Positive pressure ventilation

Positive pressure ventilation
Positive pressure ventilation
ICD-9-CM 93.90-93.91
MeSH D011175

In emergency medicine positive pressure ventilation (PPV) refers to the process of forcing air into the lungs of a (usually apneic or dyspneic) patient, usually using a bag valve mask (BVM) or mechanical ventilator.

"NIPPV" is an abbreviation for "nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation" or "non-invasive positive pressure ventilation".[1]

During normal breathing, air is drawn into the lungs from the outside by the expansion of the chest wall and contraction of the diaphragm to increase volume inside the thoracic cavity. If the airway is sealed, the expansion of the thoracic cavity creates negative pressure inside the lungs (756mmHg) relative to the atmospheric pressure outside the body (760mmHg). During normal breathing air is drawn into the lungs by the negative pressure of the lungs.[2] Positive pressure ventilation, however, works by forcing air into the lungs and thereby increasing the pressure inside the airway relative to the outside. Hence, the name "positive pressure." Aside from the obvious advantage of ventilating an otherwise apneic or dyspneic patient, PPV can be effectively used in the treatment of flail segments, which characteristically render negative pressure breathing ineffective, but does not impede PPV.

See also


  1. ^ Peter JV, Moran JL, Phillips-Hughes J, Graham P, Bersten AD (April 2006). "Effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on mortality in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: a meta-analysis". Lancet 367 (9517): 1155–63. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68506-1. PMID 16616558. 
  2. ^ Marieb, Elaine N. & Hoehn, Katja "Human Anatomy & Physiology" 8th Ed., Benjamin Cummings/Pearson, 2010