- Pope Innocent VIII
English name=Innocent VIII
birth_name=Giovanni Battista Cybo or Cibo
August 29, 1484
July 25, 1492
Pope Innocent VIII (1432 –
July 25, 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Popefrom 1484 until his death.
Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) was born at
Genoaof Greek extraction, The Every Day Book of History and Chronology Embracing the Anniversaries of Memorable persons and events in every period and state of the world, from the creation to the present time, Joel Munsell, 1858 Appleton, University of Michigan, p.295 ] The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet, Enguerrand de Monstrelet, Bon Joseph Dacier, 1849 H.G. Bohn, Oxford University, p.458 ] The history of the Christian church during the Middle Ages with a summary of the reformation, centuries XI to XVI, Philip Smith, 1885 Harper & bros, University of Michigan, p.219 ] the son of Arano Cybo or Cibo (c. 1375-c. 1455) who under Pope Calixtus III(1455–58) had been a senatorat Rome, and wife Teodorina de Mari (c. 1380-), and paternal grandson of Maurizio Cybo or Cibo and wife Saeacina Marocelli. His early years were spent at the Neapolitan court, and subsequently he went to Paduaand Romefor his education. In Rome he became a priest in the retinue of cardinal Calandnini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V(1447–55); the influence of his friends procured for him, from Pope Paul II(1464–71) the bishopric of Savona, and in 1473, with the support of Giuliano Della Rovere, later Pope Julius II, he was made cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV(1471–84), whom he succeeded on August 29, 1484 as Pope Innocent VIII.
The conclave was riven with faction, while gangs rioted in the streets. Cardinal Giuliano did not have sufficient votes at the conclave to be elected, so he turned his energies towards the election of Cybo, whom he was confident that he could control.
Shortly after his coronation Innocent VIII addressed a fruitless summons to
Christendomto unite in a crusadeagainst the infidels; the amount of his own zeal may in some degree be estimated from the fact that in 1489, in consideration of a yearly stipend of 40,000 ducats and a gift of the Holy Lance, he consented to favour Bayazid II(1481–1512) by detaining the Sultan's fugitive brother Cemin close confinement in the Vatican.
Innocent VIII, in his
papal bull" Summis desiderantes" ( 5 December, 1484) instigated severe measures against magicians and witches in Germany. In 1487, he confirmed Tomas de Torquemadaas grand inquisitor of Spain; he was a strong supporter of the Spanish Inquisition; he also urged a crusade against the Waldensians, offering plenary indulgenceto all who should engage in it. In 1486, he prohibited, on pain of severe ecclesiastical censures, the reading of the nine hundred propositions of Pico Mirandola.
In Rome he built for summer use the Belvedere of the Vatican, on an unarticulated slope above the
Vatican Palacefor Chelsea, which his successor would turn into the Cortile del Belvedere. in season he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged. Invariably short of money, he institutionalized simonyat the papal court, creating new titles of offices that were discreetly auctioned.
Ferdinand I of Napleshaving repeatedly refused to pay the tariff for his investiture, and a shaky peace of 1486 having failed, Innocent found reason to excommunicate Ferdinand and invite Charles VIII of Franceto come to Italy with an army and take possession of the Kingdom of Naples.The conflict was not ended until 1494, after Innocent's death.
An important event that coincided with his pontificate was the fall of
Granadain January 1492, which was celebrated in the Vatican with great rejoicings. The Pope was sent a hundred fine Moorish slaves, whom he distributed among the Curiaand to friends, and granted Ferdinand II of Aragonthe epithet "Catholic Majesty."
Innocent VIII died on
July 25, 1492, leaving behind him numerous children, of whom only two were publicly acknowledged, the others presented in the usual way as nephews. ["towards whom his nepotismhad been as lavish as it was shameless" ("Encyclopaedia Britannica" 1911).] In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo(d. 1519) to Maddalena de' Medici (1473-1528), by whom he had issue, the natural daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X. His daughter Teodorina Cibo married Gerardo Usodimare and had female issue. Savonarolachastised him for his worldly ambitions. The unsympathetic Roman chronicler Stefano Infessuraprovides many lively details, among them the apparent attempt to revive Innocent VIII on his deathbed by blood transfusions from three young male children (who died as well in the process). [ [http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/Bar-Cod/Blood-Transfusion.html Discoveries in medicine: blood transfusion] .]
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