2011 Norway attacks

2011 Norway attacks
2011 Norway attacks

View 30 minutes after the explosion in Oslo.
Utøya is located in Buskerud

Locations of the incidents in the Oslo and Buskerud counties of Norway
Location Oslo and Utøya, Norway
Coordinates 59°54′54″N 10°44′48″E / 59.9149776°N 10.746544°E / 59.9149776; 10.746544 (2011 Oslo explosion)Coordinates: 59°54′54″N 10°44′48″E / 59.9149776°N 10.746544°E / 59.9149776; 10.746544 (2011 Oslo explosion)
Date 22 July 2011 (2011-07-22)
15:25[1] CEST (UTC+02:00)
Target Norway Labour Party[2]
Attack type Bombing
Shooting spree
Weapon(s) Car bomb (made using ANFO)
Ruger Mini-14 Carbine
Glock 17 pistol

8 (Oslo)[3]
69 (Utøya)[4][5]

Total: 77
Injured Total: 151[6]
Victim 77 (deaths)
151 (injuries)
Total 228 victims
Perpetrator(s) Anders Behring Breivik
(Lone wolf)

The 2011 Norway attacks were two sequential terrorist attacks against the government, the civilian population and a summer camp in Norway on 22 July 2011.

The first was a car bomb explosion in Oslo within Regjeringskvartalet, the executive government quarter of Norway, at 15:25:22 (CEST).[7] The car bomb was placed outside the office of Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg and other government buildings.[8] The explosion killed eight people and wounded several others, with more than 10 people critically injured.

The second attack occurred less than two hours later at a summer camp on the island of Utøya in Tyrifjorden, Buskerud. The camp was organized by AUF, the youth division of the ruling Norwegian Labour Party. A gunman dressed in an authentic looking police uniform and showing false identification[9] gained access to the island and subsequently opened fire at the participants, killing 69 attendees,[4][5] including personal friends of Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg and the stepbrother of Norway's crown princess Mette-Marit.[10]

The Norwegian Police Service arrested Anders Behring Breivik, a 32-year-old Norwegian[11] right-wing extremist[12] and charged him with both attacks.[13] The European Union, NATO and several countries around the world expressed their support for Norway and condemned the attacks.


Preparation for the attacks

Anders Behring Breivik had participated for years in debates in Internet forums and spoke against Islam and immigration.[14] He was preparing for the attacks from at least as early as 2009, though he concealed his violent intentions.[15][16][17]

Failed attempt to buy weapons in Prague

Breivik spent six days in Prague in late August and early September 2010. He chose the Czech Republic because the country has some of the most relaxed laws regarding guns and drugs in Europe. Following his Internet inquiry, Breivik noted that "Prague is known for maybe being the most important transit site point for illicit drugs and weapons in Europe". Despite the fact that Prague has one of the lowest crime rates[18] among European capitals, Breivik observed that he was not looking forward to his trip to the Central European capital, because he has "heard that there are very brutal and cynical criminals".[19]

He hollowed out the rear seats of his Hyundai Atos in order to have enough space for the firearms he hoped to buy. After two days, he got a prospectus for a mineral extraction business printed, which was supposed to give him an alibi in case someone suspected him of preparing a terrorist attack.[19] He wanted to buy an AK-47-type rifle (this sort of firearm is however not very common in the country, unlike the Vz. 58[20]), a Glock pistol, hand-grenades and a rocket-propelled grenade, stating that getting the latter two would be a "bonus".[17][19]

Breivik had paid for prostitutes in Prague[19] and had several fake police badges printed to wear with a police uniform, which he had acquired illegally on the Internet, and which he later wore during the attack.[9] Contrary to his expectations, he was completely unable to get any firearms in the Czech Republic, commenting that it was the "first major setback in [his] operation". In the end, he concluded that Prague was "far from a ideal city to buy guns" and nothing like "what the BBC reported", and that he had felt "safer in Prague than in Oslo".[17][19][21]

Arming in Norway and through the Internet

Originally, Breivik intended to try to obtain weapons in Germany or Serbia if his mission in Prague failed. The Czech disappointment, however, led him to procure his weapons through legal channels.[21] He decided to obtain a semi-automatic rifle and a Glock pistol legally in Norway, noting that he had a "clean criminal record, hunting license, and a pump action shotgun Benelli Nova already for seven years", and that obtaining the guns legally should therefore not be a problem.[17]

Upon returning to Norway, Breivik obtained a legal permit for a Ruger Mini-14 semi-automatic carbine, ostensibly for the purpose of hunting deer. He bought it in late 2010 for €1,400 ($2000). In his manifesto he said he was going to use soft-point rifle bullets, injected with 99% pure liquid nicotine, to make them even more lethal. Forensics tests to determine whether nicotine was used are underway.[22]

Getting a permit for the pistol proved more difficult, as he had to demonstrate regular attendance at a sport shooting club.[19] He also bought 10 30-round magazines from a US supplier. From November 2010 to January 2011 he went through 15 training sessions at the Oslo Pistol Club, and by mid-January his application to purchase a Glock pistol was approved.[23][24]

Breivik claimed in his manifesto that he bought 300 g of sodium nitrite from a Polish shop for 10 in December 2010, in order to make a bomb fuse.[25] In March 2011,[26] he legally bought 100 kg of chemicals from a small Internet-based Wrocław company. The Polish ABW interviewed the company owner on 24 July 2011.[25] Breivik's Polish purchases initially led to him being put on the watch list of the Norwegian intelligence, which did not act because they did not believe it was relevant.[27]

He had also planned a last religious service (in Frogner Church) before the attack.[19]

On 18 May 2009 Breivik registered a Sole proprietorship called Breivik Geofarm in order to buy fertilizer without arousing suspicion. Upon registration, Breivik stated that the company would grow vegetables, melons and tubers.[28] The place of business was set to Åmot in Hedmark. On 4 May 2011 Breivik purchased six tons of fertilizer (13,227 pounds) through Geofarm at Felleskjøpet. The amount is an average purchase of fertilizer in Norway. Three tons consisting of ammonium nitrate and three tons consisting of calcium ammonium nitrate. According to some of the neighbors, all the fertilizer was stored in his barn.[29] This was the fertilizer used to make the Oslo bomb. After conducting a reconstruction of the bomb with equivalent amount of fertilizer on the farm in Åmot, police and bomb experts concluded that the bomb had been 950 kilograms.[30]. About the same size as the one used in the 2002 Bali bombings. Afterwards there was significant debate in Norway how an amateur could acquire so substantial amounts of fertilizer and in addition manufacture and place such a lethal weapon in the middle of Regjeringskvartalet all by himself. The conclusion by Felleskjøpet was that there is no legislation to keep agricultural businesses from purchasing as much fertilizer as they please, and that Geofarm was completely legitimate and there was nothing suspicious about Breivik's purchase.[31] This was confirmed by the director of the Norwegian Police Security Service, Janne Kristiansen, who stated "not even STASI could have prevented this attack"[32]

Breivik Geofarm

Breivik ran his fictitious company from Åmot municipality in Hedmark county.

Apparently Breivik began the planning of terrorist acts in the early 2000's. In the spring of 2009 Behring Breivik created a sole proprietorship called Breivik Geofarm, a company established under the fictitious purpose «the cultivation of vegetables, melons, roots and tubers.»[33] The real purpose was to provide access to chemicals and materials, especially fertilizer that could be used for the production of explosives.

The company should have listed at least two Swedish employees at the social networking site Facebook, but it is uncertain whether these people actually existed.[34]

In April 2011 he reported moving from Oslo to Vålstua farm in the municipality of Åmot, located about 9 kilometres south of the community center Rena, on the east side of Glomma[35]. Agricultural company was driven from the farm, and gave access to ingredients for explosives.[36]

On 4 May 2011 Behring Breivik bought six tons of fertilizer, alledgedly for farming purposes, and kept it in a garage on the farm in Åmot.[37] In 82 days stayed Behring Breivik on the farm, where he ran the practical preparations for a terrorist attack, and among them produced more fertilizer bombs: one test bomb that was exploded in the natural terrain[38] and one car bomb of 950 kg, which was blown up in downtown Oslo on 22 July 2011[39] where it killed eight people. He had at least between 1000 and 1500 kg additional material that was left on the farm and could be used for construction of a third bomb.[40]

Weapons training

Beside visiting firing ranges and countries with relaxed gun laws to sharpen his skill, a manifesto, supposedly written by Breivik (though this is unconfirmed) claims he made use of the video game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 as a training simulation while using World of Warcraft as a cover for his extended period of isolation.[41]

Oslo bombing

Placement of the car bomb near the entrance of the main government building (the H block.) The R4 block houses the Ministries of Petroleum and Energy; Trade and Industry. S block: Ministry of Health and Care Services

On 22 July 2011 at 15:25:22[7] (CEST) a bomb detonated in Regjeringskvartalet, downtown Oslo. The bomb was placed in a Volkswagen Crafter[42] and parked in front of the H block[43], housing the Office of the Prime Minister and Ministry of Justice and the Police, and several other governmental buildings, such as the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (R4), Ministry of Finance (G block), Ministry of Education and Research (Y block) and the Supreme Court of Norway (behind the G block).[1][44] Breivik was registered by surveillance cameras as parking the car at 15:13:43, then standing by it for 1 minute and 54 seconds, whereafter he was walking away, visibly holding a gun in his hand.[45] [46] Security guards registered the car as of unknown origin and started searching for the driver. Breivik was, however, not observed.[47]

The explosion started fires in the H block (H-blokka) and R4, and the shock wave blew out the windows on all floors as well as in the VG house and other buildings on the other side of the square.[42] The streets in the area were filled with glass and debris following the explosion. A cloud of white smoke was reported as a fire continued to burn at the Department of Oil and Energy. The blast was heard at least 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) away.[44]

At 15:26 the police received the first message about the explosion,[42] and at 15:28 the first police patrol reported that it had arrived at the scene.[42] At the same time, news agency NTB was told that the Prime Minister was unhurt and safe.[42]

Following the explosion, police cleared the area and searched for any additional explosive devices.[48] Through media outlets, police urged citizens to evacuate central Oslo.[49]

Police later announced that the bomb was composed of a mixture of fertiliser and fuel oil (ANFO), similar to that used in the Oklahoma City bombing.[50][51]

Impact on transportation

Immediately after the explosion, the area surrounding the damaged buildings was cordoned off and evacuated. People were asked to remain calm and leave the city center if possible, but there was no general evacuation. The subway system remained operational, and most of the tram network was also running, although sporadically, except for the line through Grensen (the street between Prof. Aschehoug's plass and Stortorvet).[52] Buses also continued to run, although at least one articulated bus on the No.37 line, which stops outside the Ministry of Finance, was commandeered to evacuate the walking wounded.

An e-mail communication with the BBC from a traveller indicated that police were conducting searches in cars on the road to Oslo Airport, Gardermoen,[53] which remained open.[54][55]

The Gardermoen Line between Lillestrøm and Oslo Airport was shut down after a suspicious package was found close to the tracks.[56] The same happened at the offices of TV 2 which were evacuated after a suspicious package was found outside the building.[57]

Utøya massacre


69 people were killed, and of the 517 survivors[58]66 were injured.[59]

Approximately one and a half hours after the Oslo explosion,[60] a man wearing a police uniform, confirmed to be Anders Behring Breivik,[61] boarded a ferry at Tyrifjorden, a lake some 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Oslo, to the island of Utøya,[62] the location of the Norwegian Labour Party's annual AUF youth summer camp, which is organised there every summer[63] and which was attended by approximately 600 teenagers.[64]

When Breivik arrived on the island, he presented himself as a police officer who had come over for a routine check following the bombing event in Oslo. He signalled and asked people to gather around him[65] before pulling weapons and ammunition from a bag and indiscriminately firing his weapons,[66][67][68] killing and wounding numerous people. He first shot people on the island and later started shooting at people who were trying to escape by swimming across the lake.[69] Survivors on the island described a scene of terror.[66] In one example, 21-year-old survivor Dana Barzingi described how several victims wounded by Breivik pretended to be dead to survive; but he later came back and shot them again.[66] He did relent in his executions on some occasions: First, when an 11-year-old boy who had just lost his father during the shooting, stood up against him and said he was too young to die; and later, when a 22-year-old male begged for his life.[70]

Some witnesses on the island were reported to have hidden in the undergrowth, and in lavatories, communicating by text message to avoid giving their positions away to the gunman.[71] The mass shooting reportedly lasted for around an hour and a half, ending when a police special task force arrived and the gunman surrendered, despite having ammunition left, at 18:35.[72] It is also reported that the shooter used hollow-point[73] or frangible bullets[74] (incorrectly but popularly called dum-dums[75]) which increase tissue damage.[74]

The island's manager for over 20 years, Monica Bøsei, 45, known as “Mother Utøya”, was one of the victims.[76] Her husband and one of her two daughters were also present, but escaped with their lives.[77] The youngest victim, Sharidyn Svebakk-Boehn, just turned 14 years old, and wrote a blog[78] describing the days before her murder.[79][80]

Local residents in a flotilla of little motorboats and fishing dinghies sailed out to rescue the survivors who were pulled out shivering and bleeding from the water and picked up from hiding places in the bushes and behind rocks around the island's shoreline. Some survived by pretending to be dead.[81] Several campers, especially those with the experience to know the island well, swam to the island's rocky west side and hid in the caves which are only accessible from the water. Others were able to hide away on the secluded Kjærlighetsstien ("love path").[82] 47 of the campers sought refuge in Skolestua ("the School House") together with personnel from the Norwegian People's Aid. Although Breivik shot two bullets through the door, he did not get through the locked door, and the people inside this building survived.[83][84]

Two ethnic Chechen teenagers Movsar Dzhamayev, 17, and Rustam Daudov, 16, who were at the island described later that they were reminded of the war in their native Chechnya. "I have seen people being shot before in my country when I was small and had flashbacks," Dzhamayev said. But after speaking to his father by cell phone, he pulled himself together. "My dad said, 'Attack the perpetrator and do it properly,'" he said. With a third unidentified friend, the teens armed themselves with stones and returned to the scene only to witness Breivik killing another teenager. "We stood three meters from him and wanted to beat him, but then he shot one of our friends in the head. So we just threw the stones and ran for our lives," Daudov said.

The teenagers said that they had decided that it was too difficult to stop the gunman. They discovered a cave-like opening in a rock where they managed to hide 23 children from Breivik. Dzhamayev, who kept guard outside, also dragged three youngsters from the lake who were close to drowning.[85]

The police have declined to say what guns he used for the attacks or how he acquired them.[86]

Former prime minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, whom Breivik said he hated and, in a pun on the epithet Landsmoderen - "mother of the nation", referred to in his writings as landsmorderen - "murderer of the nation",[87] had been on the island earlier in the day to give a speech to the camp. After the attack Breivik stated that he originally wanted to target her specifically; but because of delays related to the ongoing renovation of Oslo Central railway station, she was already gone when the shooting started.[88][89]

Rescue and emergency response

Initially, as the besieged people from Utøya tried to call the emergency services, they were told to keep off the line unless they were calling about the Oslo bomb.[90][91]

The first person to arrive on the scene was Marcel Gleffe, a German resident of Ski vacationing at a holiday camp on the mainland. Recognizing gunshots, he piloted his boat to the island and began throwing lifejackets to young people in the water, rescuing as many as he could in four or five trips, after which the police asked him to stop. The Daily Telegraph credited him with saving up to 30 lives.[92] Another forty were saved by Hege Dalen and Toril Hansen, a married lesbian couple holidaying in the area. The couple made a total of four trips to the island to rescue campers, and at one point came under fire.[93] Several dozen more were rescued by Kasper Ilaug, who made three trips to the island. Ilaug, a local resident, received a telephone call that "something terrible" was happening on Utoya and requesting help. He initially thought the call was a prank, but acted anyway.[94][95] Altogether, some 150 who swam away from the island were pulled out of the fjord by campers on the opposite shore.[93]

At 17:27 the local police district learned about the shooting, and two minutes later the police in Oslo were informed.[42][96] By 17:38, the Norwegian central counter-terrorist unit Beredskapstroppen was dispatched to Utøya from their headquarters in Oslo.[42] However special forces in Oslo did not have a helicopter available that could take them straight to the island. The only helicopter available to the Oslo-based unit was a military one parked 60 km south of the capital at Moss Airport in Rygge, and thus the special unit had to reach the location by cars.[97] They reached the ferry crossing at 18:09, but had to wait a few minutes for a boat to take them across. They reached Utøya at 18:25. When confronted by the heavily armed police on the island, the gunman initially hesitated for a few seconds. But when an officer yelled "surrender or be shot" he decided to lay down his weapons.[98]

Anders Breivik called 112 (emergency telephone number) at least twice to surrender, at 18:01 and 18:26, and continued killing people in between. The police says Breivik hung up both times; they tried to call him back but did not succeed.[99]

When the police arrived at the scene, they were met by survivors begging the officers to throw away their weapons, as they were afraid that the men in uniforms would again open fire on them.[100]

Shortage of transport capacity

The Norwegian police does not have any helicopters that are suitable for transporting groups of police for an airdrop; the one they have is useful only for surveillance. When helicopter transport is needed, the Norwegian police have to rely on assistance from the military. The lack of full transport capacity for the anti-terrorism unit has long been criticized by some[who?] within the police force. When at the shore, the police could not find a suitable boat to reach the island.[citation needed] The boat they finally located almost sank because their equipment was so heavy; they had to continuously bail out water as they made the crossing.[97]

All the crews of the police surveillance helicopter were on vacation.[101]

Arrest of innocent survivor

Upon arrival on the island of Utøya, the police arrested, in addition to Breivik, Anzor Djoukaev, an innocent 17-year old survivor who represented the Akershus branch of AUF. The youth was reportedly stripped naked[102] and locked up in a jail cell, located only meters away from the cell housing the self-confessed killer.[103] The victim, who as a child had witnessed mass murders in Chechnya, was suspected of being an accomplice because his haircut was different from that shown on his identity document, and because he did not react to the carnage with the same tears and hysteria as most of the other survivors.[104] He was kept in custody for seventeen hours.[103] Barrister Harald Stabell criticized the police for failing to contact the youth's family, who feared he was killed, and for interrogating the victim without a lawyer present.[104][105]


The building housing the Office of the Prime Minister and Ministry of Justice and the Police with blown-out windows shortly after the explosion.


Eight people were killed in the explosion,[60] with eleven seriously wounded,[106] and fifteen suffering minor injuries.[107][108] A doctor at the Oslo University Hospital said the hospital staff were treating head, chest and abdominal wounds.[109]

Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg was at his official residence near the Royal Palace, preparing the speech he was scheduled to give at Utøya the next day.[110] Norway’s finance minister, Sigbjørn Johnsen, was on holiday in Denmark at the time.[111]

Fewer people than usual were in the area because the bombing took place during July, the usual vacation month for Norwegians,[112] and since it was Friday afternoon, most government employees had gone home for the weekend.


At approximately 03:50 (CEST) on 23 July, NRK1 and TV2, the two primary Norwegian television networks, broadcast a live press conference from the Sentrum politistasjon in Oslo where Norway's National Police Commissioner Øystein Mæland stated the number of fatalities at Utøya to have reached "at least 80" with the count expected to increase.[1][113][114][115]

On 25 July, a police spokesperson revealed that the death toll of the victims on Utøya had been revised downwards to 68 after the casualties had been counted on their return to the mainland.[116] They added that the number of people missing was still high and that the number of casualties could be as high as 86. On 29 July police announced that one of the severely wounded victims from Utøya had died in a hospital, bringing the death toll from the island massacre to 69 (and 77 total, including 8 from the bombing in Oslo).

On 26 July, the Norwegian police began releasing the names and dates of birth of the victims on their website. By 29 July, the names of all 77 victims (eight from the bomb attack, 69 from Utøya) had been published,[117] the last, a shooting victim, having been found on the 28th.[118] The median age of the deceased was 18 years and the average age 21.8 years.

Age of the deceased
Age 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 25 26 27 28 30 32 34 43 45 51 56 61
Fatalities 2 7 7 17 17 5 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1

Trond Berntsen, an off-duty, unarmed police officer and step-brother of Norway's crown princess Mette-Marit, was among the dead.[10]


On 1 August, the Norwegian national broadcasting company (NRK) revealed that a total of 153 people were injured during the attacks, in addition to the 77 deaths (reported down from an original figure of over 90). Ninety-one of the injured were brought to hospital or other medical treatment from the Oslo bombing, 62 from the Utøya shooting. On 2 August, the same source revised the number of injured from the Oslo bombing to 89, to a total of 151.[119]


Public broadcaster NRK and several other Norwegian media outlets identified the suspected attacker as Anders Behring Breivik. He was arrested on Utøya for the shootings and also linked to the Oslo bombing.[120][121][122] He has been charged with terrorism for both attacks.[13] According to his attorney, Breivik has acknowledged that he is responsible for both the bomb and the shooting during interrogation but denies culpability, as he asserts that his actions were “atrocious but necessary”.[123] At his initial arraignment on 25 July, Breivik was remanded into custody for eight weeks, the first half to be in solitary confinement.[124] Breivik wanted to have an open hearing, and attend it wearing a uniform of his own design, but both requests were denied by the presiding judge.[125]

Political and religious views

Breivik is linked to a compendium entitled 2083: A European Declaration of Independence bearing the name "Andrew Berwick", the file was e-mailed to 1,003 addresses about 90 minutes before the bomb blast in Oslo.[126][127] Analysts described him as having anti-Muslim views and a hatred of Islam,[128][129] and considered himself as a knight dedicated to stemming the tide of Muslim immigration into Europe.[130][131]

The introductory chapter of the manifesto defining "Cultural Marxism" is a copy of Political Correctness: A Short History of an Ideology by the Free Congress Foundation.[132][133][134] Major parts of the compendium are attributed to the pseudonymous Norwegian blogger Fjordman.[135] The text also copies sections of the Unabomber manifesto, without giving credit, while exchanging the words "leftists" for "cultural Marxists" and "black people" for "muslims".[136] The New York Times described American influences in the writings, noting that the compendium mentions the anti-Islamist American Robert Spencer 64 times and cites Spencer's works at great length.[137] The work of Bat Ye'or[138] is cited dozens of times.[139] Neoconservative blogger Pamela Geller,[140] Neo-pagan writer Koenraad Elst[141] and Daniel Pipes are also mentioned as sources of inspiration.[142] The manifesto further contains quotes from Middle-eastern expert Bernard Lewis, Edmund Burke, Mahatma Gandhi, Thomas Jefferson and George Orwell,[143] as well as from Jeremy Clarkson's Sunday Times column and Melanie Phillips' Daily Mail column.[144] The publication speaks in admiration of Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Bruce Bawer, Srđa Trifković,[145] and Henryk M. Broder.[146] The compendium advocates a restoration of patriarchy which it claims would save European culture.[147][148]

The compendium contains his militant far-right ideology and xenophobic worldview, which espouses an array of political concepts; including support for varying degrees of cultural conservatism, right-wing populism, ultranationalism, Islamophobia, "far-right Zionism", and Serbian paramilitarism.[149][150] It regards Islam and "cultural Marxism" as the enemy and argues for the annihilation of "Eurabia" and multiculturalism, to preserve a Christian Europe.[16][150][151][152][153][154] He further urged Europeans to restore the historic crusades against Islam as in the Middle Ages.[155] A video Breivik released on YouTube 6 hours before the attack, has been described as promoting violence towards Muslims and Marxists who reside in Europe.[156]

Among other things, in the manifesto he identified the Beneš Decrees, which facilitated the Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after the Second World War, as an example for committing that act on European Muslims.[157] In his manifesto he also urges the Hindus to drive Muslims out of India.[158] He demands the gradual deportation of all Muslims from Europe from 2011 to 2083 through repatriation.[159][159] He blames feminism for allowing the erosion of the fabric of European society.[160]

Breivik's writings mention the English Defense League, claiming that he had contact with senior members of the EDL, and that a Norwegian version of the group, was 'in the process of gaining strength'. He wrote that the EDL were 'naïve fools' because in his words the EDL 'harshly condemns any and all revolutionary conservative movements that employ terror as a tool'. EDL leader Tommy Robinson denounced Breivik and the attack on 26 July 2011 and denied any links with the Norwegian.[161][162][163][164][165]

After being apprehended, Breivik was characterized by police officials as being a right-wing extremist and an Islamophobe.[151] Breivik is described by the newspaper Verdens Gang as considering himself a conservative nationalist.[122] According to The Australian, Breivik was highly critical of Muslim immigration into Christian societies, is pro-Israel and an admirer of the US Tea Party movement.[166] Deputy police chief Roger Andresen initially told reporters that "We have no more information than... what has been found on [his] own websites, which is that it goes towards the right and that it is, so to speak, Christian fundamentalist."[13][167][168] Subsequently, others have disputed Andresen's characterization of Breivik as a Christian fundamentalist.[169][170] Furthermore, Breivik stated that "myself and many more like me do not necessarily have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and God."[171][172] According to the International Business Times, in his manifesto, he "did not see himself as religious", but he did identify as a cultural Christian and wrote about the differences between cultural and religious Christians, but stressed that both were Christians, and shared the same identity and goals.[173] He has written many posts on the far-right[174] website document.no.[175] He attended meetings of "Documents venner" (Friends of Document), affiliated with the Document.no website.[176] He is a former member of the Progress Party (FrP) and its youth wing FpU. According to the current FpU leader Ove Vanebo, Breivik was active early in the 2000s, but he left the party as his viewpoints became more extreme.[177]

In his online YouTube video, he expressed admiration of past European leaders who waged war against Islam and Muslims, naming Charles Martel, Richard Lionheart, El Cid, Vlad III the Impaler, Jacques de Molay, Tsar Nicholas and John III Sobieski.[178] A recently created social media website bearing Breivik's name and picture but of unknown authorship refers to him as an admirer of Winston Churchill and Max Manus,[179][180] and also of Dutch politician Geert Wilders, whose political party, the Party for Freedom, he describes as "the only true party of conservatives".[181]


The police initially kept the choice of counsel secret after request from the attorney. Attorney Geir Lippestad elected to act on behalf of Breivik's defense, confirming to the Dagbladet newspaper that Breivik had requested him personally.[182] Lippestad said "I thought carefully about it. Everyone is entitled to a lawyer, even in a case like this, and I decided to accept."[123]

Possible accomplices

Several witnesses at the youth camp expressed doubt that there was only one shooter.[183] The police have received descriptions of a second gunman, and are currently working to confirm or deny the accuracy of this new information. Due to the uncertainty surrounding these witness descriptions and the chaotic nature of the events, the police have, as a matter of precaution, yet to make an official comment on the matter.[184][185] Breivik has claimed that he acted alone and that he had no accomplices, according to some reports.[186] However, according to other reports, Breivik claimed to have accomplices.[187] On 24 July, six more people were arrested in Oslo in connection with the attacks and then released as they were said to be no longer suspected of involvement.[188]


Flower march in Sentrum, Oslo, on 25 July 2011 in the aftermath of the attacks. An estimated 200,000 attended the flower march.


King Harald sent his condolences to the victims and their families, and urged unity.[189]

At a press conference on the morning after the attacks, Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg and Justice Minister Knut Storberget addressed the country. Stoltenberg called the attack a "national tragedy" and the worst atrocity in Norway since World War II. Stoltenberg further vowed that the attack would not hurt Norwegian democracy, and said the proper answer to the violence was "more democracy, more openness, but not naivety".[190] In his speech at the memorial service on 24 July 2011, he opined what would be a proper reaction: "No one has said it better than the AUF girl who was interviewed by CNN: 'If one man can show so much hate, think how much love we could show, standing together.'"[191][192]

Flowers laid in front of Oslo Cathedral, 25 July 2011

The leader of the Workers' Youth League, Eskil Pedersen, vowed to "return to Utøya" and urged Norway to continue its tradition of openness and tolerance.[193]

Leaders of Norwegian political parties expressed grief and sent condolences in public statements.[194][195][196][197][198][199][200]

On 1 August 2011, Norway's parliament, nominally in recess for the summer, reconvened for an extraordinary session to honour the victims of the attack. In a departure from parliamentary procedure, both King Harald V and Crown Prince Haakon were present. The president of Norway's Parliament, Dag Terje Andersen read out loud the names of all 77 victims. The session was open to the public, but due to limited seating, priority was given to relatives of the deceased.[201][202]

The seven political parties in the parliament agreed to postpone the electoral campaign for local elections, held in September, until mid-August.[203] School debates were cancelled, though the school elections were not.[204]

Initially, Magnus Ranstorp and other terror experts suspected that foreigners were behind the attacks.[205] Non-ethnic Norwegians, especially Muslim Norwegians, were subjected to spitting and other forms of harassment, and violence.[206][207][208][209][210][211][212][213]


The United Nations, the European Union, NATO, and governments around the world expressed their condemnation of the attacks, condolences, and solidarity with Norway. However, there have also been reports of European politicians giving support to the killings or excusing them as a result of multi-culturalism. Interviewed on a popular radio show, the Italian MEP Francesco Speroni, a leading member of the Lega Nord, the junior partner in Berlusconi's conservative coalition, said: "Breivik's ideas are in defence of western civilisation."[214] Similar views were voiced by Italian MEP Mario Borghezio.[215] Werner Koenigshofer, a member of the National Council of Austria, was expelled from the right-wing Freedom Party of Austria after equating the massacre with the death of millions of fetuses through abortion.[216]

On 25 July 2011, at noon (CEST), each of the Nordic countries held a minute of silence to dignify the victims of the two attacks. Norway's minute of silence stretched to five minutes.[217] In Oslo, a city of approximately 600,000 inhabitants, an estimated 200,000 people attended a "flower march".[218][219][220]

The Norwegian media reported criticism against Fox News and its commentator Glenn Beck for their coverage of the attacks.[221] Beck's comparison of the AUF to the Hitler Youth[222] led Frank Aarebrot, a Norwegian professor with political sympathies to the Norwegian Labour Party,[223] to call Beck a "fascist" and "swine".[224]

Legal proceedings

On 25 July 2011, Anders Behring Breivik was arraigned in Oslo District Court. The police feared that Breivik would use the hearing as an opportunity to communicate with possible accomplices.[225] Because of this,[226] the arraignment was held completely closed to the media and all other spectators. Instead, judge Kim Heger held a press conference shortly afterwards where he read the court's decision.[227] The practice of completely closed court hearings is extremely rare in the Norwegian justice system.

It was long debated which criminal charges to use in this unique situation. Many police attorneys wanted high treason or crimes against humanity.[228] The prosecution ended up indicting Breivik on terrorism charges. Breivik admitted to being the gunman at Utøya and the perpetrator behind the Oslo bomb, also admitting all the other actual events. Nonetheless he pleaded not guilty, stating "I do not recognise this justice system".[229] District Attorney Christian Hatlo asked that Breivik be detained for eight weeks without mail or visitation. The judge ruled in favor of the prosecution, stating "the accused is an imminent danger to society and must be confined for the safety of himself and others. It is highly probable that he is guilty of the alleged crimes and imprisonment is necessary to prevent destruction of evidence". In accordance with the prosecution's wishes, Breivik was sentenced to eight weeks detention without mail or visitation, four of which in complete isolation. To be renewed no later than 19 September 2011.[230] He was immediately transferred to Ila Landsfengsel, a maximum security prison.[231]

Attorney general Tor-Aksel Busch stated that final charges and indictment would not be ready until at least the end of the year 2011 and that hopefully the trial could start sometime in 2012[232]

On 13 August 2011 Breivik was taken to Utøya by police to re-create his actions on the day of the massacre. Wearing a bulletproof vest and a leash, Breivik was seen to mimic a shooting action.[233] Neither the media nor the public was alerted to the operation. The police explained that the surprise walk-through was necessary because Breivik will be charged and tried for all 77 murders individually. The police deemed it less offensive to the survivors to do it now rather than during the trial. Despite the many police boats and helicopters, none of the civilians who had come to lay down flowers on the shore this day perceived what was happening just a few hundred metres across the lake from them for a total of eight hours.[234] On the evening of 14 August the police held a press conference about the reconstruction. It was reported that Breivik was not unmoved by his return to Utøya, but that he showed no remorse. Inspector Pål Fredrik Hjort Kraby described Breivik's behavior and indifference on the island as "unreal", as he had over the course of eight hours willingly showed the police exactly how he had carried out all of the 69 murders.[235]

The preliminary date for the trial is set for 10 April, 2012[236]


Coop Norway, a chain of retail stores in Norway, is removing several brands from its shelves as a result of the attack. Some of the titles includes games like Homefront, Call of Duty series, Sniper Ghost Warrior, Counter-Strike Source and World of Warcraft.[237]

In the days following the attacks, Norway's main political parties noted a significant increase in interest for membership from young people. Both the Norwegian Young Conservatives and the Progress Party's Youth, as well as the Workers' Youth League (AUF) had signed up a significant number of new members after a few days.[238] The mother parties also reported a strong and unusual boom in new members, with the Conservative Party and the Progress Party having signed up almost one thousand new members each by early August,[239] while the Labour Party reported over six thousand new members at the end of the month.[240]

Far-right groups such as Stop the Islamisation of Norway (SIAN) and the Norwegian Defence League (NDL), as well as the Democrats party, had reportedly witnessed a boom in their memberships and interest by mid-August, with the Democrats party having signed up around one hundred new members, and the NDL around three hundred.[241][242] According to professor Tore Bjørgo at the Norwegian Police University College in Oslo, the increased support for these far-right groups indicates that within the far right, there is a milieu that sympathizes with violent rhetoric.[243]

In the September local elections almost two months after the attacks, strong gains were made by the Conservative Party (up 9% to 28%), and to a lesser extent the Labour Party (up 2% to 32%). On the other hand, significant setbacks were witnessed by the Progress Party (down 6% to 11%) and the Socialist Left Party (down 2% to 4%).[244]


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