native_name= Ville d'Avignon
image_coat_of_arms_size = 90px
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y = 208
time zone = CET (GMT +1)
maire= Marie-Josée Roig
party = UMP
alt moy=23 m
alt maxi=122 m
Avignon (IPA|/avi/ in French) (Provençal: "Avinhon" in classical norm or "Avignoun" in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the
Vauclusedepartment in southeastern Francewith an estimated mid-2004 population of 89,300 in the city itself and a population of 290,466 in the metropolitan area at the 1999 census.
The city is well known for its "
Palais des Papes" (Palace of the Popes), where several popes and antipopeslived from the early 14th to early 15th centuries.
Avignon is situated on the left bank of the Rhône, a few miles above its confluence with the
Durance, about convert|580|km|mi|1|abbr=on south-south-east of Paris, convert|229|km|mi|1|abbr=on south of Lyon and convert|85|km|mi|1|abbr=on north-north-west of Marseille. Its coordinates are coord|43|57|N|4|50|E|type:city(88,300). Avignon occupies a large oval-shaped area, not fully populated and covered in great part by parks and gardens.
Avignon is often subject to windy weather, the strongest wind is the mistral. The popular proverb is, however, somewhat exaggerated, "Avenie ventosa, sine vento venenosa, cum vento fastidiosa" (windy Avignon, pest-ridden when there is no wind, wind-pestered when there is).
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publisher= |language=fact|date=August 2008
Avignon is the "
préfecture" (capital) of the Vaucluse"département" in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur. It forms the core of the Grand Avignonmetropolitan area (" communauté d'agglomération"), which comprises twelve communes on both sides of the river:
* Les Angles,
Rochefort-du-Gard, Sazeand Villeneuve-lès-Avignonin the Gard"département";
Caumont-sur-Durance, Jonquerettes, Morières-lès-Avignon, Le Pontet, Saint-Saturnin-lès-Avignon, Vedèneand Velleronin the Vaucluse "département".
Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Historic Centre of Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble and Avignon Bridge
State Party = FRA
Type = Cultural
Criteria = i, ii, iv
ID = 228
Region = Europe and North America
Year = 1995
Session = 19th
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/228
The site of Avignon was settled very early on; the rocky outcrop ("le Rocher les Doms") at the north end of the town, overlooking the
Rhône River, may have been the site of a Celtic " oppidum" or hill fort.
Avignon, written as Avennio or Avenio in the ancient texts and inscriptions, takes its name from the Avennius clan. Founded by the Gallic tribe of the
Cavaresor Cavari, it became the centre of an important Phocaean colony from Massilia(present Marseilles). Under the Romans, Avenio was a flourishing city of Gallia Narbonensis, the first Transalpine province of the Roman Empire, but very little from this period remains (a few fragments of the forum near Rue Molière).
During the inroads of the
barbarians, it was badly damaged in the 5th century and belonged in turn to the Goths, the kingdoms of Burgundy and of Arles, the Ostrogothsand the Frankish- Merovingiankings of Austrasia. In 736 it fell into the hands of the Saracensand was destroyed in 737 by the Franksunder Charles Martelfor having sided with the Arabs against him. Boso having been proclaimed Burgundian King of Provence, or of Arelat(after its capital Arles), by the Synod of Mantaille, at the death of Louis the Stammerer(879), Avignon ceased to belong to the Frankish kings.
In 1033, when
Conrad IIfell heir to the Kingdom of Arelat, Avignon passed to the empire. The German rulers being at a distance, Avignon took advantage of their absence to set up as a republic with a consular form of government, between 1135 and 1146. In addition to the Emperor, the Counts of Forcalquier, of Toulouseand of Provenceexercised a purely nominal sway over the city; on two occasions, in 1125 and in 1251, the Counts of Toulouseand Provencedivided their rights in regard to it, while the Count of Forcalquierresigned any right he possessed to the local Bishops and Consuls in 1135.
At the end of the 12th century, Avignon declared itself an independent republic, but independence was crushed in 1226 during the crusade against the Albigenses (the dualist
Catharheresy centered in neighboring Albi). After the citizens refused to open the gates of Avignon to King Louis VIII of Franceand the papal Legate, a three month siege ensued starting on June 10th, 1226, and ending in capitulation by Avignon on September 13th, 1226. Following the defeat, they were forced to pull down the ramparts and fill up the moat of the city.
On 7 May 1251 Avignon was made a common possession of counts
Charles of Anjouand Alphonse de Poitiers, brothers of French king Saint Louis IX. On 25 August 1271, at the death of Alphonse de Poitiers, Avignon and the surrounding countship Comtat-Venaissin(which was governed by rectors since 1274) were united with the French crown.
Avignon and its Popes
In 1309 the city was chosen by
Pope Clement Vas his residence when the city and the surrounding Comtat Venaissinwere ruled by the kings of Sicilyfrom the house of Anjou, and from 9 March 1309 till 13 January 1377 was the seat of the Papacy instead of Rome. French King Philip the Fair, who had inherited from his father all the rights of Alphonse de Poitiers, the last Count of Toulouse, made them over to Charles II, King of Naples and Count of Provence (1290). Nonetheless, Phillip was a shrewd ruler. Inasmuch as the eastern banks of the Rhone marked the edge of his kingdom, when the river flooded up into the city of Avignon, Phillip taxed the city since during periods of flood, the city technically lay within his domain. Regardless, on the strength of the donation of Avignon, Queen Joanna I of Sicily, as countess of Provence, sold the city to Clement VI for 80,000 florins on 9 June, 1348 and, though it was later the seat of more than one antipope, Avignon belonged to the Papacy until 1791, when, during the disorder of the French Revolution, it was reincorporated with France.
Seven popes resided there:
Pope Clement V: 1305–1314
Pope John XXII: 1316–1334
Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342
Pope Clement VI: 1342–1352
Pope Innocent VI: 1352–1362
Pope Urban V: 1362–1370
Pope Gregory XI: 1370–1378
This period from 1309–1377 — the
Avignon Papacy— was also called the Babylonian Captivity of exile, in reference to the Israelites' enslavement in biblical times.
The walls that were built by the
popes in the years immediately after the acquisition of Avignon as papal territory are well preserved. As they were not particularly strong fortifications, the Popes relied instead on the immensely strong fortifications of their palace, the " Palais des Papes". This immense Gothic building, with walls 17–18 feet thick, was built 1335–1364 on a natural spur of rock, rendering it all but impregnable to attack. After being taken following the French Revolution, it was used as a barracks and prison for many years but it is now a museum.
Avignon, which at the beginning of the fourteenth century was a town of no great importance, underwent a wonderful development during the time the seven Avignon popes and two anti-popes, Clement V to Benedict XIII made their residences there. To the north and south of the rock of the Doms, partly on the site of the Bishop's Palace, which had been enlarged by
John XXII, was built the Palace of the Popes, in the form of an imposing fortress made up of towers, linking one to another, and named as follows: De la Campane, de Trouillas, de la Glacière, de Saint-Jean, des Saints-Anges (Benedict XII), de la Gâche, de la Garde-Robe (Clement VI), de Saint-Laurent (Innocent VI). The Palace of the Popes belongs, by its severe architecture, to the Gothic artof the South of France. Other noble examples can be seen in the churches of St. Didier, St. Peter and St. Agricola, as well as the Clock Tower, and in the fortifications built between 1349 and 1368 for a distance of some three miles (5 km), flanked by thirty-nine towers, all of which were erected or restored by the Roman Catholic Church. The frescoes that are on the interiors of the Palace of the Popes and the churches of Avignon were created primarilly by artists from Siena.
The popes were followed to Avignon by agents (
factores) of the great Italian banking-houses, who settled in the city as money-changers, as intermediaries between the Apostolic Chamberand its debtors, living in the most prosperous quarters of the city, which was known as the Exchange. A crowd of traders of all kinds brought to market the products necessary to maintain the numerous court and of the visitors who flocked to it; grain and wine from Provence, from the south of France, the Roussillonand the country around Lyon. Fish was brought from places as distant as Brittany; cloths, rich stuffs and tapestries came from Brugesand Tournai. We need only glance at the account-books of the Apostolic Chamber, still kept in the Vatican archives, in order to judge of the trade of which Avignon became the center. The university founded by Boniface VIII in 1303, had a good many students under the French popes, drawn thither by the generosity of the sovereign pontiffs, who rewarded them with books or benefices.
During the Great Schism (1378-1415) the
antipopes Clement VII and Benedict XIII returned to reside at Avignon. Clement VII lived in Avignon during his entire anti-pontificate, while Benedict XIII only lived there until 1403 when he was forced to flee to Aragon.
After the departure of the popes
After the restoration of the
Papacyin Rome, the spiritual and temporal government of Avignon was entrusted to a gubernatorial Legate, notably the Cardinal-nephew, who was replaced, in his absence, by a vice-legate (contrary to the legate usually a commoner, and not a cardinal). But Pope Innocent XIIabolished nepotism and the office of Legate in Avignon on 7 February 1693, handing over its temporal government in 1692 to the Congregation of Avignon (i.e. a department of the papal Curia, residing at Rome), with the Cardinal Secretary of Stateas presiding prefect, and exercising its jurisdiction through the vice-legate. This congregation, to which appeals were made from the decisions of the vice-legate, was united to the Congregation of Loretowithin the Roman Curia; in 1774 the vice-legate was made president, thus depriving it of almost all authority. It was done away with under Pius VIon 12 June 1790. The Public Council, composed of forty-eight councillors chosen by the people, four members of the clergy and four doctors of the university, met under the presidency of the chief magistrate of the city, the "viquier" (Occitan) or vicar or representative of the papal Legate or Vice-legate, who annually nominated a man for the post. The councillors' duty was to watch over the material and financial interests of the city; but their resolutions were to be submitted to the vice-legate for approval before being put in force. Three consuls, chosen annually by the Council, had charge of the administration of the streets.
Avignon's survival as a papal enclave was, however, somewhat precarious, as the French crown maintained a large standing garrison at
Villeneuve-lès-Avignonjust across the river.
From the 15th century onward it became the policy of the Kings of France to rule Avignon as part of their kingdom. In 1476,
Louis XI, upset that Charles of Bourbon was made legate, sent troops to occupy the city, until his demands that Giuliano della Roverebe made legate, once Giuliano della Roverewas made a cardinal he withdrew his troops from the city.
In 1536 king
Francis I of Franceinvaded the papal territory, in order to overthrow Emperor Charles V, who was emperor of the territory. When he entered the city the people received him very well, and in return for the reception the people were all granted to them the same privileges that French subjects enjoyed, such as being able to hold state offices.
In (1583) King
Henry III Valoisattempted to offer an exchange of Marquisate of Saluzzofor Avignon, however his offer was refused by Pope Gregory XIII.
In 1663 in retaliation for the attack led by the
Corsican Guardon the attendants of the Duc de Créqui, the ambassador of Louis XIVin Rome, he attacked and seized Avignon. Which at the time was considered an important and integral part of the French Kingdom by the provincial Parliament of Provence.
In 1688 yet another attempt was made to occupy Avignon, however the attempt failed, and from 1688 to 1768 Avignon was at peace with no occupations or wars during that time.
Louis XV, dissatisfied with Clement XIII's action in regard to the Duke of Parma, occupied the Papal Statesfrom 1768 to 1774 and substituted French institutions for those in force with the approval of the people of Avignon; a French party grew up which, after the sanguinary massacres of La Glacièrebetween the adherents of the Papacy and the Republicans (16-17 October 1791), carried all before it, and induced the Constituent Assembly to decree the union of Avignon and the Comtat (comital district) Venaissin with France on 14 September, 1791. On 25 June 1793 Avignon and Comtat-Venaissain were integrated along with the former principality of Orange to form the present republican département Vaucluse.
Article 5 of the
Treaty of Tolentino(19 February, 1797) definitively sanctioned the annexation, stating that "The Pope renounces, purely and simply, all the rights to which he might lay claim over the city and territory of Avignon, and the Comtat Venaissin and its dependencies, and transfers and makes over the said rights to the French Republic." In 1801 the territory had 191,000 inhabitants.
On 30 May 1814, the French annexation was recognized by the Pope.
Consalvimade an ineffectual protest at the Congress of Viennain 1815 but Avignon was never restored to the Holy See. In 1815 Bonapartist Marshal Guillaume Marie Anne Brunewas assassinated in the town by adherents of the royalist partyduring the White Terror.
Ecclesiastical history of the (Arch)diocese
It was the seat of a
bishopas early as the year 70 AD. The first bishop known to history is Nectarius, who took part in several councils about the middle of the fifth century. St. Magnus was a Gallo-Roman senatorwho became a monkand then bishop of the city. His son, St. Agricol(Agricolus), bishop between 650 and 700, is the patron saint of Avignon. Several synods of minor importance were held there, and its university, founded by Pope Boniface VIIIin 1303 and famed as a seat of legal studies, flourished until the French Revolution. The memory of St. Eucheriusstill clings to three vast caves near the village of Beaumont, whither, it is said, the people of Lyonhad to go in search of him when they sought him to make him their archbishop. As Bishop of Cavaillon, Cardinal Philippe de Cabassoles, seigneur of Vaucluse, was the great protector of the Renaissance poet Petrarch. In 1309 the city was chosen by Clement Vas his residence, and from that time till 1377 was the papal seat. In 1348 the city was sold by Joanna, Countess of Provence, to Clement VIfor 80,000 florins. In 1475 pope Sixtus IVraised the diocese of Avignon to the rank of an archbishopric, in favour of his nephew Giuliano della Rovere, who later became Pope Julius II. The Archdioceseof Avignon has canonic jurisdiction over the department of Vaucluse. Before the French Revolutionit had as suffragan sees Carpentras, Vaisonand Cavaillon, which were united by the Napoleonic Concordat of 1801to Avignon, together with the Diocese of Apt, a suffragan of Aix-en-Provence. However, at that same time Avignon was reduced to the rank of a bishopricand was made a suffragan see of Aix. The Archdioceseof Avignon was re-established in 1822, receiving as suffragan sees the Diocese of Viviers(restored in 1822), Valence: (formerly under Lyon), Nimes(restored in 1822) and Montpellier(formerly under Toulouse).
In 2002, as part of the reshuffling of the ecclesiastic provinces of France, the Archdiocese of Avignon ceased to be a metropolitan and became, instead a
suffragan dioceseof the new province of Marseilles, while keeping its rank of archdiocese.
Councils of Avignon
The Councils of Avignon are Councils of the
Roman Catholic Church. The first reported council was held in 1060, though nothing is known about the events of the council. In 1080 another council was held, with Hugues de Dié, papal legateas council president. During the 1080 council Aicard, usurper of the See of Arleswas deposed, and Gibelinplaced in his position. Three bishops-elect ( Lautelin of Embrun, Hugues of Grenoble, Didier of Cavaillon) accompanied the legate to Rome and were consecrated there by Pope Gregory VII.
During the 13th century four councils were held, including the 1209 council in which the inhabitants of Toulouse were excommunicated from the church by the council for failing to expel the
Albigensianheretics from Toulouse. Included in the population that was excommunicated were two papal legates, four archbishops and twenty bishops. The next council was held in 1270, and Bertrand de Malferrat, Archbishop of Arlespresided over the council. The usurpers of ecclesiastical property were severely threatened; unclaimed legacies were allotted to pious uses; the bishops were urged to mutually support one another; and individual churches were taxed for the support of the papal legates; and ecclesiastics were forbidden to convoke the civil courts against their bishops. And the council banned Christmas carols.
During the 1279 council they were concerned with the clergies protection of rights, privileges, and immunities. Provisions were also made for those who promised to join the crusade
Gregory Xhad ordered, but had failed to actually go on the crusade. also the council decreed that to hear confessions monks must have permission of their ordinary, or bishop, as well as their superior. The last council during the 13th century was the council of 1282, during the council they published 10 canons. Among the canons published was one urging people to more regularly frequent the parochial churches, and to goto their parish church for at least feast days and on Sundays.
During the 1327 council the
temporalitiesof the Church and ecclesiastical jurisdiction occupied their attention. The council published seventy-nine canons in 1337. The 79 canons are renewed from earlier councils, and emphasize the duty of Easter Communion in one's own parish church, And of abstinence on Saturday for beneficed persons and ecclesiastics, in honour of the Blessed Virgin, a practice begun three centuries earlier on the occasion of the Truce of God, but no longer universal.
The 15th century saw two councils convened, one in 1457 and one in 1497. The 1457 council was held by Cardinal de Foix, Archbishop of Arles and legate of Avignon, he was also a Franciscan. His primary reason was to promote the doctrine of Immaculate Conception, in sense of the declaration of the council of Basle. They forbade the preaching of the contrary doctrine, as well as 64 disciplinary canons that were published, in keeping with the legislation of previous councils. In 1497 Archbishop Francesco Tarpugi (after the council he was cardinal) presided over the council. They published a simialr number of decrees to the 1457 council. It was decreed that the sponsors of the newly confirmed were not obligated to make presents to their parents or to them. They also decreed that before the relics of the saints two candles were to be kept lite at all times.
During the next five centuries only six further councils were held. The 1509 council focused on disciplinary measures. The next council, in 1596, was called to discuss the furthering of the observance of the decrees of the
Council of Trent., and the 1609 council was held for very similar circumstances. The councils of 1664 and 1725 were held to formulate disciplinary decrees. The 1725 council also decreed the duty of adhering to the Papal Bull " Unigenitus" (1713) of Clement XIthat condemned the Oratorian, Pasquier Quesnel. The final council on record was in 1849 and it published ten chapters of canons concerning discipline and faith.
University of Avignon
The University of Avignon (1303-1792), [ Catholic Encyclopedia (1913).] formed from the existing schools of the city, and was formally constituted in 1303, by Boniface VIII in a
Papal Bull. Boniface VIII, and King Charles II of Naples should be considered one of the first great protectors and benefactors to the University of Avignon. The Law department within the university has always been its most important department, covering both civil and ecclesiastical law. The law department existed nearly exclusively for some time after the universitys forming and remained the most important department through its existence.
Antipope John XXIIIfounded the University's department of Theology, which for quite some time had only a few students. The university's art department never did gain any great importance. It was not until the 16th and 17th centuries that the school developed a department of medicine. The Bishop of Avignonwas chancellor of the university from 1303 to 1475, after 1475 the bishop became and Archbishop, but remained chancellor of the university.The papal vice-legate, generally a bishop, represented the civil power (in this case the pope) and was chiefly a judicial officer, ranking higher than the Primicerius (Rector).
The Primicerius was elected by the Doctors of Law. In 1503 the Doctors of Law had 4 Theologians, and in 1784 two Doctors of Medicine added their ranks. Since the Pope was the spiritual head, and after 1348, the temporal ruler of Avignon, he was able to have a great deal of influence in all university affairs. In 1413, John XXIII granted the university extensive special privileges, such as university jurisdiction, and tax exempt status. Circumstances in the latter part of the universitys existence such as political, geographical, and educational, caused the university to seek favour from Paris rather than Rome for protection and favour. During the chaos of the
French Revolutionthe university started to gradually disappear, and in 1792 the university was abandoned and closed. Currently the university has been superseded by the modern Université of Avignon and Vaucluse [ [http://www.univ-avignon.fr/ Website of University of Avignon] ] .
Notre Dame des Doms", the cathedral, is a Romanesque building, mainly built during the 12th century, the most prominent feature of the cathederal is the gilded statue of the Virgin which surmounts the western tower. The mausoleumof Pope John XXIIis one of the most beautiful works within the cathederal, it is a noteworthy example of 14th century Gothic carving.
Palais des Papes" ("Papal Palace"), almost dwarfs the cathedral. The palace is an impressive monument and sits within a square of the same name. The palace was begun in 1316 by John XXIIand continued by succeeding popes through the 14th century, until 1370 when it was finished.
*Minor churches of the town include, among the others, St Pierre, which has a graceful facade and richly carved doors, St Didier and St Agricol, all three of which were built in the Gothic architectural style.
*Civic buildings are represented most notably by the Hôtel de Ville (city hall), a modern building with a
belfryof the 14th century, and the old "Hôtel des Monnaies", the papal mintwhich was built in 1610 and became a music-school.
*Ramparts, built by the popes in the 14th century, still encircled Avignon and they are one of the finest examples of medieval fortification in existence. The walls of great strength are surmounted by machicolated sattlements, flanked at intervals by thirty-nine massive towers and pierced by several gateways, three of which date from the 14th century. The walls were restored under the direction of
*Bridges include the little bridge which leads over the river to
Villeneuve-les-Avignon, and a little higher up, a picturesque ruined bridge of the 12th century, the Pont Saint-Bénézet, projects into the river.
Pont d'Avignon" (Pont St-Bénézet, see below) Only four of the eighteen piles are left; on one of them stands the small Romanesque chapel of Saint-Bénézet. But the bridge is best known for the famous French song "sur le pont d'Avignon".
*The Calvet Museum, so named after
Esprit Calvet, a physician who in 1810 left his collections to the town, has a strong collection of paintings, metalwork and other collections. The library has over 140,000 volumes.
* The town has a statue of a Persian,
Jean Althen, who in 1765 introduced the culture of the madderplant, which long formed the staple and is still an important branch of local trade.
* The "Musée du Petit Palais" (opened 1976) at the end of the square overlooked by the Palais des Papes, has an exceptional collection of Renaissance paintings of the Avignon school as well as from Italy, which reunites many "primitives" from the collection of
* "Collection Lambert", housing contemporary art exhibitions
* "Musée Angladon", which exhibits the paintings of a private collector who created the museaum
* "Musée Lapidaire", with the archeological and medieval sculpture collections of the
Fondation Calvet, in the old chapel of the JesuitCollege.
* "Musée Louis-Vouland"
* "Palais du Roure"
A famous theater festival is held annually in Avignon. Founded in 1947, the
Avignon Festivalcomprises traditional theatrical events as well as other art forms such as dance, music, and cinema, making good use of the town's historical monuments. Every summer approximately 100,000 people attend the festival. Fact|date=April 2008 There are really two festivals that take place: the more formal "Festival In", which presents plays inside the Palace of the Popes and the more bohemian "Festival Off", which is known for its presentation of largely undiscovered plays and street performances.
The International Congress Center
It was created in 1976 within the outstanding premises of the Palace of the Popes and hosts many events throughout the entire year. The Congress Center, designed for conventions, seminars, and meetings for 10 to 550 persons, now occupies two wings of the Popes' Palace. [ [http://www.palais-des-papes.com/anglais/cicaccueil.html Popes' Palace] ]
Avignon has an SNCF railway station, situated just outside the ramparts of the old town, and a new TGV station outside the town, served by the
TGV Méditerranée, a high-speed railsystem. [ [http://www.avignon.fr/fr/pratique/transport/ Official guide to transport in Avignon] ] It is situated on the banks of the river Rhone, one of the main water thoroughfares in France.
On 7 July 2008 the nuclear power plant and reprocessing centre at
Bollèneaccidentally released 30 cubic meters of liquid containing unenriched uranium into the Gaffiere and Lauzon rivers. As it took authorities at least 12 hours to alert the population of the Avignon area, it is thought water supplies were contaminated and crops may have been irrigated with contaminated water. Just how many years food from the area may be effected is as yet unknown. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7502208.stm Leak closes French nuclear plant] ]
"Sur le pont d'Avignon"
Avignon is commemorated by the French children's song, "
Sur le pont d'Avignon" ("On the bridge of Avignon"), which describes folk dancing. The bridgeof the song is the Saint Bénézet bridge, over the Rhône River, of which only four arches (out of the initial 22) remain which start from the Avignon side of the river. In fact people would have danced "beneath" the bridge ("sous le pont") where it crossed an island ( Ile de Barthelasse) on its way to Villeneuve-lès-Avignon. The bridge was initially built between 1171 and 1185, with an original length of some 900 m (2950 ft), but it suffered frequent collapses during floods and had to be reconstructed several times. Several arches were already missing (and spanned by wooden sections) before the remainder were destroyed in 1660.
tudy Abroad program
Today, Avignon hosts a study abroad program for American students run through the Institute for American Universities (IAU). Classes focus on learning French, liberal arts and European history.
People born (and died) in Avignon
Jean Alesi, race car driver
Henri Bosco, writer
Pierre Boulle, author of " The Bridge on the River Kwai" and " Planet of the Apes"
Alexandre de Rhodes(1591-1660), Jesuit missionary
Bernard Kouchner, politician
Mireille Mathieu, singer
Olivier Messiaen, composer
Joseph Vernet, painter
John Stuart Milldied at Avignon in 1873, and is buried in the cemetery.
Avignon is twinned with:
Colchester, United Kingdom
* New Haven,
* Wichita, United States
Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
Battle of Avignon(737)
Avignon Foot 84
*Catholic [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02158a.htm (arch)diocese] , [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02159a.htm Councils] & [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02160a.htm University]
** d'Arbois de Jubainville, "Recherches sur l'origine de la propriété foncière et des noms des lieux habités en France" (Paris, 1890), 518
** Fantoni Castrucci, "Istoria della citt dAvignone del Contado 1/enesino" (Venice, 1678)
** J. B. Joudou, "Histoire des souverains pontifes qui ont siègé à Avignon" (Avignon, 1855)
** A. Canron, "Guide de l'étranger dans Ia ville d'Avignon & ses environs" (Avignon, 1858)
** J. F. Andr&, Histoire de la Papauti a Avignon (Avignon, 1887).
* [http://catholic-hierarchy.org/diocese/davig.html Catholic hierarchy - includes recent diocesan statistics]
* [http://www.worldstatesmen.org/France.html#Avignon WorldStatesmen- France; includes lists of papal (Vice-)Legates]
*Martin Garrett, "Provence: a Cultural History"(Oxford, 2006)
* [http://www.ot-avignon.fr Tourist office website]
* [http://www.avignon.fr/en/ City council website]
* [http://www.festival-avignon.com/ Avignon theater festival website]
* [http://www.avignonfilmfest.com Avignon/New York & Avignon film festivals website]
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