Malaysia 1600–1700 m Endangered
Nepenthes gymnamphora Reinw. ex Nees 1824 Nepenthes pectinata11.jpg Java, Sumatra 600–2800 m Least Concern
Nepenthes hamata J.R.Turnbull & A.T.Middleton 1984 Nepenthes hamata upper pitcher.jpg Sulawesi 1400–2500 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes hamiguitanensis[11] Gronem., Wistuba, V.B.Heinrich, S.McPherson, Mey & V.B.Amoroso[11] 2010[11] Nepenthes hamiguitanensis.jpg Philippines (Mindanao)[11] 1200–1600 m[11]
Nepenthes hirsuta Hook.f. 1873 Nep hir274.jpg Borneo 200–1100 mi Conservation Dependent
Nepenthes hispida Beck 1895 Lambir Hills N. hispida 3.jpg Borneo 100–800 m Conservation Dependent
Nepenthes holdenii[12] Mey[12] 2010[12] Nepenthes holdenii lower pitcher.jpg Cambodia[12] 600–800 m[12]
Nepenthes hurrelliana Cheek & A.L.Lamb 2003 Murud N. hurreliana.jpg Borneo 1300[9]–2400 m
Nepenthes inermis Danser 1928 Nepenthes inermis5.jpg Sumatra 1500–2600 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes insignis Danser 1928 N. insignis3.jpg Biak, New Guinea 0–850 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes izumiae Troy Davis, C.Clarke & Tamin 2003 Nepenthes izumiae4.jpg Sumatra 1700–1900 m
Nepenthes jacquelineae C.Clarke, Troy Davis & Tamin 2001 Nepjacq2.jpg Sumatra 1700–2200 m
Nepenthes jamban Chi C.Lee, Hernawati & Akhriadi 2006 Nepenthesjamban3.jpg Sumatra 1800–2100 m
Nepenthes junghuhnii sensu Macfarl. in sched. nom.nud. 1917 Sumatra 1220 m
Nepenthes kampotiana Lecomte 1909 Nepenthes kampotiana1.jpg Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam 0–350 m
Nepenthes kerrii[13] M.Catal. & Kruetr.[13] 2010[13] Nepenthes kerrii.jpg Thailand[13] 400–500 m
Nepenthes khasiana Hook.f. 1873 India 500–1500 m
Nepenthes klossii Ridl. 1916 Nepenthes klossii upper pitcher.jpg New Guinea 1000–2000 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes kongkandana Cheek ined. N. kongkandana2.jpg Thailand 0–50 m
Nepenthes lamii Jebb & Cheek 1997 Nepentheslamiiupperpitcher2800.jpg New Guinea 1460–3520 m
Nepenthes lavicola Wistuba & Rischer 1996 Sumatra 2000–2600 m Critically Endangered
Nepenthes leonardoi[14] S.McPherson, Bourke, Cervancia, Jaunzems & A.S.Rob.[14] 2011[14] Nepenthes leonardoi.jpg Philippines (Palawan)[14] 1300–1490 m[14]
Nepenthes lingulata Chi C.Lee, Hernawati & Akhriadi 2006 Nepentheslingulata4.jpg Sumatra 1700–2100 m
Nepenthes longifolia Nerz & Wistuba 1994 Nepenthes longifolia.jpg Sumatra 300–1100 m
Nepenthes lowii Hook.f. 1859 Murud N. lowii 30.jpg Borneo 1650–2600 mj Vulnerable
Nepenthes macfarlanei Hemsl. 1905 N. macfarlanei1.jpg Peninsular Malaysia 900–2150 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes macrophylla (Marabini) Jebb & Cheek 1997 N.macrophylla.jpg Borneo 2200–2642 mk Critically Endangered
Nepenthes macrovulgaris J.R.Turnbull & A.T.Middleton 1988 Nepenthes macrovulgaris upper2.jpg Borneo 300–1200 ml Vulnerable
Nepenthes madagascariensis Poir. 1797 Nepenthes madagascariensis.jpg Madagascar 0–500 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes mantalingajanensis Nerz & Wistuba 2007 Nepenthes mantalingajanensis ASR 072007 mantalingahan palawan.jpg Philippines (Palawan) 1700–2085 m
Nepenthes mapuluensis J.H.Adam & Wilcock 1990 Borneo 700–800 m Near Threatened
Nepenthes masoalensis Schmid-Höllinger 1977 Madagascar 0–400 m Endangered
Nepenthes maxima Reinw. ex Nees 1824 Nepenthes maxima Sulawesi1.jpg D'Entrecasteaux Islands,[15] Maluku Islands, New Guinea, Sulawesi 40[16]–2600 m Least Concern
Nepenthes merrilliana Macfarl. 1911 Nepenthes merrilliana lower pitcher.jpg Philippines (Dinagat, Mindanao) 0–1100 m[4] Vulnerable
Nepenthes micramphora V.B.Heinrich, S.McPherson, Gronem. & V.B.Amoroso 2009 Nepenthes micramphora.jpg Philippines (Mindanao) 1100–1635 m
Nepenthes mikei B.R.Salmon & Maulder 1995 N. mikei3.jpeg Sumatra 1100–2800 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes mindanaoensis Sh.Kurata 2001 Nepenthes mindanaoensis ASR 072007 legaspi mindanao.jpg Philippines (Dinagat, Mindanao) 0–1400 m
Nepenthes mira Jebb & Cheek 1998 Nepenthes mira2.jpg Philippines (Palawan) 1550–1605 m
Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour.) Druce 1916 Apes abroad - Jug Plant (by-sa).jpg Australia, Borneo, Cambodia, China, D'Entrecasteaux Islands, Hong Kong, Java, Laos, Louisiade Archipelago, Macau, Maluku Islands, Micronesia (Yap), Myanmar, New Guinea, Palau, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines (Dinagat, Mindanao), Sulawesi, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam 0–1500 m Least Concern
Nepenthes mollis Danser 1928 Borneo ~1800 m Data Deficient
Nepenthes muluensis M.Hotta 1966 Murud N. muluensis 10.jpg Borneo 1700–2400 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes murudensis Culham ex Jebb & Cheek 1997 Murud N. murudensis 14.jpg Borneo 2000–2423 m Endangered
Nepenthes naga Akhriadi, Hernawati, Primaldhi & M.Hambali 2009 Nepsumatra5.jpg Sumatra 1500–2000 m
Nepenthes neoguineensis Macfarl. 1911 N. neoguineensis6.jpg D'Entrecasteaux Islands, New Guinea 0–1400 m Least Concern
Nepenthes northiana Hook.f. 1881 N.northaiana.jpg Borneo 0–500 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes ovata Nerz & Wistuba 1994 Nepenthes ovata2.jpg Sumatra 1700–2100 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes palawanensis[17] S.McPherson, Cervancia, Chi C.Lee, Jaunzems, Mey & A.S.Rob.[17] 2010[17] Nepenthes palawanensis1.jpg Philippines (Palawan)[17] 1100–1236 m[17]
Nepenthes paniculata Danser 1928 New Guinea ~1460 m Endangered
Nepenthes papuana Danser 1928 Nepenthes papuana lower pitcher.jpg New Guinea 0–1300 m Data Deficient
Nepenthes peltata Sh.Kurata 2008 Nepenthes peltata2.jpg Philippines (Mindanao) 865–1635 m
Nepenthes pervillei Blume 1852 Nepenthes pervillei1.jpg Seychelles 350–750 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes petiolata Danser 1928 Nepenthes petiolata upper pitcher.jpg Philippines (Mindanao) 1450–1900 m
Nepenthes philippinensis Macfarl. 1908 Nepenthes philippinensis ASR 072007 bacungan palawan.jpg Philippines (Busuanga, Coron, Culion, Palawan)[4] 0–600 m
Nepenthes pilosa Danser 1928 Nepenthes pilosa2.jpg Borneo ~1600 m Endangered
Nepenthes pitopangii Chi C.Lee, S.McPherson, Bourke & M.Mansur[18] 2009[18] SulawesiNepenthes7.jpg Sulawesi ~1800 m
Nepenthes platychila Chi C.Lee 2002 Borneo 900–1400 m
Nepenthes pulchra[4] ined.[4] Philippines (Mindanao)[4] 1300–1800 m[4]
Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack 1835 Nepenthes rafflesiana ant.jpg Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra 0–1200 mm Least Concern
Nepenthes rajah Hook.f. 1859 Nepenthes rajah.png Borneo 1500–2650 m Endangered
Nepenthes ramispina Ridl. 1908 N.ramispina2.jpg Peninsular Malaysia 900–2000 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes reinwardtiana Miq. 1852 Nepreinwardtiana.jpg Borneo, Sumatra 0–2200 m Least Concern
Nepenthes rhombicaulis Sh.Kurata 1973 Nepenthes rhombicaulis1.jpg Sumatra 1600–2000 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes rigidifolia Akhriadi, Hernawati & Tamin 2004 Nepenthes rigidifolia.jpg Sumatra 1000–1600 m
Nepenthes rowanae F.M.Bailey 1897 Nepenthes rowanae2.jpg Australia 0–80 m
Nepenthes sanguinea Lindl. 1849 N. sanguinea1.jpg Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand 300–1800 m Conservation Dependent
Nepenthes saranganiensis Sh.Kurata 2003 Nepenthes saranganiensis upper pitcher.jpg Philippines (Mindanao) 1800–2100 m
Nepenthes sibuyanensis Nerz 1998 Nepenthes sibuyanensis ASR 062007 guiting2 sibuyan.jpg Philippines (Sibuyan) 1250–1500 mn Vulnerable
Nepenthes singalana Becc. 1886 Nepenthes singalana2.jpg Sumatra 2000–2900 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes smilesii Hemsl. 1895 N. smilesii pitchers.jpg Cambodia,[19] Laos, Thailand, Vietnam[20] 0[19]–1500 m
Nepenthes spathulata Danser 1935 Nepenthes adrianii.jpg Java, Sumatra 1100–2900 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes spectabilis Danser 1928 Nepenthes spectabilis 2.JPG Sumatra 1400–2200 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes stenophylla Mast. 1890 N.fallax.jpg Borneo 800–2600 m Least Concern
Nepenthes sumatrana (Miq.) Beck 1895 Nsumatrana11.jpg Sumatra 0–800 m Least Concern
Nepenthes suratensis[21] M.Catal.[21] 2010[21] N. suratensis2.jpg Thailand[21] 0–50 m[6]
Nepenthes surigaoensis Elmer 1915 Nepenthes surigaoensis upper pitcher.jpg Philippines (Mindanao) 800–1200 mo
Nepenthes talangensis Nerz & Wistuba 1994 Nepenthes talangensis1.jpg Sumatra 1800–2500 m Endangered
Nepenthes tenax C.Clarke & R.Kruger 2006 Nepenthes tenax1.jpg Australia 0–80 m
Nepenthes tentaculata Hook.f. 1873 Nep tent311.jpg Borneo, Sulawesi 400–2550 m Least Concern
Nepenthes tenuis Nerz & Wistuba 1994 Nepenthes tenuis5.jpg Sumatra 1000–1200 m Data Deficient
Nepenthes thai[22] Cheek[22] 2009[22] N. thai.jpeg Thailand[22] 500–600 m[22]
Nepenthes thorelii Lecomte 1909 N.Thorelii P6230327.JPG Vietnam 0–200 m[23] Data Deficient
Nepenthes tobaica Danser 1928 Nepenthes tobaica lower pitcher.jpg Sumatra 380–1800 mp Least Concern
Nepenthes tomoriana Danser 1928 Neptomoriana1.jpg Sulawesi 0–500 m Vulnerable
Nepenthes treubiana Warb. 1891 Nepenthes treubiana1.jpg Misool?, New Guinea 0–80 mq Vulnerable
Nepenthes truncata Macfarl. 1911 Nepenthes truncata 2.jpg Philippines (Dinagat, Leyte, Mindanao)[4] 0–1500 m Endangered
Nepenthes veitchii Hook.f. 1859 Veitchii1 cropped.jpg Borneo 0–1600 m Near Threatened
Nepenthes ventricosa Blanco 1837 Nepenthes ventricosa ASR 062007 sumigar luzon.jpg Philippines (Luzon, Panay, Sibuyan)[4] 1000–2000 m Near Threatened
Nepenthes vieillardii Hook.f. 1873 Nepenthes vieillardii pitcher cropped.jpg New Caledonia 0–850 m Least Concern
Nepenthes villosa Hook.f. 1852 Nepenthes villosa.jpg Borneo 1600–3240 mr Vulnerable
Nepenthes vogelii Schuit. & de Vogel 2002 Kelabit Highlands N. vogelii 28.jpg Borneo 1000–1500 m

Incompletely diagnosed taxa

Five additional undescribed taxa were included in Pitcher Plants of the Old World.[2] Of these, Nepenthes sp. Trang has since been described as N. kerrii[13] and Nepenthes sp. Phanga Nga as N. mirabilis var. globosa.[24] The three that remain undescribed are listed below.

Taxon Image Distribution Altitudinal distribution
Nepenthes sp. Misool RajaAmpatNep2.jpg Misool 0–30 m
Nepenthes sp. Papua New Guinea 3100–3500 m
Nepenthes sp. Sulawesi NepSulawesi8.jpg Sulawesi 1600–2400 m


Matthew Jebb and Martin Cheek recognised the following three nothospecies in their monographs on the genus: "A skeletal revision of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae)" (1997) and "Nepenthaceae" (2001). In the recent literature, these taxa have generally been treated as natural hybrids rather than as species.[2][25][26][7] Of the three, N. × kinabaluensis has the strongest claim to species status, as it grows in two large, self-sustaining populations independent of its putative parent species.[25] These populations are reportedly true breeding.[25] Jumaat Haji Adam and C. C. Wilcock advocated the recognition of N. × kinabaluensis as a species in a 1998 article.[27]

Nothospecies Parent species Authority Year Image Distribution Altitudinal distribution
Nepenthes × hookeriana N. ampullaria × N. rafflesiana Hort.Veitch ex Mast. 1881 Nepenthes hookeriana upper.jpg Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra[9] 0–450 m[28]
Nepenthes × kinabaluensis N. rajah × N. villosa Sh.Kurata ex Sh.Kurata 1984 Kinabalu N. × kinabaluensis 6.JPG Borneo[9] 2420–3030 m[9]
Nepenthes × trichocarpa N. ampullaria × N. gracilis Miq. 1858 Ntrichocarpa1.jpg Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra,[9] Thailand[20] 0–800 m[25]

Extinct species

Fossil pollen of various provenance, much of it originally described under the genus Droseridites, has been tentatively assigned to Nepenthes by several authors.[29][30][31] The following three species were transferred to the genus Nepenthes by Wilfried Krutzsch in 1985.[29]

Species Authority Year Location Age
Nepenthes echinatus (Hunger) Krutzsch 1985 Europe Palaeocene
Nepenthes echinosporus (R.Potonié) Krutzsch 1985 Europe Palaeocene
Nepenthes major (Krutzsch) Krutzsch 1985 Europe Palaeocene

Some authors consider Droseridites major and D. parvus as synonyms of Nepenthidites laitryngewensis.[32][33]

Pollen from the Kerguelen Islands originally described as D. spinosus has also been interpreted as belonging to Nepenthes.[34]

See also


a.^ Cheek & Jebb (2001) give an upper altitudinal limit of 2400 m for N. alata.[25]
b.^ Adam, Wilcock & Swaine (1992) give an upper altitudinal limit of 1200 m for N. albomarginata.[28]
c.^ Adam, Wilcock & Swaine (1992) cite a record of N. bicalcarata from Mount Periok in Brunei at c. 1600 m.[28]
d.^ Cheek & Jebb (2001) give a range of 780–1880 m for N. boschiana,[25] while Clarke (1997) gives a range of 900–1880 m.[26]
e.^ Cheek & Jebb (2001) give an upper altitudinal limit of 2250 m for N. burbidgeae,[25] while Adam, Wilcock & Swaine (1992) give a range of 1100–2300 m.[28]
f.^ Cheek & Jebb (2001), Clarke (1997) and Adam, Wilcock & Swaine (1992) give a lower altitudinal limit of 1500 m for N. edwardsiana.[25][26][28]
g.^ Cheek & Jebb (2001) give a lower altitudinal limit of 1000 m for N. ephippiata.[25] The species has reportedly been collected from Bukit Raya at 2000–2270 m.[28][35]
h.^ Adam, Wilcock & Swaine (1992) give an upper altitudinal limit of 1700 m for N. gracilis.[28]
i.^ Adam, Wilcock & Swaine (1992) give a range of 150–1500 m for N. hirsuta.[28]
j.^ Cheek & Jebb (2001) give a lower altitudinal limit of 1600 m for N. lowii,[25] while Adam, Wilcock & Swaine (1992) give a range of 900–3400 m.[28]
k.^ The lower altitudinal limit of 2000 m given for N. macrophylla in some older sources[23] is apparently incorrect.[2][36]
l.^ Adam, Wilcock & Swaine (1992) give a lower altitudinal limit of 250 m for N. macrovulgaris.[28]
m.^ Adam, Wilcock & Swaine (1992) give an upper altitudinal limit of 1500 m for N. rafflesiana.[28]
n.^ Rybka, Rybková & Cantley (2005) give a range of 1200–1800 m for N. sibuyanensis,[37] while the authors of the describing paper give a range of 1500–1800 m.[38]
o.^ Nepenthes surigaoensis may grow as high as 1750 m ("5750 feet" in the original) according to the describing author, Adolph Daniel Edward Elmer.[39]
p.^ Cheek & Jebb (2001) give an upper altitudinal limit of 2750 m for N. tobaica.[25]
q.^ Cheek & Jebb (2001) give an upper altitudinal limit of 500 m for N. treubiana.[25]
r.^ Nepenthes villosa generally grows at elevations of 2300–3240 m, but is more common at 1600–1900 m on Mount Tambuyukon.[2] Adam, Wilcock & Swaine (1992) give an upper altitudinal limit of 3400 m for this species.[28]


  1. ^ IUCN 2009. Nepenthes. In: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. IUCN.
  2. ^ a b c d e McPherson, S.R. 2009. Pitcher Plants of the Old World. 2 volumes. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
  3. ^ Author Query. International Plant Names Index.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o McPherson, S.R. & V.B. Amoroso 2011. Field Guide to the Pitcher Plants of the Philippines. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
  5. ^ a b c d Catalano, M. 2010. Nepenthes andamana M. Catal. sp. nov.PDF In: Nepenthes della Thailandia. Prague. p. 34.
  6. ^ a b McPherson, S.R. 2010. Carnivorous Plants and their Habitats. 2 volumes. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole.
  7. ^ a b Clarke, C.M. 2001. Nepenthes of Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
  8. ^ a b c d e Catalano, M. 2010. Nepenthes chang M. Catal. sp. nov.PDF In: Nepenthes della Thailandia. Prague. p. 38.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Phillips, A., A. Lamb & C.C. Lee 2008. Pitcher Plants of Borneo. Second Edition. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
  10. ^ a b c d e McPherson, S., J. Cervancia, C. Lee, M. Jaunzems, A. Fleischmann, F. Mey, E. Gironella & A. Robinson 2010. Nepenthes gantungensis (Nepenthaceae), a new pitcher plant species from Mount Gantung, Palawan, Philippines. In: S.R. McPherson Carnivorous Plants and their Habitats. Volume 2. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole. pp. 1286–1295.
  11. ^ a b c d e Gronemeyer, T., A. Wistuba, V. Heinrich, S. McPherson, F. Mey & A. Amoroso 2010. Nepenthes hamiguitanensis (Nepenthaceae), a new pitcher plant species from Mindanao Island, Philippines. In: S.R. McPherson Carnivorous Plants and their Habitats. Volume 2. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole. pp. 1296–1305.
  12. ^ a b c d e Mey, F.S., M. Catalano, C. Clarke, A. Robinson, A. Fleischmann & S. McPherson 2010. Nepenthes holdenii (Nepenthaceae), a new species of pyrophytic pitcher plant from the Cardamom Mountains of Cambodia.PDF In: S.R. McPherson Carnivorous Plants and their Habitats. Volume 2. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole. pp. 1306–1331.
  13. ^ a b c d e Catalano, M. 2010. Nepenthes kerrii M. Catal. et T. Kruetr. sp. nov.PDF In: Nepenthes della Thailandia. Prague. p. 32.
  14. ^ a b c d e McPherson, S., G. Bourke, J. Cervancia, M. Jaunzems, E. Gironella, A. Robinson & A. Fleischmann 2011. Nepenthes leonardoi (Nepenthaceae), a new pitcher plant species from Palawan, Philippines. Carniflora Australis 8(1): 4–19.
  15. ^ Jebb, M.H.P. 1991. An account of Nepenthes in New Guinea. Science in New Guinea 17(1): 7–54.
  16. ^ Clarke, C.M., R. Cantley, J. Nerz, H. Rischer & A. Witsuba 2000. Nepenthes maxima. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. IUCN.
  17. ^ a b c d e McPherson, S., J. Cervancia, C. Lee, M. Jaunzems, A. Fleischmann, F. Mey, E. Gironella & A. Robinson 2010. Nepenthes palawanensis (Nepenthaceae), a new pitcher plant species from Sultan Peak, Palawan Island, Philippines. In: S.R. McPherson Carnivorous Plants and their Habitats. Volume 2. Redfern Natural History Productions, Poole. pp. 1332–1339.
  18. ^ a b Lee, C.C., S. McPherson, G. Bourke & M. Mansur 2009. Nepenthes pitopangii (Nepenthaceae), a new species from central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 61(1): 95–100.
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