- Papal Coronation
A papal coronation was the ceremony of the placing of the Papal Tiara on a newly elected pope. The first recorded papal coronation was that of Pope Celestine II in 1143. Soon after his coronation in 1963, Pope Paul VI abandoned the practice of wearing the tiara. His successors have chosen not to resume the coronation practice. As one becomes pope upon consent to a proper election, the papal inauguration ceremony, with or without coronation, serves only symbolic purposes.
When a conclave elects a new pope, he assumes all of the rights and authority of the papacy immediately upon his acceptance of election; however, popes traditionally numbered their regnal years from the date of their coronation. Since the Pontificate of Pope John XXIII, all cardinals must be bishops, and for several centuries the cardinals have always elected one of their own to be pope. If a newly elected pope is not a bishop, he is consecrated at once. In accordance with tradition, the right of consecration belongs to the Dean of the College of Cardinals, in his absence to the Subdean, and in the absence of both of these, to the senior Cardinal Bishop. If the new pope is already a bishop, his election is announced immediately to the people gathered in Saint Peter's Square and he gives them his blessing.
The episcopal enthronement of the pope takes place in his cathedral, the Basilica of Saint John Lateran. This ceremony was once combined with the coronation. During the Avignon papacy, the pope, being in France, could not be enthroned in his cathedral in Rome. The coronations continued, while enthronements had to await a return to Rome. When Pope Gregory XI did return to Rome, the Lateran Palace was badly in need of repair, so the Popes made the Vatican their residence and transferred coronations to Saint Peter's Basilica. The Lateran Basilica remains the cathedral of Rome, and the enthronement occurs there. During the "prisoner in the Vatican" period, the enthronement did not take place.
The coronation took place on the first Sunday or Holy Day following the election. It began with a solemn Papal Mass. During the chanting of Terce, he sat on a throne and all of the cardinals made what was called their "first obeisance" to him, approaching one by one and kissing his hand. Then the archbishops and bishops approached and kissed his feet.
Following this, at least from the beginning of the 16th century, the newly elected pope was carried in state through St. Peter's Basilica on the sedia gestatoria, under a white canopy, with the papal flabella (ceremonial fans) to either side. Instead of the papal tiara, he wore a jewelled mitre (the episcopal mitra pretiosa). Three times, the procession was stopped, and a bundle of flax lashed to a gilded staff was burnt before the newly elected pontiff, while a master of ceremonies said: Pater Sancte, sic transit gloria mundi (Holy Father, thus passes the glory of the world) as a symbolic caution to set aside materialism and vanity. Once at the high altar, he would begin to celebrate Solemn High Mass with full papal ceremonial.
After the Confiteor, the pope was seated on a throne and the three senior cardinal bishops approached him wearing mitres. Each in turn placed his hands above him and said the prayer, Super electum Pontificem (over the elected pope). First the Cardinal Bishop of Albano said:
God, who are present without distinction whenever the devout mind invokes you, be present, we ask you, we and this your servant, __, who to the summit of the apostolic community has been chosen as the judge of your people, infuse with the highest blessings that he experience your gift who has reached this point.
Then the Cardinal Bishop of Porto said:
We supplicate you, Almighty God, effect your customary devotion and pour out on this your servant, __, the grace of the Holy Spirit that he who is constituted at the head of our church as the servant of the mystery, you would strengthen with the fullness of virtue.
Finally the Cardinal Bishop of Ostia said:
God, who willed your Apostle Peter to hold first place in the inner fellowship of the apostles, that universal Christianity overcome evil, look propitiously we ask on this your servant, __, who from a humble position has suddenly been been enthroned with the apostles on this same principal sublimity, that just as he has been raised to this exalted dignity, so may he likewise merit to accumulate virtue; in bearing the burden of the universal church, help him, make him worthy and for thee who are blessed may merits replace vices.
Then the senior cardinal deacon placed the pallium on his shoulders saying:
Accept the pallium, representing the plenitude of the Pontifical office, to the honour of Almighty God, and the most glorious Virgin Mary, his Mother, and the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and the Holy Roman Church.
In the 11th and 12th centuries the immantatio, or bestowal of the mantum (a papal vestment consisting of a very long red cope fastened with an elaborate morse) on the newly elected pope was regarded as especially symbolic of investiture with papal authority, and was conferred with the words: "I invest thee with the Roman papacy, that thou rule over the city and the world."
After the investiture with the pallium the pope incensed the high altar and then returned to his seat to receive again the obeisance of the cardinals, archbishops and bishops. Then the Mass continued. After the Gloria in excelsis and the Pax vobis, the pope said the Collect for the day and then secretly a prayer for himself. After the pope had returned again to his seat the Papal Laudes were chanted:
Cantors: Response: Hear, O Christ Life to our lord, __, decreed by God as Supreme Pontiff and Universal Father Savior of the world Grant him aid. Savior of the world Grant him aid. Savior of the world Grant him aid. Saint Mary Grant him aid. Saint Mary Grant him aid. Saint Michael Grant him aid. Etc. etc.
After the Mass, the new pope was crowned with the papal tiara. This frequently took place on the balcony of St. Peter's Basilica, overlooking the crowds gathered in St. Peter's Square. The pope was seated on a throne with the flabella to either side of him. His mitre was removed, and the tiara was presented to the pope by the senior cardinal deacon, with the words:
Receive the tiara adorned with three crowns and know that thou art the father of princes and kings, the ruler of the world, the vicar on earth of Our Saviour, Jesus Christ, to Whom is honour and glory for ever and ever.
Then he solemnly placed the tiara on the pope's head, and arranged the lappets behind his neck.
Following his coronation, the pope pronounced the solemn pontifical blessing, Urbi et Orbi.
Taking possession of the cathedra of the Bishop of Rome
The last act of the inauguration of a new pope is still the formal taking possession (possessio) of his cathedra as Bishop of Rome in the Basilica of St. John Lateran. This is the final ceremony mentioned in Pope John Paul II's Apostolic Constitution on the vacancy of the Apostolic See and the election of the Roman Pontiff. The pope is enthroned in the same manner as other bishops. He is solemnly conducted to the episcopal throne, and takes possession by seating himself on it. He receives the kiss of peace and listens to the reading of a passage of Holy Scripture, whereupon he pronounced an address that used to be called the sermo inthronisticus.
Location of the ceremony
The earliest papal coronations took place in St. John Lateran, the pope's cathedral. However, for hundreds of years papal coronations have traditionally taken place in the environs of St. Peter's Basilica, though a number of coronations took place in Avignon, during the Avignon papacy. Earlier, Pope Celestine V was twice crowned in L'Aquila. In 1800 Pope Pius VII was crowned in the crowded church of the Benedictine island monastery of San Giorgio, Venice, after his late predecessor, Pope Pius VI, had been forced into temporary exile during Napoleon Bonaparte's capture of Rome. Since the French seized the tiara along with the previous pope, he was crowned with a papier-mâché tiara, for which the ladies of Venice gave up their jewels.
All coronations after 1800 took place in Rome. Leo XIII was crowned in the Sistine Chapel, due to fears that anti-clerical mobs, inspired by Italian unification, might attack the Basilica and disrupt the ceremony. Benedict XV was also crowned in the chapel in 1914. Pius XI was crowned at the dais in front of the High Altar in St. Peter's Basilica. Popes Pius IX, Pius XII, John XXIII and Paul VI all were crowned in public on the balcony of the basilica, facing crowds assembled below in St. Peter's Square.
Pius XII's 1939 coronation broke new grounds by being the first to be filmed and the first coronation to be broadcast live on radio. The ceremony, which lasted for six hours, was attended by leading dignitaries; these included the heir to the Italian throne, the Prince of Piedmont, former kings Ferdinand I of Bulgaria and Alfonso XIII of Spain, the Duke of Norfolk (representing King George VI of the United Kingdom) and the Irish Taoiseach Éamon de Valera, the last two being in evening dress (white tie and tails).
Paul VI and the coronation
The last pope to be crowned was Paul VI. Though he decided to cease wearing a papal tiara within weeks of his coronation, and laid his own on the altar of St. Peter's Basilica in a gesture of humility, his 1975 Apostolic Constitution, Romano Pontifici Eligendo, still prescribed that "the new pontiff is to be crowned by the senior cardinal deacon."
Nevertheless, his successor, John Paul I, opted not to be crowned and to have a less formal "solemn Mass to mark the start of his ministry as Supreme Pastor" in September 1978.
John Paul II and the coronation
After John Paul I's sudden death following a thirty-three day reign, the new pope John Paul II, opted to copy his predecessor's ceremony without coronation. In his homily at his Inauguration Mass, he said that Paul VI had "left his successors free to decide" whether to wear the papal tiara. He went on:
Pope John Paul I, whose memory is so vivid in our hearts, did not wish to have the tiara; nor does his Successor wish it today. This is not the time to return to a ceremony and an object considered, wrongly, to be a symbol of the temporal power of the Popes.
John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic Constitution, Universi Dominici Gregis, now in force, does not specify the form that the "solemn ceremony of the inauguration of the pontificate" of a new pope should take, whether with or without a coronation.
Existing papal tiaras remain available for any future pope who may choose to use one, unlikely though it may appear that it will ever be used again.
List of papal coronations 1143–1963
Date Location Pope Cardinal Deaconry Notes October 3, 1143 Rome Pope Celestine II Gregorio Tarquini SS. Sergio e Bacco On September 26 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Alberic de Beauvais bishop of Ostia. March 12, 1144 Rome Pope Lucius II Gregorio Tarquini SS. Sergio e Bacco On the same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Alberic de Beauvais, bishop of Ostia. March 14, 1145 Abbey of Farfa Pope Eugenius III Odone Bonecase S. Giorgio in Velabro On February 18 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Corrado della Suburra bishop of Sabina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. July 12, 1153 Rome Pope Anastasius IV Odone Bonecase S. Giorgio in Velabro December 5, 1154 Rome Pope Adrian IV Probably by Cardinal Rodolfo S. Lucia in Septisolio Odone Fattiboni was absent (see papal election, 1154) September 20, 1159 Nympha Pope Alexander III Odone Bonecase S. Giorgio in Velabro On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Ubaldo Allucingoli bishop of Ostia e Velletri. October 4, 1159 Abbey of Farfa Antipope Victor IV (1159-1164) Cardinal Icmar bishop of Tusculum and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals July 22, 1167 Rome Antipope Paschal III On April 22, 1164 he was consecrated bishop of Rome at Lucca by Henry II of Leez prince-bishop of Liège (not a cardinal). 1168 Rome Antipope Callistus III (?) September 6, 1181 Velletri Pope Lucius III Teodino de Arrone bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina. December 1, 1185 Verona Pope Urban III (?) (probably by Cardinal Ardicio Rivoltella deacon of S. Teodoro) October 25, 1187 Ferrara Pope Gregory VIII Giacinto Bobone Orsini S. Maria in Cosmedin On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome, probably by Cardinal Thibaud bishop of Ostia e Velletri (?). January 7, 1188 Pisa Pope Clement III Giacinto Bobone Orsini S. Maria in Cosmedin April 14, 1191 Rome Pope Celestine III Graziano da Pisa SS. Cosma e Damiano On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Ottaviano di Paoli bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals February 22, 1198 Rome Pope Innocent III Graziano da Pisa SS. Cosma e Damiano On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Ottaviano di Paoli, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals August 31, 1216 Rome Pope Honorius III Guido Pierleone S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano On July 24, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Ugolino Conti di Segni bishop of Ostia e Velletri. April 11, 1227 Rome Pope Gregory IX Ottaviano dei Conti di Segni SS. Sergio e Bacco June 28, 1243 Anagni Pope Innocent IV Rainiero Capocci S. Maria in Cosmedin On that same day, he was consectrated bishop of Rome, probably by Cardinal Rinaldo Conti di Segni bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals (?). December 20, 1254 Naples Pope Alexander IV Riccardo Annibaldeschi S. Angelo in Pescheria September 4, 1261 Viterbo Pope Urban IV Riccardo Annibaldeschi S. Angelo in Pescheria September 20, 1265 Viterbo Pope Clement IV Riccardo Annibaldeschi S. Angelo in Pescheria March 23, 1272 Rome Pope Gregory X Giovanni Gaetano Orsini Deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano On March 19 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by (?) (possibly by Cardinal Odo of Châteauroux bishop of Frascati and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals). February 22, 1276 Rome Pope Innocent V Giovanni Gaetano Orsini S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano September 20, 1276 Viterbo Pope John XXI Giovanni Gaetano Orsini S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano December 26, 1277 Rome Pope Nicholas III Giacomo Savelli S. Maria in Cosmedin On December 19 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by (?) (possibly by Cardinal Bertrand de Saint-Martin bishop of Sabina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals). March 23, 1281 Orvieto Pope Martin IV Giacomo Savelli S. Maria in Cosmedin On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Latino Malabranca Orsini bishop of Ostia e Velletri. May 19, 1285 Rome Pope Honorius IV Goffredo da Alatri S. Giorgio in Velabro On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Latino Malabranca Orsini, bishop of Ostia e Velletri. February 22, 1288 Rome Pope Nicholas IV Matteo Orsini Rosso S. Maria in Portico August 29, 1294 Aquila Pope Celestine V Probably by Cardinal Matteo Orsini Rosso S. Maria in Portico On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome probably by Cardinal Hugh Aycelin bishop of Ostia e Velletri. He was crowned again a few days later (the only instance of a double papal coronation). January 23, 1295 Rome Pope Boniface VIII Matteo Orsini Rosso S. Maria in Portico On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Hugh Aycelin, bishop of Ostia e Velletri. October 27, 1303 Rome Pope Benedict XI Matteo Orsini Rosso S. Maria in Portico November 14, 1305 Lyon Pope Clement V Napoleone Orsini Frangipani S. Adriano September 5, 1316 Lyon Pope John XXII Napoleone Orsini Frangipani S. Adriano May 15, 1328 Rome Antipope Nicholas V Giacomo Alberti pseudocardinal-bishop of Ostia e Velletri On May 12 he was consecrated bishop of Rome also by Giacomo Alberti, at that time bishop of Castello. January 8, 1335 Avignon Pope Benedict XII Napoleone Orsini Frangipani S. Adriano May 19, 1342 Avignon Pope Clement VI Raymond Guillaume des Farges S. Maria Nuova December 30, 1352 Avignon Pope Innocent VI Gaillard de la Mothe S. Lucia in Septisolio November 6, 1362 Avignon Pope Urban V Probably by Cardinal Guillaume de la Jugié S. Maria in Cosmedin On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Andouin Aubert bishop of Ostia e Velletri. January 3, 1371 Avignon Pope Gregory XI Cardinal Rinaldo Orsini S. Adriano On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Guy de Boulogne bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. April 18, 1378 Rome Pope Urban VI Giacomo Orsini S. Giorgio in Velabro October 31, 1378 Fondi Antipope Clement VII Count Onorato Caetani (not a Cardinal) November 9, 1389 Rome Pope Boniface IX Tommaso Orsini S. Maria in Domnica On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Francesco Moricotti Prignano bishop of Palestrina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. October 11, 1394 Avignon Antipope Benedict XIII Hugues de Saint-Martial S. Maria in Portico On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Jean de Neufchâtel bishop of Ostia e Velletri. November 11, 1404 Rome Pope Innocent VII Rinaldo Brancaccio SS. Vito e Modesto December 19, 1406 Rome Pope Gregory XII Probably by Cardinal Rinaldo Brancaccio SS. Vito e Modesto July 7, 1409 Pisa Antipope Alexander V Amadeo Saluzzo S. Maria Nuova May 25, 1410 Bologna Antipope John XXIII Rinaldo Brancaccio SS. Vito e Modesto On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Jean Allarmet de Brogny bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. November 21, 1417 Constance Pope Martin V Amadeo Saluzzo S. Maria Nuova On November 14 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Jean Allarmet de Brogny, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. May 19, 1426 Peñíscola Antipope Clement VIII crowned by (?) March 11, 1431 Rome Pope Eugenius IV Alfonso Carillo de Albornoz S. Eustachio June 24, 1440 Basle Antipope Felix V Cardinal Louis Aleman S. Cecilia March 19, 1447 Rome Pope Nicholas V Prospero Colonna S. Giorgio in Velabro April 20, 1455 Rome Pope Callistus III Prospero Colonna S. Giorgio in Velabro September 3, 1458 Rome Pope Pius II Prospero Colonna S. Giorgio in Velabro September 16, 1464 Rome Pope Paul II Niccolò Fortiguerra S. Cecilia August 25, 1471 Rome Pope Sixtus IV Rodrigo Borgia S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. September 12, 1484 Rome Pope Innocent VIII Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini S. Eustachio August 26, 1492 Rome Pope Alexander VI Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini S. Eustachio October 8, 1503 Rome Pope Pius III Raffaele Riario S. Giorgio in Velabro On October 1 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. November 26, 1503 Rome Pope Julius II Raffaele Riario S. Giorgio in Velabro March 19, 1513 Rome Pope Leo X Alessandro Farnese S. Eustachio On March 17 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Raffaele Riario, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. August 31, 1522 Rome Pope Adrian VI Marco Cornaro S. Maria in Via Lata November 26, 1523 Rome Pope Clement VII Marco Cornaro S. Maria in Via Lata November 3, 1534 Rome Pope Paul III Innocenzo Cibo S. Maria in Domnica February 22, 1550 Rome Pope Julius III Innocenzo Cibo S. Maria in Domnica April 10, 1555 Rome Pope Marcellus II Jean du Bellay bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. May 26, 1555 Rome Pope Paul IV Francesco Pisani S. Marco January 6, 1560 Rome Pope Pius IV Alessandro Farnese S. Lorenzo in Damaso January 17, 1566 Rome Pope Pius V Giulio Feltre della Rovere S. Pietro in Vincoli May 25, 1572 Rome Pope Gregory XIII Girolamo Simoncelli SS. Cosma e Damiano May 1, 1585 Rome Pope Sixtus V Ferdinando de' Medici S. Maria in Domnica December 8, 1590 Rome Pope Gregory XIV Andreas von Austria S. Maria Nuova November 3, 1591 Rome Pope Innocent IX Andreas von Austria S. Maria Nuova February 9, 1592 Rome Pope Clement VIII Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora S. Maria in Via Lata On February 2 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Alfonso Gesualdo bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. April 29, 1605 Rome Pope Leo XI Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora S. Maria in Via Lata May 29, 1605 Rome Pope Paul V Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora S. Maria in Via Lata February 14, 1621 Rome Pope Gregory XV Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto S. Maria in Via Lata September 29, 1623 Rome Pope Urban VIII Alessandro d'Este S. Maria in Via Lata October 4, 1644 Rome Pope Innocent X Carlo de Medici S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano April 16, 1655 Rome Pope Alexander VII Gian Giacomo Teodoro Trivulzio S. Maria in Via Lata June 26, 1667 Rome Pope Clement IX Rinaldo d'Este S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano May 11, 1670 Rome Pope Clement X Francesco Maidalchini S. Maria in Via Lata October 4, 1676 Rome Pope Innocent XI Francesco Maidalchini S. Maria in Via Lata October 16, 1689 Rome Pope Alexander VIII Francesco Maidalchini S. Maria in Via Lata July 15, 1691 Rome Pope Innocent XII Urbano Sacchetti S. Maria in Via Lata December 8, 1700 Rome Pope Clement XI Benedetto Pamphilj S. Maria in Via Lata On November 30 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal de Bouillon bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. May 18, 1721 Rome Pope Innocent XIII Benedetto Pamphilj S. Maria in Via Lata June 4, 1724 Rome Pope Benedict XIII Benedetto Pamphilj S. Maria in Via Lata July 16, 1730 Rome Pope Clement XII Lorenzo Altieri S. Agata in Suburra August 21, 1740 Rome Pope Benedict XIV Carlo Maria Marini S. Agata in Suburra July 16, 1758 Rome Pope Clement XIII Alessandro Albani S. Maria in Via Lata June 4, 1769 Rome Pope Clement XIV Alessandro Albani S. Maria in Via Lata On May 28 he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Federico Marcello Lante bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. February 22, 1775 Rome Pope Pius VI Alessandro Albani S. Maria in Via Lata On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Albani, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. March 21, 1800 Venice Pope Pius VII Antonio Doria Pamphili S. Maria ad Martyres October 5, 1823 Rome Pope Leo XII Fabrizio Ruffo S. Maria in Via Lata April 5, 1829 Rome Pope Pius VIII Giuseppe Albani S. Maria in Via Lata February 6, 1831 Rome Pope Gregory XVI Giuseppe Albani S. Maria in Via Lata On that same day he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca bishop of Ostia e Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. June 21, 1846 Rome Pope Pius IX Tommaso Riario Sforza S. Maria in Via Lata March 3, 1878 Rome Pope Leo XIII Teodolfo Mertel deacon of S. Eustachio August 9, 1903 Rome Pope Pius X Luigi Macchi S. Maria in Via Lata September 6, 1914 Rome Pope Benedict XV Francesco Salesio Della Volpe S. Maria in Aquiro February 12, 1922 Rome Pope Pius XI Gaetano Bisleti S. Agata in Suburra March 12, 1939 Rome, Vatican City Pope Pius XII Camillo Caccia-Dominioni S. Maria in Domnica November 4, 1958 Rome, Vatican City Pope John XXIII Nicola Canali S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano June 30, 1963 Rome, Vatican City Pope Paul VI Alfredo Ottaviani S. Maria in Domnica
- ^ a b c Catholic Encyclopedia, "Pope Celestine V, Saint"
- ^ Dowling, Austin (1908), "Conclave", The Catholic Encyclopedia, IV, New York: Robert Appleton Company, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04192a.htm
- ^ Universi Dominici gregis, 90
- ^ Universi Dominici gregis, 91
- ^ Oliger, Livarius (1912), "Sedia Gestatoria", The Catholic Encyclopedia, XIII, New York: Robert Appleton Company, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13679a.htm
- ^ ”Deus qui adesse non delignaris ubicumque devota mente invocaris, adesto quaesumus invocationibus nostris et huic famulo tuo N. quem ad culmen apostolicum commune iudicium tuae plebis elegit ubertatem supernae benedictionis infunde, ut sentiat se tuo munere ad hunc apicem pervenisse.” Coronation Rites, Reginald Maxwell Woolley, B.D. (Cambridge: at the University Press, 1915), pp. 160-161.
- ^ “Supplicationibus, omnipotens Deus, effectum consuetae pietatis impende, et gratia Spiritus Sancti hunc famulum tuum N. perfunde; ut qui in capite ecclesiarum nostrae servitutis mysterio constituitur, tuae virtutis soliditate roboretur.” Ibid., p. 161.
- ^ ”Deus qui Apostolum tuum Petrum inter caeteros coapostolos primatum tenere voluisti, eique universae Christianitatis molem superimpostuisti; respice propitius quaesumus hunc famulum tuum N. quem de humili cathedra violenter sublimatum in thronum eiusdem apostolorum principis sublimamus: ut sicut profectibus tantae dignitatis augetur, ita virtutum meritis cumuletur; quatenus ecclesiasticae universitatis onus, te adiuvante, digne ferat, et a te qui es beatitudo tuorum meritam vicem recipiat.” Ibid.
- ^ Papal Coronation
- ^ “Accipe pallium, plenitudinem scilicet pontificalis officii, ad honorem omnipotentis Dei et gloriosissimae Virginis eius genitricis et beatorum apostolorum Petri et Pauli et sanctae Romanae ecclesiae.”
- ^ Thurston, Herbert (1908), "Cope", The Catholic Encyclopedia, IV, New York: Robert Appleton Company, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04351a.htm
- ^ This prayer is from the form for the Consecration of a bishop. Woolley. p. 163.
- ^ "Exaudi Christe"
- ^ ”Domino Nostro __ a Deo decreto summo Pontifici et universali Papae vita.”
- ^ "Salvador mundi"
- ^ "Tu illum adiuva"
- ^ "Sancta Maria"
- ^ "Sancte Michael"
- ^ Woolley, p. 163. The Papal Laudes were most recently chanted during the opening procession of the Inauguration Mass of Pope Benedict XVI on April 24, 2005.
- ^ The Greek Epistle and Gospel were traditionally read by a subdeacon and a deacon from the Byzantine monastery of Grottaferrata east of Rome
- ^ I.e., the Sacrament was brought to the Pope by the deacon and the subdeacon at his throne and he consumed a portion of the Host and drank from the Chalice by means of a narrow gold or silver-gilt tube called a fistula.
- ^ The Coronation of Pope Leo XIII
- ^ Universi Dominici gregis, 92
- ^ Van Hove, A. (1909), "Enthronization", The Catholic Encyclopedia, V, New York: Robert Appleton Company, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05479c.htm
- ^ Contemporary description of the coronation of Pope Leo XIII
- ^ John Cornwell, Hitler's Pope: The Secret History of Pius XII (Viking, 1999) pp. 211-212.
- ^ Romano Pontifici Eligendo Section 92.
- ^ Time Magazine: How Pope John Paul I Won
- ^ National Catholic Register: 33 Days of the Smiling Pope
- ^ Papal Inauguration Homily of Pope John Paul II, L'Osservatore Romano (Text of the Homily)
- ^ Universi Dominici gregis, 92
- ^ OSV's encyclopedia of Catholic history, Tiara (p. 900)
- ^ No information has been found about his coronation
- ^ Regesta Imperii
- ^ S. Miranda: Cardinal Uberto Crivelli (Pope Urban III) says that Urban III was crowned by protodeacon Giacinto Bobone Orsini but this is unlikely because this cardinal was absent from the papal court at that time (see papal election, 1185). Cardinal Rivoltella was the most senior cardinal-deacon present.
- Video highlights from Pius XII's 1939 coronation
- The Coronation of Pope Leo XIII a detailed account
- The Papal Tiara shows photos of several papal coronations
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