Not to be confused with Chelyabinsk-40 or Chelyabinsk-65.
- City - Coordinates: 55°09′17″N 61°22′33″E / 55.15472°N 61.37583°ECoordinates: 55°09′17″N 61°22′33″E / 55.15472°N 61.37583°E Coat of arms Flag City Day September 13 Administrative status Country Russia Federal subject Chelyabinsk Oblast Administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast Municipal status (as of February 2008) Urban okrug Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug Administrative center of Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug Head Mikhail Yurevich Representative body Council Statistics Area 837 km2 (323 sq mi) Population (2010 Census,
1,130,273 inhabitants - Rank in 2010 9th Population (2002 Census) 1,078,300 inhabitants - Rank in 2002 9th Density 1,350 /km2 (3,500 /sq mi) Time zone YEKST (UTC+06:00) Founded 1736 Postal code(s) 454xxx Dialing code(s) +7 351
Chelyabinsk (Russian: Челябинск, IPA: [tɕɪˈlʲæbʲɪnsk] ( listen)) is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northwestern side of the oblast, 210 kilometers (130 mi) south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River. Population: 1,130,273 (2010 Census preliminary results); 1,077,174 (2002 Census); 1,141,777 (1989 Census).
- 1 History
- 2 Education
- 3 Economy
- 4 Transport
- 5 Notable people from Chelyabinsk
- 6 International relations
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Fortress Chelyaba, from which the city takes its name, was constructed on the site in 1736; the city was incorporated in 1781. Around 1900, it served as a center for the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. According to official statistics the population on 1 January 1913 was 45,000 inhabitants.
For several months during the Russian Civil War, Chelyabinsk was held by the White movement and Czechoslovak Legions, becoming a center for splinters of the Romanian Volunteer Corps in Russia. The city later fell to Bolshevik Russian forces. In the decades after the Finnish Civil War in 1918, some 15,000 "Red" Finns defected into the Soviet Union. Most of them were transferred to Chelyabinsk via railway. In 1938, during the Great Purge, most of them were executed. Their mass grave is located near the Zolonyi Gora's former gold mine, and today bears a small memorial.
During the Soviet industrialization of the 1930s, Chelyabinsk experienced rapid growth. Several industrial establishments, including the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant and the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant, were built at this time. During World War II, Joseph Stalin decided to move a large part of Soviet factory production to places out of the way of the advancing German armies in late 1941. This brought new industries and thousands of workers to Chelyabinsk—still essentially a small city. Several enormous facilities for the production of T-34 tanks and Katyusha rocket launchers existed in Chelyabinsk, which became known as "Tankograd" (Tank City). Chelyabinsk was essentially built from scratch during this time. A small town existed before this, signs of which can be found in the centre of the city. The S.M. Kirov Factory no. 185 moved here from Leningrad to produce heavy tanks — it was transferred to Omsk after 1962.
Chelyabinsk has had a long association (since the 1940s) with top-secret nuclear research, though this is more properly applicable to Chelyabinsk Oblast as a whole, as nuclear facilities such as Chelyabinsk-70 (Snezhinsk) are, or were, located far outside the city. A serious nuclear accident occurred in 1957 at the Mayak nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, 150 km north-west of the city, which caused deaths in Chelyabinsk Oblast but not in the city. The province was closed to all foreigners until 1992.
There are over a dozen universities in Chelyabinsk. The main ones are South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk State University and Chelyabinsk Medical Academy. The oldest one is Chelyabinsk State Agroengineering Academy, which was founded in 1930. There are 5 faculties at the University.
Chelyabinsk is one of the major industrial centers of Russia. Heavy industry predominates, especially metallurgy and military machinery, notably the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combinate (CMK, ChMK), Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (CTZ, ChTZ), Chelyabinsk Electrode plant (CHEZ), Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plant (ChTPZ) and Chelyabinsk Forge-and-Press Plant (ChKPZ).
Chelyabinsk also has several electronics plants, including Metran, Polet and Zavod Electromashina, that serve both military and civil needs.
Chelyabinsk started construction of a 3-line subway network in early 1980s. It is proceeding slowly using the New Austrian Tunneling method. Pending financing, the opening of the first section is scheduled for 2017.
Tram and trolleybus
Chelyabinsk has a tram/streetcar (since 1932) and trolley bus (since 1942).
The city is served by Chelyabinsk Airport.
Notable people from Chelyabinsk
- Irina Shayk - model, born in Yemanzhelinsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast, briefly studied at a community college in Chelyabinsk. Won "Miss Chelyabinsk 2004."
- Viktor Khristenko - politician, the Industry and Energy Minister since March 9, 2004. Prior to that, held a number of government posts, including a brief stint in 2004 as an acting Prime Minister (from February, 24 to March, 5)
- Nelly Rokita - adviser of former Polish President Lech Kaczyński, wife of politician Jan Rokita
- Galina Starovoytova - political activist
- Maksim Bugrov - Violinist based out in Southern California.
- Denis Goldfeld - Violinist, child prodigy, has performed in most major centres throughout the world. Currently based in Germany.
- Makhmut Gareev — General of the Army, a historian, and a military scientist
- Maksim Viktorovich Surayev - Flight Engineer, International Space Station (Expedition 21 and Expedition 22)
- Lera Auerbach — one of the most widely performed composers of the new generation. Pianist, flautist and poet.
- Eugene Roshal — Developer of the RAR and WinRAR compression utilities and FAR Manager.
- Danis Zaripov
- Sergei Makarov
- Sergei Babinov
- Dmitri Kalinin
- Sergei Gonchar
- Andrei Nazarov
- Evgeny Davydov
- Dmitri Tertyshny
- Evgeni Dadonov
- Evgeni Kuznetsov 
- Svetlana Bazhanova — Olympic champion at the 1994 Lillehammer Olympics.
- Lidiya Skoblikova — four Gold medals at the 1964 Innsbruck Olympics.
- Yekaterina Malysheva
- Svetlana Kaykan
- Olga Fatkulina
- Evgeny Sveshnikov — Latvian International Grandmaster of chess
- Mikhail Koklyaev — six time Russian National Weightlifting champion
- Sergei Valeryevich Ivanov - Six time Russian National Cycling champion (1998, 1999, 2000, 2005, 2008 and 2009) and winner of two stages (2001 and 2009) in the Tour de France
- Yekaterina Gamova - a famous Russian female volleyball player, currently playing for Dynamo Kazan and the Russian National volleyball team.
- Ksenia Pervak
International relationsMain article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia
Twin towns/sister cities
Chelyabinsk is twinned with:
- Changchun, China
- Columbia, South Carolina, United States
- Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom
- Ramla, Israel
- Ürümqi, China.
- ^ a b Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2011). "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года (Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2010). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/results_of_the_census/results-inform.php. Retrieved 2011-04-25.
- ^ a b Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
- ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication).
- ^ Information about central postal office (in Russian)
- ^ Russian Federation Cities dialing codes (in Russian)(zip 34.4 KB)
- ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg.php. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
- ^ Chelyabinsk and Ramla sister cities agreement
- Lennart Samuelson, Tankograd. The Formation of a Soviet Company Town: Cheliabinsk, 1900s–1950s (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).
- Website about Chelyabinsk
- Chelyabinsk city portal (Russian)
- Chelyabinsk News Agency (Russian)
- 360 degree panoramas of Chelyabinsk at 360cities.net
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Chelyabinsk". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Administrative divisions of Chelyabinsk Oblast Administrative center: Chelyabinsk Cities and townsAsha · Bakal · Chebarkul · Karabash · Kartaly · Kasli · Katav-Ivanovsk · Kopeysk · Korkino · Kusa · Kyshtym · Magnitogorsk · Miass · Minyar · Nyazepetrovsk · Ozyorsk · Plast · Satka · Sim · Snezhinsk · Troitsk · Tryokhgorny · Ust-Katav · Verkhneuralsk · Verkhny Ufaley · Yemanzhelinsk · Yuryuzan · Yuzhnouralsk · Zlatoust DistrictsAgapovsky · Argayashsky · Ashinsky · Bredinsky · Chebarkulsky · Chesmensky · Kartalinsky · Kaslinsky · Katav-Ivanovsky · Kizilsky · Korkinsky · Krasnoarmeysky · Kunashaksky · Kusinsky · Nagaybaksky · Nyazepetrovsky · Oktyabrsky · Plastovsky · Satkinsky · Sosnovsky · Troitsky · Uvelsky · Uysky · Varnensky · Verkhneuralsky · Yemanzhelinsky · YetkulskyCategories:
- Populated places established in 1736
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