2011 Norway attacks

2011 Norway attacks
2011 Norway attacks

View 30 minutes after the explosion in Oslo.
Utøya is located in Buskerud
Utøya
Oslo

Locations of the incidents in the Oslo and Buskerud counties of Norway
Location Oslo and Utøya, Norway
Coordinates 59°54′54″N 10°44′48″E / 59.9149776°N 10.746544°E / 59.9149776; 10.746544 (2011 Oslo explosion)Coordinates: 59°54′54″N 10°44′48″E / 59.9149776°N 10.746544°E / 59.9149776; 10.746544 (2011 Oslo explosion)
Date 22 July 2011 (2011-07-22)
15:25[1] CEST (UTC+02:00)
Target Norway Labour Party[2]
Attack type Bombing
Shooting spree
Weapon(s) Car bomb (made using ANFO)
Ruger Mini-14 Carbine
Glock 17 pistol
Death(s)

8 (Oslo)[3]
69 (Utøya)[4][5]

Total: 77
Injured Total: 151[6]
Victim 77 (deaths)
151 (injuries)
Total 228 victims
Perpetrator(s) Anders Behring Breivik
(Lone wolf)

The 2011 Norway attacks were two sequential terrorist attacks against the government, the civilian population and a summer camp in Norway on 22 July 2011.

The first was a car bomb explosion in Oslo within Regjeringskvartalet, the executive government quarter of Norway, at 15:25:22 (CEST).[7] The car bomb was placed outside the office of Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg and other government buildings.[8] The explosion killed eight people and wounded several others, with more than 10 people critically injured.

The second attack occurred less than two hours later at a summer camp on the island of Utøya in Tyrifjorden, Buskerud. The camp was organized by AUF, the youth division of the ruling Norwegian Labour Party. A gunman dressed in an authentic looking police uniform and showing false identification[9] gained access to the island and subsequently opened fire at the participants, killing 69 attendees,[4][5] including personal friends of Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg and the stepbrother of Norway's crown princess Mette-Marit.[10]

The Norwegian Police Service arrested Anders Behring Breivik, a 32-year-old Norwegian[11] right-wing extremist[12] and charged him with both attacks.[13] The European Union, NATO and several countries around the world expressed their support for Norway and condemned the attacks.

Contents

Preparation for the attacks

Anders Behring Breivik had participated for years in debates in Internet forums and spoke against Islam and immigration.[14] He was preparing for the attacks from at least as early as 2009, though he concealed his violent intentions.[15][16][17]

Failed attempt to buy weapons in Prague

Breivik spent six days in Prague in late August and early September 2010. He chose the Czech Republic because the country has some of the most relaxed laws regarding guns and drugs in Europe. Following his Internet inquiry, Breivik noted that "Prague is known for maybe being the most important transit site point for illicit drugs and weapons in Europe". Despite the fact that Prague has one of the lowest crime rates[18] among European capitals, Breivik observed that he was not looking forward to his trip to the Central European capital, because he has "heard that there are very brutal and cynical criminals".[19]

He hollowed out the rear seats of his Hyundai Atos in order to have enough space for the firearms he hoped to buy. After two days, he got a prospectus for a mineral extraction business printed, which was supposed to give him an alibi in case someone suspected him of preparing a terrorist attack.[19] He wanted to buy an AK-47-type rifle (this sort of firearm is however not very common in the country, unlike the Vz. 58[20]), a Glock pistol, hand-grenades and a rocket-propelled grenade, stating that getting the latter two would be a "bonus".[17][19]

Breivik had paid for prostitutes in Prague[19] and had several fake police badges printed to wear with a police uniform, which he had acquired illegally on the Internet, and which he later wore during the attack.[9] Contrary to his expectations, he was completely unable to get any firearms in the Czech Republic, commenting that it was the "first major setback in [his] operation". In the end, he concluded that Prague was "far from a ideal city to buy guns" and nothing like "what the BBC reported", and that he had felt "safer in Prague than in Oslo".[17][19][21]

Arming in Norway and through the Internet

Originally, Breivik intended to try to obtain weapons in Germany or Serbia if his mission in Prague failed. The Czech disappointment, however, led him to procure his weapons through legal channels.[21] He decided to obtain a semi-automatic rifle and a Glock pistol legally in Norway, noting that he had a "clean criminal record, hunting license, and a pump action shotgun Benelli Nova already for seven years", and that obtaining the guns legally should therefore not be a problem.[17]

Upon returning to Norway, Breivik obtained a legal permit for a Ruger Mini-14 semi-automatic carbine, ostensibly for the purpose of hunting deer. He bought it in late 2010 for €1,400 ($2000). In his manifesto he said he was going to use soft-point rifle bullets, injected with 99% pure liquid nicotine, to make them even more lethal. Forensics tests to determine whether nicotine was used are underway.[22]

Getting a permit for the pistol proved more difficult, as he had to demonstrate regular attendance at a sport shooting club.[19] He also bought 10 30-round magazines from a US supplier. From November 2010 to January 2011 he went through 15 training sessions at the Oslo Pistol Club, and by mid-January his application to purchase a Glock pistol was approved.[23][24]

Breivik claimed in his manifesto that he bought 300 g of sodium nitrite from a Polish shop for 10 in December 2010, in order to make a bomb fuse.[25] In March 2011,[26] he legally bought 100 kg of chemicals from a small Internet-based Wrocław company. The Polish ABW interviewed the company owner on 24 July 2011.[25] Breivik's Polish purchases initially led to him being put on the watch list of the Norwegian intelligence, which did not act because they did not believe it was relevant.[27]

He had also planned a last religious service (in Frogner Church) before the attack.[19]

On 18 May 2009 Breivik registered a Sole proprietorship called Breivik Geofarm in order to buy fertilizer without arousing suspicion. Upon registration, Breivik stated that the company would grow vegetables, melons and tubers.[28] The place of business was set to Åmot in Hedmark. On 4 May 2011 Breivik purchased six tons of fertilizer (13,227 pounds) through Geofarm at Felleskjøpet. The amount is an average purchase of fertilizer in Norway. Three tons consisting of ammonium nitrate and three tons consisting of calcium ammonium nitrate. According to some of the neighbors, all the fertilizer was stored in his barn.[29] This was the fertilizer used to make the Oslo bomb. After conducting a reconstruction of the bomb with equivalent amount of fertilizer on the farm in Åmot, police and bomb experts concluded that the bomb had been 950 kilograms.[30]. About the same size as the one used in the 2002 Bali bombings. Afterwards there was significant debate in Norway how an amateur could acquire so substantial amounts of fertilizer and in addition manufacture and place such a lethal weapon in the middle of Regjeringskvartalet all by himself. The conclusion by Felleskjøpet was that there is no legislation to keep agricultural businesses from purchasing as much fertilizer as they please, and that Geofarm was completely legitimate and there was nothing suspicious about Breivik's purchase.[31] This was confirmed by the director of the Norwegian Police Security Service, Janne Kristiansen, who stated "not even STASI could have prevented this attack"[32]

Breivik Geofarm

Breivik ran his fictitious company from Åmot municipality in Hedmark county.

Apparently Breivik began the planning of terrorist acts in the early 2000's. In the spring of 2009 Behring Breivik created a sole proprietorship called Breivik Geofarm, a company established under the fictitious purpose «the cultivation of vegetables, melons, roots and tubers.»[33] The real purpose was to provide access to chemicals and materials, especially fertilizer that could be used for the production of explosives.

The company should have listed at least two Swedish employees at the social networking site Facebook, but it is uncertain whether these people actually existed.[34]

In April 2011 he reported moving from Oslo to Vålstua farm in the municipality of Åmot, located about 9 kilometres south of the community center Rena, on the east side of Glomma[35]. Agricultural company was driven from the farm, and gave access to ingredients for explosives.[36]

On 4 May 2011 Behring Breivik bought six tons of fertilizer, alledgedly for farming purposes, and kept it in a garage on the farm in Åmot.[37] In 82 days stayed Behring Breivik on the farm, where he ran the practical preparations for a terrorist attack, and among them produced more fertilizer bombs: one test bomb that was exploded in the natural terrain[38] and one car bomb of 950 kg, which was blown up in downtown Oslo on 22 July 2011[39] where it killed eight people. He had at least between 1000 and 1500 kg additional material that was left on the farm and could be used for construction of a third bomb.[40]

Weapons training

Beside visiting firing ranges and countries with relaxed gun laws to sharpen his skill, a manifesto, supposedly written by Breivik (though this is unconfirmed) claims he made use of the video game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 as a training simulation while using World of Warcraft as a cover for his extended period of isolation.[41]

Oslo bombing

Placement of the car bomb near the entrance of the main government building (the H block.) The R4 block houses the Ministries of Petroleum and Energy; Trade and Industry. S block: Ministry of Health and Care Services

On 22 July 2011 at 15:25:22[7] (CEST) a bomb detonated in Regjeringskvartalet, downtown Oslo. The bomb was placed in a Volkswagen Crafter[42] and parked in front of the H block[43], housing the Office of the Prime Minister and Ministry of Justice and the Police, and several other governmental buildings, such as the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (R4), Ministry of Finance (G block), Ministry of Education and Research (Y block) and the Supreme Court of Norway (behind the G block).[1][44] Breivik was registered by surveillance cameras as parking the car at 15:13:43, then standing by it for 1 minute and 54 seconds, whereafter he was walking away, visibly holding a gun in his hand.[45] [46] Security guards registered the car as of unknown origin and started searching for the driver. Breivik was, however, not observed.[47]

The explosion started fires in the H block (H-blokka) and R4, and the shock wave blew out the windows on all floors as well as in the VG house and other buildings on the other side of the square.[42] The streets in the area were filled with glass and debris following the explosion. A cloud of white smoke was reported as a fire continued to burn at the Department of Oil and Energy. The blast was heard at least 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) away.[44]

At 15:26 the police received the first message about the explosion,[42] and at 15:28 the first police patrol reported that it had arrived at the scene.[42] At the same time, news agency NTB was told that the Prime Minister was unhurt and safe.[42]

Following the explosion, police cleared the area and searched for any additional explosive devices.[48] Through media outlets, police urged citizens to evacuate central Oslo.[49]

Police later announced that the bomb was composed of a mixture of fertiliser and fuel oil (ANFO), similar to that used in the Oklahoma City bombing.[50][51]

Impact on transportation

Immediately after the explosion, the area surrounding the damaged buildings was cordoned off and evacuated. People were asked to remain calm and leave the city center if possible, but there was no general evacuation. The subway system remained operational, and most of the tram network was also running, although sporadically, except for the line through Grensen (the street between Prof. Aschehoug's plass and Stortorvet).[52] Buses also continued to run, although at least one articulated bus on the No.37 line, which stops outside the Ministry of Finance, was commandeered to evacuate the walking wounded.

An e-mail communication with the BBC from a traveller indicated that police were conducting searches in cars on the road to Oslo Airport, Gardermoen,[53] which remained open.[54][55]

The Gardermoen Line between Lillestrøm and Oslo Airport was shut down after a suspicious package was found close to the tracks.[56] The same happened at the offices of TV 2 which were evacuated after a suspicious package was found outside the building.[57]

Utøya massacre

Attack

69 people were killed, and of the 517 survivors[58]66 were injured.[59]

Approximately one and a half hours after the Oslo explosion,[60] a man wearing a police uniform, confirmed to be Anders Behring Breivik,[61] boarded a ferry at Tyrifjorden, a lake some 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Oslo, to the island of Utøya,[62] the location of the Norwegian Labour Party's annual AUF youth summer camp, which is organised there every summer[63] and which was attended by approximately 600 teenagers.[64]

When Breivik arrived on the island, he presented himself as a police officer who had come over for a routine check following the bombing event in Oslo. He signalled and asked people to gather around him[65] before pulling weapons and ammunition from a bag and indiscriminately firing his weapons,[66][67][68] killing and wounding numerous people. He first shot people on the island and later started shooting at people who were trying to escape by swimming across the lake.[69] Survivors on the island described a scene of terror.[66] In one example, 21-year-old survivor Dana Barzingi described how several victims wounded by Breivik pretended to be dead to survive; but he later came back and shot them again.[66] He did relent in his executions on some occasions: First, when an 11-year-old boy who had just lost his father during the shooting, stood up against him and said he was too young to die; and later, when a 22-year-old male begged for his life.[70]

Some witnesses on the island were reported to have hidden in the undergrowth, and in lavatories, communicating by text message to avoid giving their positions away to the gunman.[71] The mass shooting reportedly lasted for around an hour and a half, ending when a police special task force arrived and the gunman surrendered, despite having ammunition left, at 18:35.[72] It is also reported that the shooter used hollow-point[73] or frangible bullets[74] (incorrectly but popularly called dum-dums[75]) which increase tissue damage.[74]

The island's manager for over 20 years, Monica Bøsei, 45, known as “Mother Utøya”, was one of the victims.[76] Her husband and one of her two daughters were also present, but escaped with their lives.[77] The youngest victim, Sharidyn Svebakk-Boehn, just turned 14 years old, and wrote a blog[78] describing the days before her murder.[79][80]

Local residents in a flotilla of little motorboats and fishing dinghies sailed out to rescue the survivors who were pulled out shivering and bleeding from the water and picked up from hiding places in the bushes and behind rocks around the island's shoreline. Some survived by pretending to be dead.[81] Several campers, especially those with the experience to know the island well, swam to the island's rocky west side and hid in the caves which are only accessible from the water. Others were able to hide away on the secluded Kjærlighetsstien ("love path").[82] 47 of the campers sought refuge in Skolestua ("the School House") together with personnel from the Norwegian People's Aid. Although Breivik shot two bullets through the door, he did not get through the locked door, and the people inside this building survived.[83][84]

Two ethnic Chechen teenagers Movsar Dzhamayev, 17, and Rustam Daudov, 16, who were at the island described later that they were reminded of the war in their native Chechnya. "I have seen people being shot before in my country when I was small and had flashbacks," Dzhamayev said. But after speaking to his father by cell phone, he pulled himself together. "My dad said, 'Attack the perpetrator and do it properly,'" he said. With a third unidentified friend, the teens armed themselves with stones and returned to the scene only to witness Breivik killing another teenager. "We stood three meters from him and wanted to beat him, but then he shot one of our friends in the head. So we just threw the stones and ran for our lives," Daudov said.

The teenagers said that they had decided that it was too difficult to stop the gunman. They discovered a cave-like opening in a rock where they managed to hide 23 children from Breivik. Dzhamayev, who kept guard outside, also dragged three youngsters from the lake who were close to drowning.[85]

The police have declined to say what guns he used for the attacks or how he acquired them.[86]

Former prime minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, whom Breivik said he hated and, in a pun on the epithet Landsmoderen - "mother of the nation", referred to in his writings as landsmorderen - "murderer of the nation",[87] had been on the island earlier in the day to give a speech to the camp. After the attack Breivik stated that he originally wanted to target her specifically; but because of delays related to the ongoing renovation of Oslo Central railway station, she was already gone when the shooting started.[88][89]

Rescue and emergency response

Initially, as the besieged people from Utøya tried to call the emergency services, they were told to keep off the line unless they were calling about the Oslo bomb.[90][91]

The first person to arrive on the scene was Marcel Gleffe, a German resident of Ski vacationing at a holiday camp on the mainland. Recognizing gunshots, he piloted his boat to the island and began throwing lifejackets to young people in the water, rescuing as many as he could in four or five trips, after which the police asked him to stop. The Daily Telegraph credited him with saving up to 30 lives.[92] Another forty were saved by Hege Dalen and Toril Hansen, a married lesbian couple holidaying in the area. The couple made a total of four trips to the island to rescue campers, and at one point came under fire.[93] Several dozen more were rescued by Kasper Ilaug, who made three trips to the island. Ilaug, a local resident, received a telephone call that "something terrible" was happening on Utoya and requesting help. He initially thought the call was a prank, but acted anyway.[94][95] Altogether, some 150 who swam away from the island were pulled out of the fjord by campers on the opposite shore.[93]

At 17:27 the local police district learned about the shooting, and two minutes later the police in Oslo were informed.[42][96] By 17:38, the Norwegian central counter-terrorist unit Beredskapstroppen was dispatched to Utøya from their headquarters in Oslo.[42] However special forces in Oslo did not have a helicopter available that could take them straight to the island. The only helicopter available to the Oslo-based unit was a military one parked 60 km south of the capital at Moss Airport in Rygge, and thus the special unit had to reach the location by cars.[97] They reached the ferry crossing at 18:09, but had to wait a few minutes for a boat to take them across. They reached Utøya at 18:25. When confronted by the heavily armed police on the island, the gunman initially hesitated for a few seconds. But when an officer yelled "surrender or be shot" he decided to lay down his weapons.[98]

Anders Breivik called 112 (emergency telephone number) at least twice to surrender, at 18:01 and 18:26, and continued killing people in between. The police says Breivik hung up both times; they tried to call him back but did not succeed.[99]

When the police arrived at the scene, they were met by survivors begging the officers to throw away their weapons, as they were afraid that the men in uniforms would again open fire on them.[100]

Shortage of transport capacity

The Norwegian police does not have any helicopters that are suitable for transporting groups of police for an airdrop; the one they have is useful only for surveillance. When helicopter transport is needed, the Norwegian police have to rely on assistance from the military. The lack of full transport capacity for the anti-terrorism unit has long been criticized by some[who?] within the police force. When at the shore, the police could not find a suitable boat to reach the island.[citation needed] The boat they finally located almost sank because their equipment was so heavy; they had to continuously bail out water as they made the crossing.[97]

All the crews of the police surveillance helicopter were on vacation.[101]

Arrest of innocent survivor

Upon arrival on the island of Utøya, the police arrested, in addition to Breivik, Anzor Djoukaev, an innocent 17-year old survivor who represented the Akershus branch of AUF. The youth was reportedly stripped naked[102] and locked up in a jail cell, located only meters away from the cell housing the self-confessed killer.[103] The victim, who as a child had witnessed mass murders in Chechnya, was suspected of being an accomplice because his haircut was different from that shown on his identity document, and because he did not react to the carnage with the same tears and hysteria as most of the other survivors.[104] He was kept in custody for seventeen hours.[103] Barrister Harald Stabell criticized the police for failing to contact the youth's family, who feared he was killed, and for interrogating the victim without a lawyer present.[104][105]

Casualties

The building housing the Office of the Prime Minister and Ministry of Justice and the Police with blown-out windows shortly after the explosion.

Oslo

Eight people were killed in the explosion,[60] with eleven seriously wounded,[106] and fifteen suffering minor injuries.[107][108] A doctor at the Oslo University Hospital said the hospital staff were treating head, chest and abdominal wounds.[109]

Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg was at his official residence near the Royal Palace, preparing the speech he was scheduled to give at Utøya the next day.[110] Norway’s finance minister, Sigbjørn Johnsen, was on holiday in Denmark at the time.[111]

Fewer people than usual were in the area because the bombing took place during July, the usual vacation month for Norwegians,[112] and since it was Friday afternoon, most government employees had gone home for the weekend.

Utøya

At approximately 03:50 (CEST) on 23 July, NRK1 and TV2, the two primary Norwegian television networks, broadcast a live press conference from the Sentrum politistasjon in Oslo where Norway's National Police Commissioner Øystein Mæland stated the number of fatalities at Utøya to have reached "at least 80" with the count expected to increase.[1][113][114][115]

On 25 July, a police spokesperson revealed that the death toll of the victims on Utøya had been revised downwards to 68 after the casualties had been counted on their return to the mainland.[116] They added that the number of people missing was still high and that the number of casualties could be as high as 86. On 29 July police announced that one of the severely wounded victims from Utøya had died in a hospital, bringing the death toll from the island massacre to 69 (and 77 total, including 8 from the bombing in Oslo).

On 26 July, the Norwegian police began releasing the names and dates of birth of the victims on their website. By 29 July, the names of all 77 victims (eight from the bomb attack, 69 from Utøya) had been published,[117] the last, a shooting victim, having been found on the 28th.[118] The median age of the deceased was 18 years and the average age 21.8 years.

Age of the deceased
Age 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 25 26 27 28 30 32 34 43 45 51 56 61
Fatalities 2 7 7 17 17 5 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1

Trond Berntsen, an off-duty, unarmed police officer and step-brother of Norway's crown princess Mette-Marit, was among the dead.[10]

Victims

On 1 August, the Norwegian national broadcasting company (NRK) revealed that a total of 153 people were injured during the attacks, in addition to the 77 deaths (reported down from an original figure of over 90). Ninety-one of the injured were brought to hospital or other medical treatment from the Oslo bombing, 62 from the Utøya shooting. On 2 August, the same source revised the number of injured from the Oslo bombing to 89, to a total of 151.[119]

Perpetrator

Public broadcaster NRK and several other Norwegian media outlets identified the suspected attacker as Anders Behring Breivik. He was arrested on Utøya for the shootings and also linked to the Oslo bombing.[120][121][122] He has been charged with terrorism for both attacks.[13] According to his attorney, Breivik has acknowledged that he is responsible for both the bomb and the shooting during interrogation but denies culpability, as he asserts that his actions were “atrocious but necessary”.[123] At his initial arraignment on 25 July, Breivik was remanded into custody for eight weeks, the first half to be in solitary confinement.[124] Breivik wanted to have an open hearing, and attend it wearing a uniform of his own design, but both requests were denied by the presiding judge.[125]

Political and religious views

Breivik is linked to a compendium entitled 2083: A European Declaration of Independence bearing the name "Andrew Berwick", the file was e-mailed to 1,003 addresses about 90 minutes before the bomb blast in Oslo.[126][127] Analysts described him as having anti-Muslim views and a hatred of Islam,[128][129] and considered himself as a knight dedicated to stemming the tide of Muslim immigration into Europe.[130][131]

The introductory chapter of the manifesto defining "Cultural Marxism" is a copy of Political Correctness: A Short History of an Ideology by the Free Congress Foundation.[132][133][134] Major parts of the compendium are attributed to the pseudonymous Norwegian blogger Fjordman.[135] The text also copies sections of the Unabomber manifesto, without giving credit, while exchanging the words "leftists" for "cultural Marxists" and "black people" for "muslims".[136] The New York Times described American influences in the writings, noting that the compendium mentions the anti-Islamist American Robert Spencer 64 times and cites Spencer's works at great length.[137] The work of Bat Ye'or[138] is cited dozens of times.[139] Neoconservative blogger Pamela Geller,[140] Neo-pagan writer Koenraad Elst[141] and Daniel Pipes are also mentioned as sources of inspiration.[142] The manifesto further contains quotes from Middle-eastern expert Bernard Lewis, Edmund Burke, Mahatma Gandhi, Thomas Jefferson and George Orwell,[143] as well as from Jeremy Clarkson's Sunday Times column and Melanie Phillips' Daily Mail column.[144] The publication speaks in admiration of Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Bruce Bawer, Srđa Trifković,[145] and Henryk M. Broder.[146] The compendium advocates a restoration of patriarchy which it claims would save European culture.[147][148]

The compendium contains his militant far-right ideology and xenophobic worldview, which espouses an array of political concepts; including support for varying degrees of cultural conservatism, right-wing populism, ultranationalism, Islamophobia, "far-right Zionism", and Serbian paramilitarism.[149][150] It regards Islam and "cultural Marxism" as the enemy and argues for the annihilation of "Eurabia" and multiculturalism, to preserve a Christian Europe.[16][150][151][152][153][154] He further urged Europeans to restore the historic crusades against Islam as in the Middle Ages.[155] A video Breivik released on YouTube 6 hours before the attack, has been described as promoting violence towards Muslims and Marxists who reside in Europe.[156]

Among other things, in the manifesto he identified the Beneš Decrees, which facilitated the Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after the Second World War, as an example for committing that act on European Muslims.[157] In his manifesto he also urges the Hindus to drive Muslims out of India.[158] He demands the gradual deportation of all Muslims from Europe from 2011 to 2083 through repatriation.[159][159] He blames feminism for allowing the erosion of the fabric of European society.[160]

Breivik's writings mention the English Defense League, claiming that he had contact with senior members of the EDL, and that a Norwegian version of the group, was 'in the process of gaining strength'. He wrote that the EDL were 'naïve fools' because in his words the EDL 'harshly condemns any and all revolutionary conservative movements that employ terror as a tool'. EDL leader Tommy Robinson denounced Breivik and the attack on 26 July 2011 and denied any links with the Norwegian.[161][162][163][164][165]

After being apprehended, Breivik was characterized by police officials as being a right-wing extremist and an Islamophobe.[151] Breivik is described by the newspaper Verdens Gang as considering himself a conservative nationalist.[122] According to The Australian, Breivik was highly critical of Muslim immigration into Christian societies, is pro-Israel and an admirer of the US Tea Party movement.[166] Deputy police chief Roger Andresen initially told reporters that "We have no more information than... what has been found on [his] own websites, which is that it goes towards the right and that it is, so to speak, Christian fundamentalist."[13][167][168] Subsequently, others have disputed Andresen's characterization of Breivik as a Christian fundamentalist.[169][170] Furthermore, Breivik stated that "myself and many more like me do not necessarily have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and God."[171][172] According to the International Business Times, in his manifesto, he "did not see himself as religious", but he did identify as a cultural Christian and wrote about the differences between cultural and religious Christians, but stressed that both were Christians, and shared the same identity and goals.[173] He has written many posts on the far-right[174] website document.no.[175] He attended meetings of "Documents venner" (Friends of Document), affiliated with the Document.no website.[176] He is a former member of the Progress Party (FrP) and its youth wing FpU. According to the current FpU leader Ove Vanebo, Breivik was active early in the 2000s, but he left the party as his viewpoints became more extreme.[177]

In his online YouTube video, he expressed admiration of past European leaders who waged war against Islam and Muslims, naming Charles Martel, Richard Lionheart, El Cid, Vlad III the Impaler, Jacques de Molay, Tsar Nicholas and John III Sobieski.[178] A recently created social media website bearing Breivik's name and picture but of unknown authorship refers to him as an admirer of Winston Churchill and Max Manus,[179][180] and also of Dutch politician Geert Wilders, whose political party, the Party for Freedom, he describes as "the only true party of conservatives".[181]

Attorney

The police initially kept the choice of counsel secret after request from the attorney. Attorney Geir Lippestad elected to act on behalf of Breivik's defense, confirming to the Dagbladet newspaper that Breivik had requested him personally.[182] Lippestad said "I thought carefully about it. Everyone is entitled to a lawyer, even in a case like this, and I decided to accept."[123]

Possible accomplices

Several witnesses at the youth camp expressed doubt that there was only one shooter.[183] The police have received descriptions of a second gunman, and are currently working to confirm or deny the accuracy of this new information. Due to the uncertainty surrounding these witness descriptions and the chaotic nature of the events, the police have, as a matter of precaution, yet to make an official comment on the matter.[184][185] Breivik has claimed that he acted alone and that he had no accomplices, according to some reports.[186] However, according to other reports, Breivik claimed to have accomplices.[187] On 24 July, six more people were arrested in Oslo in connection with the attacks and then released as they were said to be no longer suspected of involvement.[188]

Reactions

Flower march in Sentrum, Oslo, on 25 July 2011 in the aftermath of the attacks. An estimated 200,000 attended the flower march.

Domestic

King Harald sent his condolences to the victims and their families, and urged unity.[189]

At a press conference on the morning after the attacks, Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg and Justice Minister Knut Storberget addressed the country. Stoltenberg called the attack a "national tragedy" and the worst atrocity in Norway since World War II. Stoltenberg further vowed that the attack would not hurt Norwegian democracy, and said the proper answer to the violence was "more democracy, more openness, but not naivety".[190] In his speech at the memorial service on 24 July 2011, he opined what would be a proper reaction: "No one has said it better than the AUF girl who was interviewed by CNN: 'If one man can show so much hate, think how much love we could show, standing together.'"[191][192]

Flowers laid in front of Oslo Cathedral, 25 July 2011

The leader of the Workers' Youth League, Eskil Pedersen, vowed to "return to Utøya" and urged Norway to continue its tradition of openness and tolerance.[193]

Leaders of Norwegian political parties expressed grief and sent condolences in public statements.[194][195][196][197][198][199][200]

On 1 August 2011, Norway's parliament, nominally in recess for the summer, reconvened for an extraordinary session to honour the victims of the attack. In a departure from parliamentary procedure, both King Harald V and Crown Prince Haakon were present. The president of Norway's Parliament, Dag Terje Andersen read out loud the names of all 77 victims. The session was open to the public, but due to limited seating, priority was given to relatives of the deceased.[201][202]

The seven political parties in the parliament agreed to postpone the electoral campaign for local elections, held in September, until mid-August.[203] School debates were cancelled, though the school elections were not.[204]

Initially, Magnus Ranstorp and other terror experts suspected that foreigners were behind the attacks.[205] Non-ethnic Norwegians, especially Muslim Norwegians, were subjected to spitting and other forms of harassment, and violence.[206][207][208][209][210][211][212][213]

International

The United Nations, the European Union, NATO, and governments around the world expressed their condemnation of the attacks, condolences, and solidarity with Norway. However, there have also been reports of European politicians giving support to the killings or excusing them as a result of multi-culturalism. Interviewed on a popular radio show, the Italian MEP Francesco Speroni, a leading member of the Lega Nord, the junior partner in Berlusconi's conservative coalition, said: "Breivik's ideas are in defence of western civilisation."[214] Similar views were voiced by Italian MEP Mario Borghezio.[215] Werner Koenigshofer, a member of the National Council of Austria, was expelled from the right-wing Freedom Party of Austria after equating the massacre with the death of millions of fetuses through abortion.[216]

On 25 July 2011, at noon (CEST), each of the Nordic countries held a minute of silence to dignify the victims of the two attacks. Norway's minute of silence stretched to five minutes.[217] In Oslo, a city of approximately 600,000 inhabitants, an estimated 200,000 people attended a "flower march".[218][219][220]

The Norwegian media reported criticism against Fox News and its commentator Glenn Beck for their coverage of the attacks.[221] Beck's comparison of the AUF to the Hitler Youth[222] led Frank Aarebrot, a Norwegian professor with political sympathies to the Norwegian Labour Party,[223] to call Beck a "fascist" and "swine".[224]

Legal proceedings

On 25 July 2011, Anders Behring Breivik was arraigned in Oslo District Court. The police feared that Breivik would use the hearing as an opportunity to communicate with possible accomplices.[225] Because of this,[226] the arraignment was held completely closed to the media and all other spectators. Instead, judge Kim Heger held a press conference shortly afterwards where he read the court's decision.[227] The practice of completely closed court hearings is extremely rare in the Norwegian justice system.

It was long debated which criminal charges to use in this unique situation. Many police attorneys wanted high treason or crimes against humanity.[228] The prosecution ended up indicting Breivik on terrorism charges. Breivik admitted to being the gunman at Utøya and the perpetrator behind the Oslo bomb, also admitting all the other actual events. Nonetheless he pleaded not guilty, stating "I do not recognise this justice system".[229] District Attorney Christian Hatlo asked that Breivik be detained for eight weeks without mail or visitation. The judge ruled in favor of the prosecution, stating "the accused is an imminent danger to society and must be confined for the safety of himself and others. It is highly probable that he is guilty of the alleged crimes and imprisonment is necessary to prevent destruction of evidence". In accordance with the prosecution's wishes, Breivik was sentenced to eight weeks detention without mail or visitation, four of which in complete isolation. To be renewed no later than 19 September 2011.[230] He was immediately transferred to Ila Landsfengsel, a maximum security prison.[231]

Attorney general Tor-Aksel Busch stated that final charges and indictment would not be ready until at least the end of the year 2011 and that hopefully the trial could start sometime in 2012[232]

On 13 August 2011 Breivik was taken to Utøya by police to re-create his actions on the day of the massacre. Wearing a bulletproof vest and a leash, Breivik was seen to mimic a shooting action.[233] Neither the media nor the public was alerted to the operation. The police explained that the surprise walk-through was necessary because Breivik will be charged and tried for all 77 murders individually. The police deemed it less offensive to the survivors to do it now rather than during the trial. Despite the many police boats and helicopters, none of the civilians who had come to lay down flowers on the shore this day perceived what was happening just a few hundred metres across the lake from them for a total of eight hours.[234] On the evening of 14 August the police held a press conference about the reconstruction. It was reported that Breivik was not unmoved by his return to Utøya, but that he showed no remorse. Inspector Pål Fredrik Hjort Kraby described Breivik's behavior and indifference on the island as "unreal", as he had over the course of eight hours willingly showed the police exactly how he had carried out all of the 69 murders.[235]

The preliminary date for the trial is set for 10 April, 2012[236]

After-effects

Coop Norway, a chain of retail stores in Norway, is removing several brands from its shelves as a result of the attack. Some of the titles includes games like Homefront, Call of Duty series, Sniper Ghost Warrior, Counter-Strike Source and World of Warcraft.[237]

In the days following the attacks, Norway's main political parties noted a significant increase in interest for membership from young people. Both the Norwegian Young Conservatives and the Progress Party's Youth, as well as the Workers' Youth League (AUF) had signed up a significant number of new members after a few days.[238] The mother parties also reported a strong and unusual boom in new members, with the Conservative Party and the Progress Party having signed up almost one thousand new members each by early August,[239] while the Labour Party reported over six thousand new members at the end of the month.[240]

Far-right groups such as Stop the Islamisation of Norway (SIAN) and the Norwegian Defence League (NDL), as well as the Democrats party, had reportedly witnessed a boom in their memberships and interest by mid-August, with the Democrats party having signed up around one hundred new members, and the NDL around three hundred.[241][242] According to professor Tore Bjørgo at the Norwegian Police University College in Oslo, the increased support for these far-right groups indicates that within the far right, there is a milieu that sympathizes with violent rhetoric.[243]

In the September local elections almost two months after the attacks, strong gains were made by the Conservative Party (up 9% to 28%), and to a lesser extent the Labour Party (up 2% to 32%). On the other hand, significant setbacks were witnessed by the Progress Party (down 6% to 11%) and the Socialist Left Party (down 2% to 4%).[244]

References

  1. ^ a b c "At least 92 killed in shootings and bomb blast in Norway". NO: VG. 22 July 2011. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/artikkel.php?artid=10080597. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  2. ^ According to his lawyer during a press conference on 26 July 2011.
  3. ^ "Police scale down: 68 killed in Utøya" (in Norwegian). VG Nett. 25 July 2011. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10080770. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  4. ^ a b "Terrorofrene på Utøya og i Oslo" (in Norwegian). Verdens Gang. Schibsted ASA. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/ofre/. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  5. ^ a b "Navn på alle terrorofre offentliggjort" (in Norwegian). Verdens Gang. Schibsted ASA. 29 July 2011. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10080895. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  6. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-15794368
  7. ^ a b "Eksplosjonen i Oslo sentrum 22. juli 2011 [The explosion in Oslo 22 July 2011]" (in Norwegian). 23 July 2011. http://www.jordskjelv.no/cgi-bin/showpage.cgi?type=siste&id=1311425084. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  8. ^ Beaumont, Peter (22 July 2011). "Norway attacks suggest political motive". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jul/22/oslo-bomb-suspicion-islamist-militants. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  9. ^ a b "Slik skaffet han politiuniformen". Nrk.no. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7725557. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  10. ^ a b Sanchez, Raf (25 July 2011). "Norway killings: Princess's brother Trond Berntsen among dead". Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/norway/8659298/Norway-killings-Princesss-brother-Trond-Berntsen-among-dead.html. 
  11. ^ «Han står også oppført som medlem av Johannes-losjen Søilene i TV 2s oversikt over frimurerlosjen.», fra «Anders Behring Breivik (32) i Oslo ble pågrepet etter bombe og massedrap», artikkel på nettsidene til TV2, 23. juli 2011
  12. ^ "Man held after Norway attacks right-wing extremist: report". Reuters. 22 July 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/07/22/us-norway-gunman-idUSTRE76L6LZ20110722. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  13. ^ a b c "Scores killed in Norway attack". BBC (UK). 23 July 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14259356. Retrieved 23 July 2011. "We have no more information than... what has been found on [his] own websites, which is that it goes towards the right and that it is, so to speak, Christian fundamentalist." 
  14. ^ Clive Williams. "Deadly, cruel lesson from Norway". The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/features/deadly-cruel-lesson-from-norway/story-e6frg6z6-1226101590303. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  15. ^ Schwirtz, Michael; Saltmarsh, Matthew (24 July 2011). "Oslo Suspect Cultivated Parallel Life to Disguise ‘Martyrdom Operation’". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/25/world/europe/25breivik.html?src=un&feedurl=http%3A%2F%2Fjson8.nytimes.com%2Fpages%2Fworld%2Feurope%2Findex.jsonp. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  16. ^ a b "2083 – A European Declaration of Independence" (PDF). http://www.kevinislaughter.com/wp-content/uploads/2083+-+A+European+Declaration+of+Independence.pdf. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  17. ^ a b c d (in Czech) Norský vrah sháněl zbraně i u motorkářů v Praze. Týden. 24 July 2011. http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&ie=UTF8&prev=_t&sl=auto&tl=en&u=http://www.tyden.cz/rubriky/zahranici/evropa/norsky-vrah-shanel-zbrane-i-u-motorkaru-v-praze_207777.html  (Google Translate link)
  18. ^ (in Czech) CzechTourism: Praha je bezpečnější než Vídeň. ČT24. 15 June 2011. http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&ie=UTF8&prev=_t&sl=auto&tl=en&u=http://www.ceskatelevize.cz/ct24/ekonomika/127402-czechtourism-praha-je-bezpecnejsi-nez-viden  (Google Translate link)
  19. ^ a b c d e f g "Zbraně jel Breivik nakoupit do "nebezpečné Prahy"" (in Czech). novinky.cz. 24 July 2011. http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&ie=UTF8&prev=_t&sl=auto&tl=en&u=http://www.novinky.cz/zahranicni/evropa/239906-zbrane-jel-breivik-nakoupit-do-nebezpecne-prahy.html%3Fref%3Dzpravy-dne  (Google Translate link)
  20. ^ "Breivikovi chyběly kontakty, jinak by v Praze zbraně sehnal". novinky.cz. 26 July 2011. http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&ie=UTF8&prev=_t&sl=auto&tl=en&u=http://www.novinky.cz/domaci/240059-breivikovi-chybely-kontakty-jinak-by-v-praze-zbrane-sehnal.html%3Fref%3Dstalo-se  (Google translate link)
  21. ^ a b Oslo killer sought weapons from Prague's underworld. Czech Position. 25 July 2011. http://www.ceskapozice.cz/en/news/society/oslo-killer-sought-weapons-prague%E2%80%99s-underworld 
  22. ^ "Breivik's injected his dum-dum bullets with poison to make them deadlier". Daily Mail (UK). 26 July 2011. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2018748/Norway-massacre-Anders-Behring-Breivik-Dum-dum-bullets-injected-poision.html. 
  23. ^ "Suspect focused on buying specific weapons". ft. 24 July 2011. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/b5a1b3ce-b60b-11e0-8bed-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1T2lLHd5I 
  24. ^ "Skaffet seg våpen på lovlig vis" (in Norwegian). Bergens Tidende (Norsk Telegrambyrå). 24 July 2011. http://www.bt.no/nyheter/innenriks/Skaffet-seg-vpen-p-lovlig-vis-2542413.html. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  25. ^ a b Zoellner, Marek (26 July 2011). "ABW: Breivik kupował we Wrocławiu chemikalia, ale legalnie" (in Polish). pl:Gazeta Wrocławska/PAP. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&ie=UTF8&prev=_t&sl=auto&tl=en&u=http://www.gazetawroclawska.pl/stronaglowna/431223,abw-breivik-kupowal-we-wroclawiu-chemikalia-ale-legalnie,id,t.html%3Fcookie%3D1. Retrieved 26 July 2011.  (Google Translate link)
  26. ^ "Tajné služby Breivika sledovaly od března, podle otce se měl raději zastřelit" (in Czech). novinky.cz. 25 July 2011. http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&ie=UTF8&prev=_t&sl=auto&tl=en&u=http://www.novinky.cz/zahranicni/evropa/240040-tajne-sluzby-breivika-sledovaly-od-brezna-podle-otce-se-mel-radeji-zastrelit.html%3Fref%3Dzpravy-dne. Retrieved 25 July 2011.  (Google Translate link)
  27. ^ "Norwegian 'MI5' Had Massacre Suspect On List". Sky News. 25 July 2011. http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/World-News/Norway-Anders-Behring-Breivik-Was-On-Intelligence-Watch-List-After-Buying-Chemicals-Online/Article/201107416036733?lpos=World_News_Carousel_Region_0&lid=ARTICLE_16036733_Norway%3A_Anders_Behring_Breivik_Was_On_Intelligence_Watch_List_After_Buying_Chemicals_Online. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  28. ^ "Breivik Geofarm - 994089269 - Firmapresentasjon". Purehelp.no. 18 May 2009. http://www.purehelp.no/company/details/breivikgeofarm/994089269. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  29. ^ "Breivik kjøpte seks tonn kunstgjødsel i mai - nyheter". Dagbladet.no. 23 July 2011. http://www.dagbladet.no/2011/07/23/nyheter/terror/innenriks/17425643/. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  30. ^ http://www.aftenposten.no/nyheter/iriks/article4221239.ece
  31. ^ "Ingen krav til de som kjøper kunstgjødsel - Lov og rett - E24". E24.no. 23 July 2011. http://e24.no/lov-og-rett/ingen-krav-til-de-som-kjoeper-kunstgjoedsel/20082120. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  32. ^ NTB (25 July 2011). "PST: - Selv ikke Stasi kunne ha avslørt Breivik". DN.no. http://www.dn.no/forsiden/politikkSamfunn/article2189178.ece. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  33. ^ Fra oppføring i Brønnøysundregisteret
  34. ^ Egil Sande (29.07.2011). Svensk politi jakter mystiske «Breivik-ansatte». Nettavisen. Besøkt 03.09.2011.
  35. ^ Sindre Granly Meldalen, Torgeir P. Krokfjord (23.07.2011). Står igjen tre tonn gjødsel på gården. Dagbladet. Besøkt 23.07.2011. «Da den siktede 32-åringen kom til Vålstua Gård på Åsta i april i år, startet han ikke opp med gårdsproduksjon, men valgte å forpakte bort rundt 100 mål hvor det ble produsert gress.»
  36. ^ Harald S. Klungtveit, Peder Ottosen, Gunnar Thorenfeldt, Jonas Pettersen (23.07.2011). Anders (32) tatt etter massakrene. Dagbladet. Besøkt 03.09.2011.
  37. ^ Torgeir P. Krokfjord, Line Brustad (23.05.2011). Breivik kjøpte seks tonn kunstgjødsel i mai. Dagbladet. Besøkt 23.05.2011.
  38. ^ Jarle Brenna, Morten Hopperstad, Marianne Vikås og Gordon Andersen (19.08.2011). Her testet Breivik bombeplanen. VG. Besøkt 19.08.2011.
  39. ^ «Unikt» at bomba bare drepte åtte personer. Dagbladet (1. August 2011(2011-08-01 )). Besøkt 17. August 2011(2011-08-17 ).
  40. ^ Tormod Strand (17. August 2011(2011-08-17 )). Fant enda en stor, klargjort bombe på gården til Behring Breivik. NRK. Besøkt 17. August 2011(2011-08-17 ).
  41. ^ "Oslo Terrorist Used Modern Warfare 2 as "Training-Simulation", World of Warcraft as Cover". 24 July 2011. http://kotaku.com/5824147/oslo-terrorist-anders-behring-breivik-used-modern-warfare-2-as-training+simulation-world-of-warcraft-as-cover. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  42. ^ a b c d e f g "Breivik forberedte terror i ni år [Breivik preparing terror for nine years]" (in Norwegian). 24 July 2011. http://m.nrk.no/m/artikkel.jsp?art_id=17724894. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  43. ^ "Her er krateret [Here is the crater]" (in Norwegian). Dagbladet. 27 July 2011. http://www.dagbladet.no/2011/07/27/nyheter/terror/innenriks/regjeringskvartalet/terror_i_oslo/17473825/. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  44. ^ a b Ward, Andrew (22 July 2011). "Youth camp shooting after Oslo bomb". Financial Times (Stockholm). http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/24346904-b46c-11e0-9eb8-00144feabdc0.html. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  45. ^ http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7794913
  46. ^ http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7796498
  47. ^ http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7796175
  48. ^ Mala, Elisa; Goodman, J. David (23 July 2011). "Big Blast Hits Government Buildings in Central Oslo". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/23/world/europe/23oslo.html. 
  49. ^ "Explosion rocks Oslo | Events". Blogs. Reuters. 22 July 2011. http://blogs.reuters.com/events/2011/07/22/explosion-rocks-oslo/. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  50. ^ "Suspect wanted anti-Muslim crusade". Breakingnews.ie. 24 July 2011. http://www.breakingnews.ie/world/suspect-wanted-anti-muslim-crusade-514021.html. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  51. ^ "Oslo Norway Bombing: Suspect Anders Behring Breivik Bought Tons Of Fertilizer, Wrote Manifesto". Associated Press. Sundvollen/Oslo: The Huffington Post. 23 July 2011. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/07/23/oslo-bombing-anders-behring-brelvik-norwegian-suspect-fertilizer_n_907697.html. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  52. ^ Syrstad, Tor Gaute (22 July 2011). "Oslo-trikken: – Det er normal drift, ingen grunn til bekymring" (in Norwegian). TV2. http://www.tv2.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslotrikken-det-er-normal-drift-ingen-grunn-til-bekymring-3544402.html. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  53. ^ "Oslo bomb – latest updates". News (UK: BBC). 22 July 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14254705. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  54. ^ "Bomb blast rocks downtown Oslo". RT. 22 July 2011. http://rt.com/news/oslo-explosion-pm-headquarters/. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  55. ^ "Oslo-trikken: – Det er normal drift, ingen grunn til bekymring" (in Norwegian). TV 2 (NO). 22 July 2011. http://www.tv2.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslotrikken-det-er-normal-drift-ingen-grunn-til-bekymring-3544402.html. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  56. ^ "All trains shut down after suspicious package". Dagbladet (NO). 22 July 2011. http://www.dagbladet.no/2011/07/22/nyheter/innenriks/flytog/17418881/. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  57. ^ Lofstad, Ralf; Haraldsen, Stian; Badi, Diana (22 July 2011). "Disse områdene er evakuert" (in Norwegian). Dagbladet (NO). http://www.dagbladet.no/2011/07/22/nyheter/innenriks/eksplosjon/regjeringskvartalet/17416403/. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  58. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/aug/21/utoya-anders-behring-breivik-norway
  59. ^ http://www.tv2.no/nyheter/innenriks/krim/96-personer-saaret-i-terrorangrepene-3545176.html
  60. ^ a b "Oslo: Bomb blast near Norway prime minister's office". BBC News (UK). 22 July 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14252515. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  61. ^ "Norwegian massacre gunman was a right-wing extremist who hated Muslims, 23 July 2011". Daily Mail (UK). 24 July 2011. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2017851/Norwegian-massacre-gunman-Anders-Behring-Breivik-right-wing-extremist-hated-Muslims.html. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  62. ^ "Police: 91 youth campers dead in mass shooting, bombing in Norway". US: CNN. 23 July 2011. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/europe/07/22/norway.explosion/index.html?iref=NS1. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  63. ^ "Sommerleir på Utøya [Summer Camp at Utøya]" (in Norwegian). http://auf.no/-/page/show/utoya?sandbox_id=1063610. Retrieved 25 July 2011. [dead link]
  64. ^ "Norway Camp Shooting: 'As Many As 30 Dead'". Sky News. 23 July 2011. Accessed 27 July 2011
  65. ^ "Flere unge skutt og drept på Utøya". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. 22 July 2011. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7723132. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  66. ^ a b c Witnesses Describe Scene Of Terror At Norway Camp by NPR, 23 July 2011[dead link]
  67. ^ Brenna, Jarle (22 July 2011). "Vi er under angrep!" (in Norwegian). VG Nett (NO). http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/artikkel.php?artid=10080590. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  68. ^ "LIVE: Doden bij bomexplosie in Oslo – schietpartij op jongerenkamp" (in Dutch). NL: NRC. http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2011/07/22/gewonden-bij-explosie-in-overheidsgebouw-in-oslo/. 
  69. ^ "Nine, perhaps 10, killed in Norway shooting". Reuters. 22 July 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/07/22/us-norway-shooting-idUSTRE76L5E120110722. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  70. ^ "Translate". Google. http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=no&u=http://nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7725593&ei=_q4tTq2TJMKe-wb35NTsDQ&sa=X&oi=translate&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q7gEwAQ&prev=/search%3Fq%3D%2522Adrian%2BPracon%2Bble%2Bskutt,%2Bmen%2Boverlevde.%2BHan%2Bforteller%2Bom%2Ben%2Bung%2Bgutt%2Bp%25C3%25A5%2Belleve%2B%25C3%25A5r%2B%2522%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D517%26rlz%3D1R2ACPW_noNO418%26prmd%3Divnso. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  71. ^ "Twin terror attacks shock Norway". News (UK: BBC). 22 July 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14255004. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  72. ^ "Terroriserte Utøya i halvannen time [Terrorized Utøya in half hour]" (in Norwegian). 23 July 2011. http://www.aftenposten.no/nyheter/iriks/article4181699.ece. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  73. ^ "Doctor: – Breivik used a special ammunition" (in Norwegian). VG. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10080715. 
  74. ^ a b "Never seen gunshot wounds like this before" (in Norwegian). Dagbladet. http://www.dagbladet.no/2011/07/24/nyheter/innenriks/oslo/oslo-terror/anders_behring_breivik/17442711/. 
  75. ^ Norway attacks: Anders Behring Breivik appears in court, BBC. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  76. ^ "Norway attacks, 29 July 2011". Bbc.co.uk. 2 August 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14276074. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  77. ^ "Mother of Two shot dead trying to stop Norway gunman". London Evening Standard. 26 July 2011. http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/standard/article-23973140-mother-utoya-killed-after-quizzing-anders-breivik.do .
  78. ^ Migone, Paloma (28 July 2011). "Kiwi confirmed dead in Norway shootings". http://www.stuff.co.nz/world/europe/5351632/Kiwi-confirmed-dead-in-Norway-shootings .
  79. ^ Purple in Style. NO: Blogg. http://purpleinstyle.blogg.no/ .
  80. ^ "Norway shooting: Funerals for Breivik victims, BBC, 29 July 2011". Bbc.co.uk. 29 July 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14336291. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  81. ^ Townsend, Mark; McVeigh, Tracy (23 July 2011). "Utøya, the island paradise turned into hell by Anders Behring Breivik". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jul/23/utoya-mass-murder-anders-behring-breivik. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  82. ^ Haugen, Erlend Langeland (28 July 2011). "Berget livet i kjærlighetsgrottene" (in Norwegian). Bergens Tidende. http://www.bt.no/nyheter/lokalt/Berget-livet-i-kjrlighetsgrottene-2545679.html. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  83. ^ Bjerkestrand, Frode (26 July 2011). "- Skolestuen berget mange liv" (in Norwegian). Bergens Tidende. http://www.bt.no/nyheter/innenriks/--Skolestuen-berget-mange-liv-2544093.html. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  84. ^ Mersland, Frank; Roald Ankersen (23 July 2011). "- Trodde vi var eneste overlevende" (in Norwegian). Fædrelandsvennen. http://www.fvn.no/lokalt/kristiansand/article885595.ece. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  85. ^ Nikolaus von Twickel (16 August 2011). "Chechen War Prepared Teens for Norway Terror". The Moscow Times. http://www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/chechen-war-prepared-teens-for-norway-terror/442109.html. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  86. ^ Post a Job (25 July 2011). "Norway Killing Suspect Ordered Into Isolation for Four Weeks". Businessweek. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-07-25/norway-killing-suspect-ordered-into-isolation-for-four-weeks.html. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  87. ^ "Suspected mass murder called Gro "murder of the nation"". Google. http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=no&u=http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php%3Fartid%3D10080621&ei=kgovTt_1M8XUsga8oPj9Dw&sa=X&oi=translate&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CB0Q7gEwAA&prev=/search%3Fq%3Danders%2Bbehring%2Bbreivik%2Bgro%2Blandsmorderen%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D517%26rlz%3D1W1ACPW_noNO418%26prmd%3Divnso. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  88. ^ "Would kill Gro Harlem Brundtland". Google. http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=no&u=http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7725803&ei=7LktTs3lMM7z-gahzuDsDQ&sa=X&oi=translate&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCUQ7gEwAA&prev=/search%3Fq%3DVille%2Bramme%2BGro%2BHarlem%2BBrundtland%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D517%26rlz%3D1R2ACPW_noNO418%26prmd%3Divnso. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  89. ^ "Norway shooting: killer 'confirms Gro Harlem Brundtland was main target'". The Telegraph. 25 Jul 2011.
  90. ^ "Norway’s island survivors recall 2-hour terror as they cower silently from ‘policeman’ killer". Washington Post. 23 July 2011. http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/norways-island-survivors-recall-2-hour-terror-as-they-cower-silently-from-policeman-killer/2011/07/23/gIQAGckXVI_story.html. Retrieved 24 July 2011. [dead link]
  91. ^ "Notruf der Jugendlichen von Utoya wurde abgewiesen". Die Welt. 24 July 2011. http://www.welt.de/politik/ausland/article13504915/Notruf-der-Jugendlichen-von-Utoya-wurde-abgewiesen.html. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  92. ^ "Norway shooting: German tourist hailed a hero after saving 30 lives". The Daily Telegraph (UK). 26 July 2011. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/norway/8658437/Norway-shooting-German-tourist-hailed-a-hero-after-saving-30-lives.html. 
  93. ^ a b Paterson, Tony (3 August 2011). "Couple braved gunfire to rescue 40 in water at Utoya". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/couple-braved-gunfire-to-rescue-40-in-water-at-utoya-2330879.html. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  94. ^ Watkins, Tom (23 July 2011). "Norwegian islander ferries children to safety". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/europe/07/22/norway.rescue.worker/index.html. Retrieved 12 August 2011. 
  95. ^ Morris, Chris (26 July 2011). "Norway attacks: Utoeya rescuer describes shock of survivors". BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14295913. Retrieved 12 August 2011. 
  96. ^ Schøler, Peter (24 July 2011). "Minut for minut: Sådan angreb politiet Utøya" (in Danish). Politiken. http://politiken.dk/udland/ECE1344165/minut-for-minut-saadan-angreb-politiet-utoeya/. Retrieved 12 August 2011. 
  97. ^ a b "The wrong helicopter and a sinking boat: Why it took police so long to reach Norwegian island massacre". News (UK). 24 July 2011. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2018280/Why-did-police-long-reach-island-massacre.html#ixzz1T2v5xm5h. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  98. ^ "Breivik er overrasket over at han lyktes - VG Nett om Terrorangrepet 22. juli". Vg.no. 26 July 2011. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10080811. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  99. ^ Norway. "Police reveal Breivik called twice, broke communication". Theforeigner.no. http://theforeigner.no/pages/news/police-reveal-breivik-called-twice-broke-communication. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  100. ^ "One Norway survivor describes how he played dead as a gunman passed him". News (US: CNN). 23 July 2011. http://cnn.com/video/?/video/world/2011/07/23/bpr.pracon.norway.survivor.cnn. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  101. ^ "Televize byla na místě masakru dříve než policie" (in Czech). novinky.cz. 26 July 2011. http://www.novinky.cz/zahranicni/evropa/240064-televize-byla-na-miste-masakru-drive-nez-policie.html?ref=zpravy-dne 
  102. ^ Jan Andersson, Lisa Karlsson, Oskyldig 17-åring greps med massmördaren (Swedish), Sveriges Radio, 2011-08-12, retrieved 13 August 2011.
  103. ^ a b News report from AFP: Survivor held for 17 hours after attack, 2011-08-13, retrieved 13 August 2011.
  104. ^ a b Marianne Vikås et al., Utøya-offer kastet på glattcelle (Norwegian), Verdens Gang, 2011-08-12, retrieved 13 August 2011.
  105. ^ Torgeir P. Krokfjord, Utøya-offer (17) ble mistenkt og avhørt uten advokat (Norwegian), Dagbladet, 2011-08-12, retrieved 14 August 2011.
  106. ^ "Explosion In Oslo Government Building". News. Sky. 23 July 2011. http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/World-News/Explosion-At-Oslo-Government-Building-Containing-Prime-Ministers-Office-According-To-Reuters/Article/201107416035628?lpos=World_News_First_Home_Article_Teaser_Region_0&lid=ARTICLE_16035628_Explosion_At_Oslo_Government_Building_Containing_Prime_Ministers_Office%2C_According_To_Reuters. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  107. ^ Hough, Andrew (22 July 2011). "Oslo explosion: 'several' dead, dozens injured after Norway city blast". The Telegraph (UK). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/norway/8655120/Oslo-explosion-several-dead-dozens-injured-after-Norway-city-blast.html. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  108. ^ "Explosion hits Norwegian PM's office — Europe". Al Jazeera English. 22 July 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/europe/2011/07/2011722135232705239.html. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  109. ^ "17 dead in Oslo bombing, shootings; Norwegian held – On Deadline". USA Today. 23 July 2011. http://content.usatoday.com/communities/ondeadline/post/2011/07/blast-in-oslo-blows-out-government-office-building-windows/1. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  110. ^ "Stoltenberg skrev tale til Utøya da bomben smalt [Stoltenberg was writing Utøya speech when the bomb exploded]" (in Norwegian). Dagsavisen. http://www.aftenbladet.no/terror/Stoltenberg-skrev-tale-til-Utya-da-bomben-smalt-2840952.html. 
  111. ^ "Sigbjørn Johnsen til forsvar for euroen [Sigbjørn Johnsen in defense of the Euro]" (in Norwegian). NO: Aftenposten. http://www.aftenposten.no/okonomi/innland/article4178054.ece. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  112. ^ "Norway on summer vacation". The Research Council of Norway. 1 July 2010. http://www.forskningsradet.no/en/Newsarticle/Norway_on_summer_vacation/1253960829916. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  113. ^ Live Stream. NO: TV 2. http://www.tv2.no/nyheter/live. 
  114. ^ TV2, Norwegian national television station
  115. ^ "Politiet: Minst 80 drepte på Utøya – Norge" (in Norwegian). Nyheter. NO: NRK. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7723555. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  116. ^ "Norway Skynews Live blog". Sky News. http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/World-News/Norway-Live-Blog-Oslo-Bomb-Attack-And-Utoya-Shooting/Article/201107416035759?lpos=World_News_Carousel_Region_1&lid=ARTICLE_16035759_Norway_Live_Blog%3A_Oslo_Bomb_Attack_And_Utoya_Shooting. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  117. ^ "– Navn på omkomne etter tragediene på Utøya og i Oslo" (in Norwegian). 29 July 2011. https://www.politi.no/Kampanje_70.xhtml. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  118. ^ "Norwegian Police End Search as Last Shooting Victim Found". International Business Times. 28 July 2011. http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/188527/20110728/oslo-normay-shooting-attack-breivik-last-body-found.htm. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  119. ^ "Fortsatt alvorlig for de skadde" (in Norwegian). Nyheter. NO: NRK. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7734595. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  120. ^ "Anders (32) i Oslo ble pågrepet etter bombe og massedrap". Nyhetene. NO: TV 2. http://www.tv2.no/nyheter/innenriks/anders-32-i-oslo-ble-paagrepet-etter-bombe-og-massedrap-3544629.html. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  121. ^ "Named: The blond Norwegian, 32, arrested over 'holiday island massacre' and linked to Oslo bomb blasts, which killed 7 people and injured many more". Daily Mail (UK). 22 July 2011. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2017851/Named-The-blond-Norwegian-32-arrested-holiday-island-massacre-linked-Oslo-bomb-blasts.html. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  122. ^ a b "Pågrepet 32-åring kalte seg selv nasjonalistisk" (in Norwegian). Nett. NO: VG. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/artikkel.php?artid=10080610. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  123. ^ a b Hansen, Birthe Steen (23 July 2011). "Defence: – In his mind it was necessary". Nettavisen / TV2. http://www.tv2.no/nyheter/innenriks/forsvareren-i-hans-hode-var-det-noedvendig-3545122.html. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  124. ^ Tisdal, Townsend (25 July 2011). "Defiant from the dock, Breivik boasts more will die". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jul/25/anders-behring-breivik-terror-cells. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  125. ^ Erlanger, Steven (25 July 2011). "Norway Suspect Denies Guilt and Suggests He Did Not Act Alone". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/26/world/europe/26oslo.html?_r=1. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  126. ^ Matthew Taylor (26 July 2011). "Breivik sent 'manifesto' to 250 UK contacts hours before Norway killings". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jul/26/breivik-manifesto-email-uk-contacts. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  127. ^ By ADAM GELLER AP National Writer (30 July 2011). "Norway gunman's tale diverges sharply from reality". Mercurynews.com. http://www.mercurynews.com/ci_18585340?IADID=Search-www.mercurynews.com-www.mercurynews.com. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 
  128. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named dailymail; see Help:Cite errors/Cite error references no text
  129. ^ http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5j0D-1Q4Rg2RzAcXi1tCYJgK3PNuw?docId=CNG.d605a2923da5a34248120fc4eb7dc2c7.691
  130. ^ http://newamericamedia.org/2011/08/tragedy-in-norway-borne-out-of-seeds-of-racism-and-intolerance-in-uk-eu.php
  131. ^ Godfrey, Hannah (19 August 2011). "Utøya island shooting victims return to scene of Breivik's killing spree". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/aug/19/utoya-island-shooting-victims-return. 
  132. ^ William S. Lind, ed (November 2004). "Political Correctness:" A Short History of an Ideology. Free Congress Foundation. http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/archive/ldn/1950/51/5051909. 
  133. ^ "Scholars Respond to Breivik Manifesto" (Press release). National Association of Scholars. 28 July 2011. http://www.nas.org/polPressReleases.cfm?Doc_Id=2099. 
  134. ^ Anne-Catherine Simon, Christoph Saiger und Helmar Dumbs (29 July 2011). "Die Welt, wie Anders B. Breivik sie sieht" (in German). Die Presse. http://diepresse.com/home/politik/aussenpolitik/682112/Die-Welt-wie-Anders-B-Breivik-sie-sieht?direct=680247&_vl_backlink=/home/politik/index.do&selChannel=100. 
  135. ^ "Dette er terroristens store politiske forbilde – nyheter". Dagbladet.no. 18 August 2009. http://www.dagbladet.no/2011/07/25/nyheter/terror/utoya/anders_behring_breivik/17442957/. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  136. ^ "Massedrapsmannen kopierte "Unabomberen" ord for ord". Nrk.no. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7725223. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  137. ^ Scott Shane (25 July 2011). "Killings in Norway spotlight anti-Muslim thought in U.S.". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/25/us/25debate.html?_r=1&hp. 
  138. ^ Smith, Craig S. (20 February 2005). "Europe's Jews Seek Solace on the Right". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/20/weekinreview/20smit.html. 
  139. ^ Archer, Toby (25 July 2011). "Breivik's Swamp". Foreign Policy (magazine). http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/07/25/breivik_s_swamp?page=0,1. 
  140. ^ Shane, Scott (24 July 2011). "«Killings in Norway Spotlight Anti-Muslim Thought in U.S.". NYT. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/25/us/25debate.html?pagewanted=2&_r=2. 
  141. ^ "If Only He Had Read The Brussels Journal". TBJ. 27 July 2011. http://www.brusselsjournal.com/node/4783. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  142. ^ Chahine, Marwan (25 July 2011). ""2083, Une déclaration européenne d'indépendance" ou le petit manuel du néo-croisé". Libération. http://www.liberation.fr/monde/01012350843-2083-une-declaration-europeenne-d-independance-ou-le-petit-manuel-du-neo-croise. 
  143. ^ Lee, Sarah (25 July 2011). "http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jul/25/norway-melanie-phillips-hits-back". Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jul/25/norway-melanie-phillips-hits-back. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  144. ^ Bigotry a stepping stone to extreme action Newsroom, 26 July 2011
  145. ^ De var Breiviks helter (They were Breivik's heroes), 26 July 2011, Dagbladet
  146. ^ Balzter, Sebastian; von Altenbockum, Jasper (26 July 2011). "Der Attentäter im Internet. Im blinden Hass gegen Hass" (in german). Frankfurter Allgemeine. http://www.faz.net/artikel/C32742/der-attentaeter-im-internet-im-blinden-hass-gegen-hass-30473075.html. 
  147. ^ "Norway Killer's Hatred of Women". TDB. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/07/24/norway-massacre-anders-breivik-s-deadly-attack-fueled-by-hatred-of-women.html. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  148. ^ "Anders Breivik's chilling anti-feminism". Guardian (London). 27 July 2011. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/jul/27/breivik-anti-feminism?CMP=twt_gu. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  149. ^ "Norwegian mass murderer Breivik comments on Croat-Serb relations in his manifesto". Croatian Times. 27 July 2011. http://www.croatiantimes.com/news/General_News/2011-07-27/20837/Norwegian_mass_murderer_Breivik_comments_on_Croat-Serb_relations_in_his_manifesto. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  150. ^ a b Hartman, Ben (24 July 2011). "Norway attack suspect had anti-Muslim, pro-Israel views". The Jerusalem Post. http://www.jpost.com/International/Article.aspx?id=230762 .
  151. ^ a b Birnbaum, Elisa; Goodman, J David (22 July 2011). "At Least 80 Are Dead in Norway Shooting". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/23/world/europe/23oslo.html. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  152. ^ "Norwegian Massacre Gunman was a Right-Wing Extremist who hated Muslims". The Daily Mail (UK). 24 July 2011. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2017851/Norway-attacks-gunman-Anders-Behring-Breivik-right-wing-extremist-hated-Muslims.html .
  153. ^ Beaumont, Peter (23 July 2011). "Anders Behring Breivik: profile of a mass murderer". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jul/23/anders-behring-breivik-norway-attacks. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  154. ^ Saunders, Debra J (26 July 2011). San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/07/25/ED111KENUV.DTL Norwegian Crime and Punishment. "...the anti-multiculturalism, anti-Muslim and anti-Marxist message of his 1,500-page manifesto" .
  155. ^ "Breivik’s anti-Muslim crusade". 27 July 2011. http://nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Opinions/Editorials/27-Jul-2011/Breiviks-antiMuslim-crusade. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  156. ^ 11:03AM BST 24 Jul 2011 (24 July 2011). "Video: Norway shootings: Anders Behring Breivik's YouTube video posted hours before killings". London: Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/norway/8657669/Norway-shootings-Anders-Behring-Breiviks-YouTube-video-posted-hours-before-killings.html. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  157. ^ Šťastný, Jiří (24 July 2011). (in Czech)Mladá fronta DNES (Czech Republic). http://zpravy.idnes.cz/praha-je-prilis-bezpecna-zbrane-tu-nesezenu-pise-v-manifestu-breivik-1ia-/zahranicni.aspx?c=A110724_111215_zahranicni_js. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  158. ^ Ben, By (25 July 2011). "Norway massacre: Breivik manifesto attempts to woo India's Hindu nationalists - Yahoo! News". News.yahoo.com. http://news.yahoo.com/norway-massacre-breivik-manifesto-attempts-woo-indias-hindu-185033601.html. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  159. ^ a b Norway Gunman Anders Behring Breivik Released Manifesto on the Web – Video and 1,500 page document, The Last Refuge, 23 July 2011.
  160. ^ "Anders Breivik's chilling anti-feminism | Jane Clare Jones | Comment is free". London: guardian.co.uk. 27 July 2011. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/jul/27/breivik-anti-feminism. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  161. ^ BigJay. "Official Statement – Anders Brievik". English Defence League. http://englishdefenceleague.org/official-statement-anders-brievik/. 
  162. ^ Mark Hennessy. "Claim gunman linked to UK group". The Irish Times. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/world/2011/0726/1224301383796.html. 
  163. ^ Hall, Richard (25 July 2011). "Outcry over role of English Defense League". Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/outcry-over-role-of-english-defence-league-2319895.html. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  164. ^ Townsend, Mark (23 July 2011). "Norway attacks: Utøya gunman boasted of links to UK far right". Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jul/23/norway-attacks-utoya-gunman. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  165. ^ "Terroristen ville bruke atomvåpen [The terrorist would use nuclear weapons]" (in Norwegian). 23 July 2011. http://www.bt.no/nyheter/innenriks/Terroristen-ville-bruke-atomvpen-2542322.html. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  166. ^ "Deadly, cruel lesson from Norway". The Australian. 26 July 2011. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/features/deadly-cruel-lesson-from-norway/story-e6frg6z6-1226101590303. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  167. ^ "Norway police say 84 killed in Utoeya shooting". Reuters. 23 July 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/07/23/us-norway-killings-police-idUSTRE76M0SF20110723. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  168. ^ Erlanger, Steven and Scott Shane (24 July 2011). "Oslo Suspect Wrote of Fear of Islam and Plan for War". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/25/world/europe/25oslo.html. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  169. ^ Brown, Andrew (24 July 2011). "Anders Breivik is not Christian but anti-Islam". guardian.co.uk (London: Guardian Media Group). http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/andrewbrown/2011/jul/24/norway-anders-behring-breivik-beliefs. Retrieved 25 July 2011. "Norway mass murderer Anders Breivik's internet writings show him to be anti-Muslim and anti-Marxist, not a fundamentalist Christian." 
  170. ^ Introvigne, Massimo (July 2011). "The Identity Ideology of Anders Breivik. Not a Christian Fundamentalist". Turin: CESNUR. http://www.cesnur.org/2011/mi-oslo-en.html. Retrieved 25 July 2011. "At first, the media called Anders Behring Breivik a Christian fundamentalist, some of them even a Roman Catholic. This shows the cavalier use of the word 'fundamentalist' prevailing today in several quarters." 
  171. ^ "Anders Breivik Manifesto: Shooter/Bomber Downplayed Religion, Secular Influence Key". International Business Times. 26 July 2011. http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/186020/20110725/anders-breivik-manifesto-shooter-bomber-downplayed-religion-secular-influence-key.htm. Retrieved 28 July 2011. "Anders Behring Breivik placed himself potentially outside of religious Christianity in a 1,500 page manifesto he has reportedly admitted to writing. "A majority of so called agnostics and atheists in Europe are cultural conservative Christians without even knowing it," he wrote. "If you have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and God then you are a religious Christian. Myself and many more like me do not necessarily have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and God. We do however believe in Christianity as a cultural, social, identity and moral platform. This makes us Christian," he wrote." 
  172. ^ Nicola Menzie (26 July 2011). "Norway massacre suspect manifesto rejects personal relationship with Jesus". Christianity Today. http://au.christiantoday.com/article/norway-massacre-suspect-manifesto-rejects-personal-relationship-with-jesus/11623.htm. Retrieved 28 July 2011. "He writes on page 1307 of his online manifesto: “If you have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and God then you are a religious Christian. Myself and many more like me do not necessarily have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and God." 
  173. ^ Anders Breivik Manifesto: Shooter/Bomber Downplayed Religion, Secular Influence Key. (25 July 2011). International Business Times. Retrieved from http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/186020/20110725/anders-breivik-manifesto-shooter-bomber-downplayed-religion-secular-influence-key.htm Accessed 25 July 2011
  174. ^ Will Englund; Michael Birnbaum (23 July 2011). "Suspect in Norway attacks admits involvement, denies responsibility". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/norway-attacks-police-say-suspect-used-car-bomb-two-guns-killing-at-least-92/2011/07/23/gIQAVYeOVI_story_2.html. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  175. ^ "32-åringen skal tilhøre høyreekstremt miljø – Norge". Nyheter. NO: NRK. 27 January 2010. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7723548. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  176. ^ Torheim, Ørjan (in Norwegian). Som en liten gutt: Slik beskrives terrorsiktede Anders Behring Breivik (32) av bergensmann som traff ham. BT. http://www.bt.no/nyheter/innenriks/--Som-en-liten-gutt-2542176.html 
  177. ^ Fondenes, Eivind; Kathleen Buer (23 July 2011). "Terrorsiktede var tidligere medlem av Fremskrittspartiet" (in Norwegian). Nyhetene (TV 2). http://www.tv2.no/nyheter/innenriks/terrorsiktede-var-tidligere-medlem-av-fremskrittspartiet-3544743.html. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  178. ^ "Atentante in Norvegia: Atacatorul il admira pe Vlad Tepes [Attacks in Norway : The attacker admired Vlad Tepes]" (in Romanian). 24 July 2011. http://www.ziare.com/international/atentat-norvegia/atentante-in-norvegia-atacatorul-il-admira-pe-vlad-tepes-1109742. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  179. ^ Poza, Pedro (23 July 2011). "El presunto autor, un noruego nacionalista vinculado a la extrema derecha" (in Spanish). El Mundo (ES). http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2011/07/23/internacional/1311378740.html. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  180. ^ Papadakis, Mary (24 July 2011). Norway's new face of terror. AU: Sunday Herald Sun. http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/gunmans-background-puzzles-police/story-e6frf7jo-1226100487358 
  181. ^ "Dader bloedbad bewondert Geert Wildersq" (in Dutch). News (BE: HLN). 23 July 2011. http://www.hln.be/hln/nl/10756/Bloedbad-Oslo/article/detail/1296088/2011/07/23/Dader-bloedbad-bewondert-Geert-Wilders.dhtml. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  182. ^ "Vil ikke opplyse navnet til Breiviks forsvarer" (in Norwegian). NO: Adresseavisen/NTB. 23 July 2011. http://www.adressa.no/nyheter/innenriks/article1666194.ece. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  183. ^ "Eyewitness to VG: (...)". VG. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10080627. 
  184. ^ "Politiet frykter gjerningsmann kan være på frifot" (in Norwegian). NO: VG. 23 July 2011. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10080633. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  185. ^ "Frykter at gjerningsmann kan være på frifot" (in Norwegian). NO: Aftenposten. 23 July 2011. http://www.aftenposten.no/nyheter/iriks/article4181342.ece. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  186. ^ "Synes ikke selv at han bør straffes" (in Norwegian). NO: NRK. 24 July 2011. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7724994. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 
  187. ^ "Norway: Anders Behring Breivik claims 'two more cells'". BBC News. 25 July 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14280210. 
  188. ^ Norwegian police arrest six in Oslo raids BreakingNews.ie, 24 July 2011.
  189. ^ Murtnes, Sindre (23 July 2011). "Kongen om terrorangrepet: – Våre tanker går til ofrene" (in Norwegian). Verdens Gang. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10080609. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  190. ^ Gimse, Lars Martin (23 July 2011). "- Vi er alle rystet av ondskapen" (in Norwegian). Aftenposten. http://www.aftenposten.no/nyheter/iriks/article4180951.ece. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  191. ^ Batty, David; Godfrey, Hannah (24 July 2011). "Norway attacks: Sunday 24 July rolling coverage: 1.13 pm". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/blog/2011/jul/24/norway-attacks-live-updates?cat=world&type=article#block-21. Retrieved 24 July 2011. "No one has said it better than the AUF girl who was interviewed by CNN: "If one man can show so much hate, think how much love we could show, standing together."" 
  192. ^ "Address by Prime Minister in Oslo Cathedral". Norwegian government. 24 July 2011. http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/smk/Whats-new/Speeches-and-articles/statsministeren/statsminister_jens_stoltenberg/2011/address-by-prime-minister-in-oslo-cathed.html. Retrieved 25 July 2011. "No one has said it better than the Labour Youth League girl who was interviewed by CNN: If one man can create that much hate, you can only imagine how much love we as a togetherness can create." 
  193. ^ Ervik, Marthe Rosenvinge (23 July 2011). "- I dag er vi alle AUF-ere" (in Norwegian). Fædrelandsvennen. http://www.fvn.no/nyheter/innenriks/article885654.ece. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  194. ^ "- En nasjonal tragedie" (in Norwegian). Conservative Party. http://www.hoyre.no/www/aktuelt/nyheter_fra_hoyre/-+En+nasjonal+tragedie.d25-TwRrK1V.ips. 
  195. ^ "- En nasjonal tragedie" (in Norwegian). Progress Party. http://www.frp.no/-+En+nasjonal+tragedie.d25-TMdHK5n.ips. 
  196. ^ "En ufattelig nasjonal tragedie" (in Norwegian). Christian Democratic Party. http://www.krf.no/ikbViewer/page/krf/artikkel?p_document_id=55408&hovedtema=&person=34798&hva=. 
  197. ^ "Ein trist dag for Noreg" (in Norwegian). Center Party. http://www.senterpartiet.no/meny-forside/ein-trist-dag-for-noreg-article71618-12919.html. 
  198. ^ "En ufattelig tragedie" (in Norwegian). Socialist Left Party. http://sv.no/Forside/Siste-nytt/Nyhetsarkiv/En-ufattelig-tragedie. 
  199. ^ "Våre tanker er hos ofrene og de pårørende" (in Norwegian). Liberal Party. http://www.venstre.no/artikkel/36085/. 
  200. ^ "En stor tragedie har rammet Norge" (in Norwegian). Red. http://rødt.no/nyheter/2011/07/en-stor-tragedie-har-rammet-norge/. 
  201. ^ "Minnesamling mandag 1. august kl. 12" (in Norwegian). Stortinget. 26 July 2011. http://stortinget.no/no/Hva-skjer-pa-Stortinget/Nyhetsarkiv/Forsidenyheter/2010-2011/Minnemote-mandag-1-august-kl-12/. Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  202. ^ "Video recording of the 1 August 2011 Storting session" (in Norwegian). Stortinget. 1 August 2011. http://stortinget.no/no/Hva-skjer-pa-Stortinget/Videoarkiv/Arkiv-TV-sendinger/?mbid=/2011/H264-full/Storting/08/01/stortinget-20110801-113755.mp4. Retrieved 1 August 2011.  (begins at 10:32, King's entrance at 19:14, first speech at 20:06)
  203. ^ Sandvik, Siv; Malm, Anders (25 July 2011). "- Har ikke samvittighet til å presse AUF-ere til å stille opp" (in Norwegian). NRK. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7726484. 
  204. ^ Sandvik, Siv; Anders Malm (25 July 2011). "Partiene utsetter valgkampen til midten av august" (in Norwegian). NRK. http://nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7726484. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  205. ^ "NrK: Tror Al-Qaida står bak". M.nrk.no. 22 July 2011. http://m.nrk.no/m/artikkel.jsp?art_id=17723020. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  206. ^ "Verdens Gang: Kadra: - Muslimer ble jaget nedover gatene". Vg.no. 30 July 2011. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10088913. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  207. ^ "Dagsavisen: "Nå ligger dere jævla tynt an"". Dagsavisen.no. 25 July 2011. http://www.dagsavisen.no/innenriks/article518621.ece. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  208. ^ Henrik Arneberg Tips meg. "Nettavisen: - Dra tilbake dit du kommer fra". Nettavisen.no. http://www.nettavisen.no/nyheter/article3204556.ece. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  209. ^ "Verdens Gang: Oppfordret hijabkledde jenter om å holde seg innendørs". Vg.no. 31 July 2011. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10088956. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  210. ^ "NrK Muslimer ble hetset etter terroren". Nrk.no. 23 July 2011. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7723535. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  211. ^ Henrik Arneberg Tips meg. "Nettavisen: -Innvandrere dratt ut av pub". Nettavisen.no. http://www.nettavisen.no/nyheter/article3202049.ece. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  212. ^ Dagens Næringsliv, 2011-07-23, "Ulvespor" by Morten Møst, Christel Marie Stabæk, Line Tiller and Vegard Tenold Aase
  213. ^ Dagens Næringsliv (30 July 2011) and Aftenposten (2011-07-31), Wasim Zahid: Et lettelsens sukk
  214. ^ John Hooper in Rome (27 July 2011). "Ex-Berlusconi minister defends Anders Behring Breivik". London: Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jul/27/ex-berlusconi-minister-defends-breivik?intcmp=239. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  215. ^ "Italy MEP backs ideas of Norway killer Breivik". BBC. 27 July 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14315108. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  216. ^ "FPÖ kicks out MP for Norway killing theories". Austrian Independent. http://austrianindependent.com/news/Politics/2011-07-29/8578/FP%D6_kicks_out_MP_for_Norway_killing_theories. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  217. ^ Olof Svensson, Josefin Karlsson (25 July 2011). "Hela Norden hedrade offren med tyst minut" (in Swedish). Aftonbladet. http://www.aftonbladet.se/nyheter/terrordadetinorge/article13373440.ab. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  218. ^ "More than 200,000 mourn in downtown Oslo" (in Norwegian). Verdens Gang. 25 July 2011. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/artikkel.php?artid=10080775. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  219. ^ "150 000 hedrade terrorns offer" (in Swedish). 25 July 2011. http://www.sydsvenskan.se/varlden/article1516927/Manifestation-mot-terror-i-Oslo.html. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  220. ^ "Mass rallies for Norway victims". BBC. 25 July 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14285020. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  221. ^ Nordmenn provosert av Fox News' terrordekning, Aftenposten 26 July 2011
  222. ^ Norway shooting: Glenn Beck compares dead teenagers to Hitler youth, The Telegraph, 25 Jul 2011
  223. ^ Johansen, Per Kristian (25 August 2008). "Frank Aarebrot" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.nrk.no/programmer/radio/stjerneklart/1.6191946. Retrieved 25 January 2010. 
  224. ^ Glenn Beck sammenligner AUF med Hitlerjugend, Bergens Tidende, 26 July 2011
  225. ^ "Politiet ber om lukkede dører". nrk.no. http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/norge/1.7753723. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  226. ^ "Kjennelse - Lukking av dører". domstolen.no. http://www.domstol.no/upload/OBYR/Internett/Nyheter/Kjennelse%20-%20lukking%20av%20d%C3%B8rer.pdf. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  227. ^ Anders Behring Breivik varetektsfengsles i åtte uker Vgtv.no 25 July 2011
  228. ^ "Breivik risikerer 30 års fengsel - Lov og rett - E24". E24.no. 25 July 2011. http://e24.no/lov-og-rett/breivik-risikerer-30-aars-fengsel/20082609. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  229. ^ "Krevde politiet skulle hente uniformen før rettsmøtet - VG Nett om Terrorangrepet 22. juli". Vg.no. 25 July 2011. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10080776. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  230. ^ "Terrorsiktet fengslet i åtte uker - Lov og rett - E24". E24.no. 25 July 2011. http://e24.no/lov-og-rett/terrorsiktet-fengslet-i-aatte-uker/20082580. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  231. ^ "Her skal Breivik sitte i isolasjon - VG Nett om Terrorangrepet 22. juli". Vg.no. 27 July 2011. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10080853. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  232. ^ "Terror-tiltale klar tidligst ved årsskiftet - VG Nett om Terrorangrepet 22. juli". Vg.no. 28 July 2011. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10080947. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  233. ^ "Back to the scene of his slaughter: Norwegian massacre gunman Breivik in macabre reconstruction as police take him back to island where he killed 69". dailymail.co.uk (London). 15 August 2011. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2025873/Norway-shooting-Police-Anders-Breivik-Utoya-island-killed-69.html. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  234. ^ "Massedrapsmannen tilbake på Utøya lørdag - VG Nett om Terrorangrepet 22. juli". Vg.no. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10081251. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  235. ^ "Politiet om Breivik på Utøya: - Viste ikke uttrykk for anger - VG Nett om Terrorangrepet 22. juli". Vg.no. http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10081294. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  236. ^ http://www.vg.no/nyheter/innenriks/oslobomben/artikkel.php?artid=10014591
  237. ^ "Norway Retail Giant Dropping Many Titles/Toys in Response to Oslo Attacks". http://www.planetxbox360.com/article_15754/Norway_Retail_Giant_Dropping_Many_TitlesToys_in_Response_to_Oslo_Attacks. Retrieved 31 July 2011. 
  238. ^ Aalborg, Berit Strøyer; Nordby, Kristin Jonassen; Hoel, Yasmin Sunde (26 July 2011). "Ungdomspartiene merker stor pågang etter tragedien" (in Norwegian). Aftenposten. http://www.aftenposten.no/nyheter/iriks/article4184188.ece. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  239. ^ Berge, Jørgen (9 August 2011). "900 til Erna - 767 til Siv" (in Norwegian). Nettavisen. http://www.nettavisen.no/nyheter/article3204009.ece. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  240. ^ Heszlein-Lossius, Hanne (31 August 2011). "6200 nye i Ap etter Utøya" (in Norwegian). Bergens Tidende. http://www.bt.no/nyheter/valg/6200-nye-i-Ap-etter-Utya-2566208.html. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  241. ^ "Medlems-boom for høyreekstreme" (in Norwegian). TV 2. 18 August 2011. http://www.tv2.no/nyheter/innenriks/medlemsboom-for-hoeyreekstreme-3562095.html. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  242. ^ Meland, Astrid; Brustad, Line (25 August 2011). "- Blir årets hendelse" (in Norwegian). Dagbladet. http://www.dagbladet.no/2011/08/25/nyheter/norwegian_defence_league/anders_behring_breivik/innenriks/terrorangrepet/17824844/. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  243. ^ Ny Tid, 2011-08-19, "Høyreekstreme i viden" by Carima Tirillsdottir Heinesen
  244. ^ "Norway local elections: Breivik's old party suffers". BBC. 13 September 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14895052. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 

External links

Images

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • 2011 — This article is about the year 2011. For the number (and other uses), see 2011 (number). Millennium: 3rd millennium Centuries: 20th century – 21st century – 22nd century Decades: 1980s  1990s  2000s  –… …   Wikipedia

  • Norway — For other uses, see Norway (disambiguation). Kingdom of Norway Kongeriket Norge (Bokmål) Kongeriket Noreg (Nynorsk) …   Wikipedia

  • Norwegian local elections, 2011 — Norway This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Norway …   Wikipedia

  • Progress Party (Norway) — For the 1957 party by the same name, see Progress Party (Norway, 1957). Progress Party Fremskrittspartiet Leader Siv Jensen …   Wikipedia

  • Теракты в Норвегии (2011) — Теракты в Норвегии (2011) …   Википедия

  • Mette-Marit, Crown Princess of Norway — Mette Marit Crown Princess of Norway The Crown Princess of Norway at the wedding of Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, 19 June 2010 Spouse Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway Issue Marius Borg Høib …   Wikipedia

  • Atentados de Noruega de 2011 — Ataques del 22 de julio de 2011 en Noruega Youngstorget, justo después del atentado Lugar Oslo y Utøya …   Wikipedia Español

  • Deaths in July 2011 — Contents 1 July 2011 1.1 31 1.2 30 1.3 29 …   Wikipedia

  • 2011 military intervention in Libya — Operation Freedom Falcon redirects here. For the military operation in the Second Gulf War, see Operation Falcon Freedom. Military intervention in Libya …   Wikipedia

  • 2011 Libyan civil war — For more details on this topic, see Timeline of the 2011 Libyan civil war. 2011 Libyan civil war Part of the Arab Spring …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”