- Pope Alexander IV
English name=Alexander IV
birth_name=Rinaldo di Jenne
December 12 1254
May 25 1261
birth_date=1199| or ca. 1185birthplace=
Pope Alexander IV (1199 or ca. 1185 –
May 25 1261) was Popefrom 1254 until his death.
Born as Rinaldo di Jenne, a native of
Jenne, near Anagni, he was, on his mother's side, a member of the de' Conti di Segni family, the counts of Segni, like Pope Innocent III(1198 - 1216) and Pope Gregory IX(1227 - 1241). His uncle, Pope Gregory IXmade him Cardinal Deaconand Protector of the Order of Franciscans in 1227, Camerlengoof the Holy Roman Church from 1227 until 1231 and Bishop of Ostiain 1231 (or 1232). He became Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinalsin 1244 (or in 1240). On the death of Pope Innocent IV(1243 - 1254) he was elected Pope at Napleson December 12 1254.
Alexander IV succeeded Innocent IV as guardian of
Conradin, the last of the Hohenstaufen, promising him protection; but in less than a fortnighthe conspired against him and bitterly opposed Conradin's uncle Manfred. Fact|date=December 2007 Alexander IV threatened excommunicationand interdict against the party of Manfred, without effect. Nor could he enlist the Kings of Englandand Norwayin a crusadeagainst the Hohenstaufen. Romeitself became too Ghibellinefor the Pope, who withdrew to Viterbo, where he died in 1261. He was buried in Viterbo Cathedral, but his tomb was destroyed during sixteenth century renovations.
His pontificate was signalized by efforts to unite the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, by the establishment of the
Inquisitionin France, by favours shown to the mendicant orders, and by an attempt to organize a crusadeagainst the Tatarsafter the second raid against Polandin 1259.
On 12th April, 1261, shortly before his death, he granted a papal bull to
Henry III of England, absolving him of oaths taken in the Provisions of Oxford, which was instrumental in the Second Barons' War. [cite book|author=Harding, Alan|title=England in the Thirteenth Century|publisher=Cambridge University Press|page=p.290]
*cite book|author=Harding, Alan|title=England in the Thirteenth Century|publisher=Cambridge University Press|page=p.290
Battle of Ain Jalut
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