Pope Innocent XII

Pope Innocent XII

Infobox pope|English name=Innocent XII
Latin name=Innocens PP. XII

birth_name=Antonio Pignatelli
term_start=July 12, 1691
term_end=September 27, 1700
predecessor=Alexander VIII
successor=Clement XI
birth_date=birth date|1615|3|13|mf=y
birthplace=Spinazzola, Italy
dead=dead|death_date=death date and age|1700|9|27|1615|3|13
deathplace= Rome, Italy

Pope Innocent XII (March 13, 1615 – September 27, 1700), born Antonio Pignatelli was Pope from 1691 to 1700. He was the successor of Pope Alexander VIII (1689–91).


He was born in Spinazzola (current Puglia) to one of the most aristocratic families of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, which included many Viceroys, and ministers to the crown, and was educated at the Jesuit college in Rome.

In his twentieth year he became an official of the court of Pope Urban VIII (1623–1644); under successive Popes he served as nuncio at Florence and Vienna and in Poland; he served as inquisitor in Malta; and by Pope Innocent XI (1676–1689) he was made cardinal in 1681 and archbishop of Naples. After the conclave held after the death of Alexander VIII had gone on for five months he was a compromise candidate between the cardinals of France and the Holy Roman Empire.Immediately after his election on July 12, 1691, Innocent XII declared against the nepotism which had too much and too long been one of the greatest scandals of the Papacy; the bull "Romanum decet Pontificem", issued in 1692, banned the curial office of the Cardinal Nephew and prohibited Popes at all times from bestowing estates, offices, or revenues on any relative; furthermore, only one relative, "if otherwise suitable", was to be raised to the cardinalate. At the same time he sought to check the simoniacal practices of the apostolic chamber, and in connection with this to introduce a simpler and more economical manner of life into his court. Innocent XII said that "the poor were his nephews", comparing his public benificence to the nepotism of many predecessors.

Innocent XII introduced various reforms into the States of the Church, and for the better administration of justice erected the "Forum Innocentianum". In 1693 he compelled the French bishops to retract the four propositions relating to the Gallican Liberties which had been formulated by the assembly of 1682. In 1699, he decided in favour of Jacques-Benigne Bossuet in that prelate's controversy with Fénelon about the "Explication des Maximes des Saints sur la Vie Intérieure" of the latter. Innocent XII's pontificate contrasted with that of a series of predecessors in having marked leanings towards France instead of Germany.

Innocent XII appears as one of the narrators in Robert Browning's long poem "The Ring and the Book" (1869), based on the true story of the Pope's intervention in a historical murder trial in Rome during his papacy.

This benevolent, self-abnegating and pious Pope died on September 27, 1700 and was succeeded by Pope Clement XI (1700–1721). His tomb at St. Peter's Basilica was sculpted by Filippo della Valle.


*Original text from the 9th edition (1880) of the "Encyclopædia Britannica"

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pope Innocent XII —     Pope Innocent XII     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent XII     (ANTONIO PIGNATELLI)     Born at Spinazzolo near Naples, 13 March, 1615; died at Rome, 27 September, 1700. Re entered the Roman Curia at the age of twenty and was… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Innocent XII —     Pope Innocent XII     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent XII     (ANTONIO PIGNATELLI)     Born at Spinazzolo near Naples, 13 March, 1615; died at Rome, 27 September, 1700. Re entered the Roman Curia at the age of twenty and was… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Pope Innocent XIII —     Pope Innocent XIII     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent XIII     (Michelangelo Dei Conti)     Born at Rome, 13 May, 1655; died at the same place, 7 March, 1724. He was the son of Carlo II, Duke of Poli. After studying at the Roman… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Pope Gregory XII —     Pope Gregory XII     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Gregory XII     (ANGELO CORRARIO, now CORRER).     Legal pope during the Western Schism; born at Venice, of a noble family, about 1327; died at Recanati, 18 October, 1417.    …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Pope Clement XII —     Pope Clement XII     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Clement XII     (LORENZO CORSINI).     Born at Florence, 7 April, 1652; elected 12 July, 1730; died at Rome 6 February, 1740. The pontificate of the saintly Orsini pope, Benedict XIII, from… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Pope Innocent — There have been thirteen popes named Innocent.# Pope Innocent I, saint (401 417) # Pope Innocent II (1130 1143) # Pope Innocent III (1198 1216) #* Antipope Innocent III # Pope Innocent IV (1243 1254) # Pope Innocent V (1276) # Pope Innocent VI… …   Wikipedia

  • Pope Pius XII — Pius XII Papacy began 2 March 1939 Papacy ended 9 October 1958 ( 1000000000000001900000019 years, 10000000000000221000000221 days) Predecessor …   Wikipedia

  • Pope Clement XII — Clement XII Papacy began 12 July 1730 Papacy ended 6 February 1740 ( 100000000000000090000009 years, 100000000000002 …   Wikipedia

  • Pope Gregory XII — Infobox Pope English name=Gregory XII birth name=Angelo Correr or Corraro term start=November 30, 1406 term end=July 4, 1415 predecessor=Innocent VII successor=Martin V birth date=c. 1326 or between 1335 and 1345 birthplace= Venice, Italy… …   Wikipedia

  • Pope Innocent VII — Innocent VII Papacy began October 17, 1404 Papacy ended November 6, 1406 Predecessor Boniface IX …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”