- Nuclear power in Indonesia
The nuclear program of Indonesia includes plans to build nuclear reactors in the country to produce nuclear power for peaceful purposes. The national legislative organ for nuclear energy, Badan Pengawas Tenaga Nuklir (BAPETEN), was founded in 1998. The name of the national agency of atomic energy is BATAN.[not verified in body] Decades earlier, research on atomic energy was started in Indonesia. Apart for producing electricity, nuclear technology is also applied for medical purposes and agricultural purposes, for the use of genetic manipulation.[not verified in body]
Plans for an atomic program were mostly shelved in 1997 due to the discovery of the Natuna gas field, but have been revived since 2005.
Based on Presidential Decree Number 5 Year 2006, Indonesia should have built 4 nuclear power plants by 2025. The total combine capacity of them at least 4,000 MW of electricity which about 1.96 percent of the projected electricity demand in 2025 which predicted 200,000 to 350,000 MW.
Indonesia has stated that the program will be developed in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For this reason, Mohammed ElBaradei was invited to visit the country in December 2006.
Urge of nuclear power plant
A physics lecturer from Airlangga University said that need for electricity is continuing to go up and fossil fuel reserves are to be depleted soon. Indonesia is quite ready and able to develop nuclear power plant. The nuclear experts are ready and prepared and they have been successfully conducted some nuclear research since 1970s. Vietnam already had nuclear power plant, while Malaysia and Philippines are the next to have. So, Indonesia should initial it soon.
Although there are nuclear crisis in Japan, Indonesia is unlikely to halt its plan of building its first nuclear power plant due to electricity crisis. Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulation Agency (BAPETEN) has confirmed that seven nuclear supervisors were on IAEA missions in several countries, including one in Tokyo, Japan, so Indonesia are ready to operate nuclear power plants as soon as those facilities are built.
One of the nuclear energy development head at Indonesia's National Nuclear Energy Agency, said that concerns about a disaster like that of Japan's were misplaced because any plants in Indonesia would use more advance technology than the four-decade-old reactors as at Fukushima plant in Japan.
Locations of nuclear reactors
For research purposes, experimental nuclear reactors have already been built in Indonesia:
- Yogyakarta, Central Java. This is the Kartini nuclear research reactor.
- Serpong (Banten).This is the MPR RSG-GA Siwabessy research reactor.
- Bandung, West Java. This is the Triga Mark II nuclear research reactor.
According to an observer, Indonesia is viable to build a nuclear reactor in every province due to there being ample stocks of materials and appropriate geological support. As a tin mining area, monazite exists everywhere at Bangka and Belitung island. The 182.9 tons of monazite sediment was found in Mount Muntai and it is sufficient for a nuclear power plant which will be built in West Bangka and South Bangka.[Full citation needed]
In 2011, the National Atomic Power Agency (BATAN) would continue to search for suitable sites for nuclear power plant and uranium sources. Bangka Belitung is the site with geological stable and near with the country's biggest electricity consuming regions: Java and Sumatra, moreover the locals are more receptive to hosting a nuclear power plant compared to others locations. Although locals were opposed, BATAN was still considering the previously studied locations of Mount Muria, Jepara, Central Java and Serang, Banten.
In July 2011, Bangka Belitung Governor insisted government to continue nuclear power plants in the Muntok and Permis areas which will be established between 2025 to 2030. The two plants will produce 2-gigawatt electricity with cost Rp.70 trillion ($8,2 billion) serve 40 percent of electricity needs in Sumatra, Java and Bali.
Various locations have been proposed for building nuclear reactors that will actually be taken into production for the purpose of generating electricity:
- Cape Muria, Central Java.
- Gorontalo, in the north of Sulawesi.
- Bangka Belitung province. Two plants with cumulative capacity of 18GW.
- Kalimantan.[Full citation needed]
Concerning Fukushima's nuclear reactor blast an Indonesian's geodesics lecturer said that most of Japan was quake prone, whether vast Indonesia has many quake-free areas in Kalimantan, Bangka-Belitung, northern parts of Java island (should be considered as populous area) and Irian.
Indonesia has at least two uranium mines, the Remaja-Hitam and Rirang-Tanah Merah mines. These are located in the west of Kalimantan or Borneo. If these uranium resources appear to be insufficient, the country has the option of importing uranium from friendly nations.
Cooperation with other countries
In 2006 Indonesia signed treaties for nuclear cooperation with various countries, including South Korea, Russia, Australia and the United States. Australia has indicated that it does not have problems with supplying Indonesia with uranium for peaceful purposes. A much-publicized agreement with a Russian company to build a floating nuclear reactor in Gorontalo turned out to be a Russian dream -- Indonesia has since made it clear that it wants an NPP with far higher megawattage and will construct a land-based plant.
Indonesia has various reasons for wanting to build nuclear reactors:
- Domestic energy consumption in Indonesia is growing rapidly.
- Nuclear energy will reduce dependence on petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Indonesia, a former OPEC member and long-time net oil exporter, became a net importer of oil at the beginning of 2005 and withdrew from OPEC membership in 2008. Nuclear energy, like coal, natural gas, and biofuel (from plants such as Jatropha curcas or the castor oil plant) may allow Indonesia to diversify from petroleum.
- If domestic energy consumption can be provided through nuclear energy, it may be possible to export more oil.
- Producing other renewable energy from other sources, such as wind power and solar power, is far more expensive.
- Japan—like Indonesia, where earthquakes frequently occur—has nuclear reactors.
- The emission of harmful gases can be reduced.
The nuclear plans of Indonesia have met with criticism from Greenpeace and other groups and individuals. In June 2007, nearly 4,000 protesters rallied in Indonesia's Central Java, calling on the Government to abandon plans to build a nuclear power plant on the outskirts of their city. Specific concerns included the dangers posed by nuclear waste, and the location of the country on the Pacific Ring of Fire, with much geological activity such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, which could make it dangerous to have nuclear reactors there.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) considers Indonesia ready to develop nuclear energy. The statement was issued last November 2009. The IAEA's appraisal covered four readiness aspects, namely human resources, stakeholders, industry and regulations. The Indonesian Nuclear Board (BATAN) has carried out a series of researches since the 1980s.
- ^ a b c ABC News. Thousands protest against Indonesian nuclear plant. June 12, 2007.
- ^ "Indonesia planning to have four nuke power plants by 2025". October 23, 2011. http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/76867/indonesia-planning-to-have-four-nuke-power-plants-by-2025.
- ^ CNIC. .
- ^ Burhani, Ruslan (2011-03-26). "RI ready for nuclear technology: Observer". ANTARA News. http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/69597/ri-ready-for-nuclear-technology--observer. Retrieved 2011-03-28. "The problem is, Indonesia`s need for electricity is continuing to go up, while fossil fuel reserves are to be depleted soon. In fact, the oil price is currently soaring, [said] Khusnun Ain, a lecturer at the Physics Department of the Science and Mathematics Faculty of Airlangga University. ... In view of the Indonesian capability for nuclear technology, he said Indonesian nuclear experts are ready and prepared, yet they have successfully conducted some nuclear research safely."
- ^ http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/69741/indonesia-unlikely-to-halt-its-nuclear-plan
- ^ Indonesia Still Intent on Building Nuclear Power Plants http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/18/business/global/18atomic.html?_r=1&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss
- ^ http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/69299/monazite-stock-in-babel-sufficient-to-build-nuclear-power-plant
- ^ http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/05/31/batan-survey-nuclear-power-plant-sites.html
- ^ http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/07/07/nuclear-plants-be-built-bangka-belitung.html
- ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/blog/2011/apr/12/indonesia-nuclear-power
- ^ http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/02/09/russia-offers-ri-help-nuclear-power.html
- ^ http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/69337/ri-soil-too-unstable-for-nuke-power
- ^ http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/1280319165/iaea-considers-indonesia-ready-to-develop-nuclear-energy
- Nuclear Power Development in Indonesia by Soedyartomo Soentono, National Atomic Energy Agency, Indonesia.
- Indonesian Policy on the Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy by M. Hatta Rajasa, State Minister for Research and Technology, Republic of Indonesia.
- Paper from 2003 that includes organograms of BAPETEN an BATAN
- IAEA pagine on Indonesia
- Website of BAPETEN (Indonesian and English)
- Website van BATAN (Indonesian and English)
- Thousands of Indonesians protest plan to build Indonesian nuclear plant
Nuclear power by country GWe > 10 GWe > 2 GWe > 1 GWe < 1 Planned Phasing-out Opposed
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