Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution

Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution

The Shah of Iran and his regime were overthrown by revolutionaries in February 1979. Iran was in a "revolutionary crisis mode" from this time until 1982[1] or 83.[2] Its economy and the apparatus of government had collapsed. Military and security forces were in disarray. But by 1982 (or 1983) Khomeini and his supporters had crushed the rival factions and consolidated power. Elements that played a part in both the crisis and its end were the Iran Hostage Crisis, the invasion of Iran by Saddam Hussein's Iraq, and the presidency of Abolhassan Banisadr.[1][2]


Conflicts amongst revolutionaries

With the fall of the shah, the glue that unified the various ideological (religious, liberal, secularist, Marxist, and Communist) and class (bazaari merchant, secular middle class, poor) factions of the revolution — opposition to the shah — was now gone.[3] Different interpretations of the broad goals of the revolution (an end to tyranny, more Islamic and less American and Western influence, more social justice and less inequality) and different interests, vied for influence.

Some observers believe "what began as an authentic and anti-dictatorial popular revolution based on a broad coalition of all anti-Shah forces was soon transformed into an Islamic fundamentalist power-grab,"[4] that significant support came from Khomeini's non-theocratic allies who had thought he intended to be more a spiritual guide than a ruler[5] — Khomeini being in his mid-70s, having never held public office, been out of Iran for more than a decade, and having told questioners things like "the religious dignitaries do not want to rule."[6][7]

Another view is Khomeini had "overwhelming ideological, political and organizational hegemony,"[8] and non-theocratic groups never seriously challenged Khomeini's movement in popular support.[9]

Still another is that of regime supporters (such as Hamid Ansari) who insist that Iranians opposed to the regime were "fifth columnists" led by foreign countries attempting to overthrow the Iranian government.[10]

Khomeini and his loyalists in the revolutionary organizations prevailed, making use of unwanted allies,[11] (such as Mehdi Bazargan's Provisional Revolutionary Government), and eliminating one-by-one with skillful timing both them and their adversaries from Iran's political stage,[12] and implemented Khomeini's velayat-e faqih design for an Islamic Republic led by himself as Supreme Leader.[13]

Organizations of the revolution

The most important bodies of the revolution were the Revolutionary Council, the Revolutionary Guards, Revolutionary Tribunals, Islamic Republican Party, and at the local level revolutionary cells turned local committees (komitehs).[14]

While the moderate Bazargan and his government (temporarily) reassured the middle class, it became apparent they did not have power over the "Khomeinist" revolutionary bodies, particularly the Revolutionary Council (the "real power" in the revolutionary state[15][16] and later the Islamic Republican Party. Inevitably the overlapping authority of the Revolutionary Council (which had the power to pass laws) and Bazargan's government was a source of conflict,[17] despite the fact that both had been approved by and/or put in place by Khomeini.

This conflict lasted only a few months however as the provisional government fell shortly after American Embassy officials were taken hostage on November 4, 1979. Bazargan's resignation was received by Khomeini without complaint, saying "Mr. Bazargan ... was a little tired and preferred to stay on the sidelines for a while." Khomeini later described his appointment of Bazargan as a "mistake."[18]

The Revolutionary Guard, or Pasdaran-e Enqelab, was established by Khomeini on May 5, 1979 as a counterweight both to the armed groups of the left, and to the Iranian military, which had been part of the Shah's power base. 6,000 persons were initially enlisted and trained,[19] but the guard eventually grew into "a full-scale" military force.[20] It has been described as "without a doubt the strongest institution of the revolution"[21]

Serving under the Pasdaran were/are the Baseej-e Mostaz'afin, ("Oppressed Mobilization")[22] volunteers originally made up of those too old or young[22] to serve in other bodies. Baseej have also been used to attack demonstrators and newspaper offices, they believe to be enemies of the revolution.[23]

Another revolutionary organization was the Islamic Republican Party started by Khomeini lieutenant Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti in February 1979. Made up of Bzaari and political clergy,[24] it worked to establish theocratic government by velayat-e faqih in Iran outmaneuvering opponents and wielding power on the street through the Hezbollah.

The first komiteh or Revolutionary Committees "sprang up everywhere" as autonomous organizations in late 1978. After the monarchy fell the committees grew in number and power but not discipline.[25] In Tehran alone there were 1500 committees. Komiteh served as "the eyes and ears" of the new regime, and are credited by critics with "many arbitrary arrests, executions and confiscations of property".[26]

Also enforcing the will of the regime were the Hezbollahi (followers of the Party of God), "strong-arm thugs" who attacked demonstrators and offices of newspapers critical of Khomeini.[27]

Non-Khomeini groups

Two major political groups formed after the fall of the shah that clashed with pro-Khomeini groups and were eventually suppressed were the National Democratic Front (NDF) and the Muslim People's Republican Party (MPRP). The first was a somewhat more leftist version of the National Front. The MPRP was a competitor to the Islamic Republican Party that, unlike that body, favored pluralism, opposed summary executions and attacks on peaceful demonstrations and was associated with Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari.

Establishment of Islamic republic government

Referendum of 12 Farvardin

File:Imam Khomeini - has exiled.jpg
Ayatollah Khomeini

On March 30 and 31 (Farvardin 10, 11) a referendum was held over whether to replace the monarchy with an "Islamic Republic" — a term not defined on the ballot. Supporting the vote and the change were the Islamic Republican Party, Iran Freedom Movement, National Front, Muslim People's Republican Party, and Tudeh party. Urging a boycott were the National Democratic Front, Fadayan, and several Kurdish parties.[28] Khomeini called for a massive turnout and most Iranians supported the change.[28] Following the vote, the government announced that 98.2% had voted in favor[28] and Khomeini declaring the result a victory of "the oppressed ... over the arrogant."[29]

Writing of the constitution

On June 18, 1979, the Freedom Movement released its draft constitution for the Islamic Republic that it had been working on since Khomeini was in exile. It included a Guardian Council to veto unIslamic legislation, but had no guardian jurist ruler.[30] Leftists found the draft too conservative and in need of major changes but Khomeini declared it `correct`.[7][31] To approve the new constitution a seventy-three-member Assembly of Experts for Constitution was elected that summer. Critics complained that "vote-rigging, violence against undesirable candidates and the dissemination of false information" was used to "produce an assembly overwhelmingly dominated by clergy loyal to Khomeini." [32]

The Assembly was originally conceived of as a way expediting the draft constitution so to prevent leftist alterations. Ironically, Khomeini (and the assembly) now rejected the constitution — its correctness notwithstanding — and Khomeini declaring that the new government should be based "100% on Islam."[33]

Between mid-August and mid-November 1979, the Assembly commenced to draw up a new constitution, one leftists found even more objectionable. In addition to president, the Assembly added on a more powerful post of guardian jurist ruler intended for Khomeini,[34] with control of the military and security services, and power to appoint several top government and judicial officials. The power and number of clerics on the Council of Guardians was increased. The council was given control over elections for president, parliament, and the "experts" that elected the Supreme Leader),[35] as well as laws passed by the legislature.

The new constitution was approved by referendum on December 2 and 3, 1979. It was supported by the Revolutionary Council and other groups, but opposed by some clerics, including Ayatollah Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari, and by secularists such as the National Front who urged a boycott. Again over 98% were reported to have voted in favor but turnout was smaller than for the 11, 12 Farvardin referendum on an Islamic Republic.[36]

Hostage Crisis

Helping to pass the constitution, suppress moderates and otherwise radicalize the revolution was the holding of 52 American diplomats hostage for over a year. In late October 1979, the exiled and dying Shah was admitted into the United States for cancer treatment. In Iran there was an immediate outcry and both Khomeini and leftist groups demanding the Shah's return to Iran for trial and execution. On 4 November 1979 youthful Islamists, calling themselves Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, invaded the embassy compound and seized its staff. Revolutionaries were reminded of how 26 years earlier the Shah had fled abroad while the American CIA and British intelligence organized a coup d'état to overthrow his nationalist opponent.

The holding of hostages was very popular and continued for months even after the death of the Shah. As Khomeini explained to his future President Banisadr,

"This action has many benefits. ... This has united our people. Our opponents do not dare act against us. We can put the constitution to the people's vote without difficulty, and carry out presidential and parliamentary elections."[37]

With great publicity the students released documents from the American embassy — or "nest of spies" — showing moderate Iranian leaders had met with U.S. officials (similar evidence of high ranking Islamists having done so did not see the light of day).[38] Among the casualties of the hostage crisis was Prime Minister Bazargan who resigned in November unable to enforce the government's order to release the hostages.[39] It is from this time that "the term `liberal` became a pejorative designation for those who questioned the fundamental tendencies of the revolution," according to Hamid Algar, a supporter of Khomeini.[40]

The prestige of Khomeini and the hostage taking was further enhanced when an American attempt to rescue the hostages failed because of a sand storm, widely believed in Iran to be the result of divine intervention.[41] Another long-term effect of the crisis was harm to Iranian economy's, which was, and continues to be, subject to American economic sanctions.[42][43]

Iran-Iraq War

In September 1980, Iraq, whose government was Sunni Muslim and Arab nationalist, invaded Iran in an attempt to seize the oil-rich predominantly Arab province of Khuzistan and destroy the revolution in its infancy. In the face of this external threat, Iranians rallied behind their new government. The country was "galvanized"[44] and patriotic fervor helped to stop and reverse the Iraqi advance. By early 1982 Iran regained almost all the territory lost to the invasion.

Like the hostage crisis, the war served as an opportunity for the regime to strengthen Islamic revolutionary ardour at the expense of its remaining allies-turned-opponents, such as the MEK.[45] The Revolutionary Guard grew in self-confidence and numbers. The revolutionary committees asserted themselves enforcing blackouts, curfews, and vehicle searches for subversives. Food and fuel rationing cards were distributed at mosques, "providing the authorities with another means for ensuring political conformity."[46] While enormously costly and destructive, the war "rejuvenate[d] the drive for national unity and Islamic revolution" and "inhibited fractious debate and dispute" in Iran.[47]

Suppression of opposition

In early March, Khomeini announced, "do not use this term, ‘democratic.’ That is the Western style," giving pro-democracy liberals (and later leftists) a taste of disappointments to come.[48]

In succession the National Democratic Front was banned in August 1979, the provisional government was disempowered in November, the Muslim People's Republican Party banned in January 1980, the People's Mujahedin of Iran guerillas came under attack in February 1980, a purge of universities was begun in March 1980, and leftist Islamist Abolhassan Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.

Explanations for why the opposition was crushed include its lack of unity. According to Asghar Schirazi, the moderates lacked ambition and were not well organised, while the radicals (such People's Mujahedin of Iran) were "unrealistic" about the conservatism of the Iranian masses and unprepared to work with moderates to fight against theocracy. Moderate Islamists, such as Banisadr, were "credulous and submissive" towards Khomeini.[49]

Mahmoud Taleghani

In April 1979, Ayatollah Mahmoud Taleghani, a supporter of the left, warned against a `return to despotism.`" Revolutionary Guards responded by arresting two of his sons[50] but thousands of his supporters marched in the streets chanting `Taleghani, you are the soul of the revolution! Down with the reactionaries!` Khomeini summoned Taleghani to Qom where he was given a severe criticism after which the press was called and told by Khomeini: `Mr. Taleghani is with us and he is sorry for what happened.` Khomeini pointedly did not refer to him as Ayatollah Taleghani.[51]

Newspaper closings

In mid August, shortly after the election of the constitution-writing Assembly of Experts, several dozen newspapers and magazines opposing Khomeini's idea of Islamic government — theocratic rule by jurists or velayat-e faqih — were shut down[52][53] under a new press law banning "counter-revolutionary policies and acts." [54] Protests against the press closings were organized by the National Democratic Front (NDF) and tens of thousands massed at the gates of the University of Tehran.[55] Khomeini angrily denounced these protests saying, "we thought we were dealing with human beings. It is evident we are not."[56]

He condemned the protesters as

`wild animals. We will not tolerate them any more ... After each revolution several thousand of these corrupt elements are executed in public and burnt and the story is over. They are not allowed to publish newspapers.`[57]

Hundreds were injured by "rocks, clubs, chains and iron bars" when Hezbollahi attacked the protesters.[58] Before the end of the month a warrant was issued for the arrest of the NDF's leader.[59]

Muslim People's Republican Party

Kazem Shariatmadari

In December the moderate Islamic party Muslim People's Republican Party (MPRP), and its spiritual leader Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari had become a new rallying point for Iranians who wanted democracy not theocracy.[60] In early December riots broke out in Shariatmadari's Azeri home region. Members of the MPRP and Shariatmadari's followers in Tabriz took to the streets and seized the television station, using it to "broadcast demands and grievances." The regime reacted quickly, sending Revolutionary Guards to retake the TV station, mediators to defuse complaints and staging a massive pro-Khomeini counter-demonstration in Tabriz.[61] The party was suppressed with many of the aides of the elderly Shariatmadari being put under house arrest, two of whom were later executed.[60]

Islamist left

In January 1980 Abolhassan Banisadr, an adviser to Khomeini, was elected president of Iran. He was opposed by the more radical Islamic Republic party, who controlled the parliament, having won the first parliamentary election of March–May 1980. Banisadr was compelled to accept an IRP-oriented prime minister, Mohammad-Ali Rajai, he declared "incompetent." Both Banisadr and the IRP were supported by Khomeini.[62]

Banisadr in 1958

At the same time, erstwhile revolutionary allies of the Khomeinists — the Islamist modernist guerrilla group People's Mujahedin of Iran (or MEK) — were being suppressed by Khomeinists. Khomeini attacked the MEK as elteqati (eclectic), contaminated with Gharbzadegi ("the Western plague"), and as monafeqin (hypocrites) and kafer (unbelievers).[63] In February 1980 concentrated attacks by hezbollahi toughs began on the meeting places, bookstores, newsstands of Mujahideen and other leftists[64] driving the left underground in Iran.

The next month saw the beginning of the "Cultural Revolution". Universities, a leftist bastion, were closed for two years to purge them of opponents to theocratic rule. A purge of the state bureaucracy began in July. 20,000 teachers and nearly 8,000 military officers deemed too "Westernized" were dismissed.[65]

Khomeini sometimes felt the need to use takfir (declaring someone guilty of apostasy, a capital crime) to deal with his opponents. When leaders of the National Front party called for a demonstration in mid-1981 against a new law on qesas, or traditional Islamic retaliation for a crime, Khomeini threatened its leaders with the death penalty for apostasy "if they did not repent."[66] The leaders of the Freedom Movement of Iran and Banisadr were compelled to make a public apologies on television and radio because they had supported the Front's appeal.[67]

By March 1981, an attempt by Khomeini to forge a reconciliation between Banisadr and IRP leaders had failed[68] and Banisadr became a rallying point "for all doubters and dissidents" of the theocracy, including the MEK.[69] Three months later Khomeini finally sided with the Islamic Republic party against Banisadr who then issued a call for "resistance to dictatorship". Rallies in favor of Banisadr were suppressed by Hezbollahi and he was impeached by the Majlis.

The MEK retaliated with a campaign of terror against the IRP. On the 28 June 1981, a bombing of the office of the Islamic Republic Party killed around 70 high-ranking officials, cabinet members and members of parliament, including Mohammad Beheshti, the secretary-general of the party and head of the Islamic Party's judicial system.[70] His successor Mohammad Javad Bahonar was in turn assassinated on September 2.[71] These events and other assassinations weakened the Islamic Party[24] but the hoped-for mass uprising and armed struggle against the Khomeiniists was crushed.

Other opposition to the Khomeinist regime was violent as well. Communist guerrillas and federalist parties revolted in some regions comprising Khuzistan, Kurdistan and Gonbad-e Qabus which resulted in fighting among them and revolutionary forces. These revolts began in April 1979 and lasted for several months or years depending on the region. In May 1979, the Furqan Group (Guruh-i Furqan) assassinated an important lieutenant of Khomeini, Morteza Motahhari.[72]

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Islam and Muslim World, Thomson Gale, 2004, p.357 (article by Stockdale, Nancy, L. who uses the phrase "revolutionary crisis mode")
  2. ^ a b Keddie, Modern Iran, (2006), p.241
  3. ^ Kepel, Jihad, 2002, p.112
  4. ^ Zabih, Sepehr, Iran Since the Revolution Johns Hopkins Press, 1982, p.2
  5. ^ Schirazi, Constitution of Iran, (1997), p.93-4
  6. ^ "Democracy? I meant theocracy", by Dr. Jalal Matini, translation & introduction by Farhad Mafie, August 5, 2003, The Iranian.
  7. ^ a b Islamic Clerics, Khomeini Promises Kept, Gems of Islamism.
  8. ^ Azar Tabari, ‘Mystifications of the Past and Illusions of the Future,’ in The Iranian Revolution and the Islamic Republic: Proceedings of a Conference, ed. Nikki R. Keddie and Eric Hooglund (Washington DC: Middle East Institute, 1982) pp. 101–24.
  9. ^ For example, Islamic Republic Party and allied forces controlled approximately 80% of the seats on the Assembly of Experts of Constitution. (see: Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs (1983) p.78-82) An impressive margin even allowing for electoral manipulation
  10. ^ Ansari, Hamid, Narrative of Awakening : A Look at Imam Khomeini's Ideal, Scientific and Political Biography from Birth to Ascension by Hamid Ansari, Institute for Compilation and Publication of the Works of Imam Khomeini, International Affairs Division, [no publication date, preface dated 1994] translated by Seyed Manoochehr Moosavi, p.165-7
  11. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.224
  12. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p. 203.
  13. ^ Schirazi, Constitution of Iran, (1997), pp. 24–32.
  14. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran (2003), pp. 241–2.
  15. ^ Kepel, Jihad, (2001), p.
  16. ^ Arjomand, Turban for the Crown, (1988) p.135)
  17. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran (2003) p.245
  18. ^ Moin, Khomeini,(2000), p.222
  19. ^ Bakhash, Shaul, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, Basic Books, 1984, p.63
  20. ^ Mackey, Iranians (1996), p.371
  21. ^ Schirazi, Constitution of Iran, (1997) p.151
  22. ^ a b Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij - Mobilisation Resistance Force
  23. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran, (2003) p.275
  24. ^ a b Moin, Khomeini (2000), p.210-1
  25. ^ Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p.56
  26. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000) p.211
  27. ^ Schirazi, Constitution of Iran, (1987)p.153
  28. ^ a b c Bakhash, Shaul, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984) p.73
  29. ^ 12 Farvardin
  30. ^ Moin, Khomeini, 2000, p. 217.
  31. ^ Schirazi, The Constitution of Iran, 1997, p. 22–3.
  32. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2001), p.218
  33. ^ Bakhash, Shaul, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, Basic Books, 1984 p.74-82
  34. ^ Iranian Government Constitution, English Text
  35. ^ Articles 99 and 108 of the constitution
  36. ^ History of Iran: Iran after the victory of 1979's Revolution
  37. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.228
  38. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2000), p.248-9
  39. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran (2003), p.249
  40. ^ Imam Khomeini: A Short Biography
  41. ^ Bowden, Mark, Guests of the Ayatollah, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006, p.487
  42. ^ Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p.236
  43. ^ Brumberg, Daniel Reinventing Khomeini, university of Chicago Press, (2001), p.118
  44. ^ The Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988 by Efraim Karsh, Osprey Publishing 2002 p.72
  45. ^ Keddie, Modern Iran, (2006), p.241, 251
  46. ^ Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, 1984, p.128-9
  47. ^ The Longest War by Dilip Hiro p.255
  48. ^ Bakhash, Shaul, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, p. 73.
  49. ^ Schirazi, Asghar, The Constitution of Iran : politics and the state in the Islamic Republic, London ; New York : I.B. Tauris, 1997, p.293-4
  50. ^ TIME magazine obituary
  51. ^ Mackay, Iranians, (1998), p.291
  52. ^ Schirazi, Constitution of Iran (1997) p. 51.
  53. ^ Moin, Khomeini, 2000, pp. 219–20.
  54. ^ Kayhan, 20.8.78-21.8.78,` quoted in Schirazi, Asghar, The Constitution of Iran, Tauris, 1997, p.51, also New York Times, August 8, 1979
  55. ^ Mackay, Iranians, (1998), p.292
  56. ^ Moin, Khomeini, 2000, p. 219.
  57. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2001), p.219
  58. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2001), p.219-20
  59. ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs (1984) p.89.
  60. ^ a b Moin, Khomeini, 2000, p. 232.
  61. ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984) p.89-90
  62. ^ Moin, Khomeini, 2001, p.234-5
  63. ^ Moin, Khomeini, 2001, p.234, 239
  64. ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984) p. 123.
  65. ^ Arjomand, Said Amir, Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran, Oxford University Press, 1988 p. 144.
  66. ^ Schirazi, Asghar, The Constitution of Iran, Tauris 1997, p. 127.
  67. ^ The Constitution of Iran : politics and the state in the Islamic Republic by Asghar Schirazi, London ; New York : I.B. Tauris, 1997, p.127
  68. ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984) p.153
  69. ^ Moin Khomeini, 2001, p.238
  70. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p. 241–2.
  71. ^ Iran Backgrounder, HRW.
  72. ^ The political thought of Ayatullah Murtaza Mutahhari By Mahmood T. Davari


  • Amuzgar, Jahangir (1991). The Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution: The Pahlavis' Triumph and Tragedy: 31.. SUNY Press. 
  • Arjomand, Said Amir (1988). Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran. Oxford University Press. 
  • Abrahamian, Ervand (1982). Iran between two revolutions. Princeton University Press. 
  • Bakhash, Shaul (1984). Reign of the Ayatollahs. Basic Books,. 
  • Benard, Cheryl and Khalilzad, Zalmay (1984). "The Government of God" — Iran's Islamic Republic. Columbia University Press. 
  • Coughlin, Con (2009). Khomeini's Ghost: Iran since 1979. Macmillan. 
  • Graham, Robert (1980). Iran, the Illusion of Power. St. Martin's Press. 
  • Harney, Desmond (1998). The priest and the king: an eyewitness account of the Iranian revolution. I.B. Tauris. 
  • Harris, David (2004). The Crisis: the President, the Prophet, and the Shah — 1979 and the Coming of Militant Islam. Little, Brown. 
  • Hoveyda, Fereydoun (2003). The Shah and the Ayatollah: Iranian mythology and Islamic revolution. Praeger. 
  • Kapuscinski, Ryszard (1985). Shah of Shahs. Harcourt Brace, Jovanovich. 
  • Keddie, Nikki (2003). Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution. Yale University Press. 
  • Kepel, Gilles (2002). The Trail of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. 
  • Kurzman, Charles (2004). The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran. Harvard University Press. 
  • Mackey, Sandra (1996). The Iranians: Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation. Dutton. 
  • Miller, Judith (1996). God Has Ninety Nine Names. Simon & Schuster. 
  • Moin, Baqer (2000). Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah. Thomas Dunne Books. 
  • Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. 
  • Ruthven, Malise (2000). Islam in the World. Oxford University Press. 
  • Schirazi, Asghar (1997). The Constitution of Iran. Tauris. 
  • Shirley, Edward (1997). Know Thine Enemy. Farra. 
  • Taheri, Amir (1985). The Spirit of Allah. Adler & Adler. 
  • Wright, Robin (2000). The Last Great Revolution: Turmoil And Transformation In Iran. Alfred A. Knopf: Distributed by Random House. 
  • Zabih, Sepehr (1982). Iran Since the Revolution. Johns Hopkins Press. 
  • Zanganeh, Lila Azam (editor) (2006). My Sister, Guard Your Veil, My Brother, Guard Your Eyes : Uncensored Iranian Voices. Beacon Press. 

Further reading

  • Afshar, Haleh, ed. (1985). Iran: A Revolution in Turmoil. Albany: SUNY Press. ISBN 0-333-36947-5. 
  • Barthel, Günter, ed. (1983). Iran: From Monarchy to Republic. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. 
  • Daniel, Elton L. (2000). The History of Iran. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30731-8. 
  • Esposito, John L., ed. (1990). The Iranian Revolution: Its Global Impact. Miami: Florida International University Press. ISBN 0-8130-0998-7. 
  • Harris, David (2004). The Crisis: The President, the Prophet, and the Shah — 1979 and the Coming of Militant Islam. New York & Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-32394-2. 
  • Hiro, Dilip (1989). Holy Wars: The Rise of Islamic Fundamentalism. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-90208-8.  (Chapter 6: Iran: Revolutionary Fundamentalism in Power.)
  • Kapuściński, Ryszard. Shah of Shahs. Translated from Polish by William R. Brand and Katarzyna Mroczkowska-Brand. New York: Vintage International, 1992.
  • Kurzman, Charles. The Unthinkable Revolution. Cambridge, MA & London: Harvard University Press, 2004.
  • Ladjevardi, Habib (editor), Memoirs of Shapour Bakhtiar, Harvard University Press, 1996.
  • Legum, Colin, et al., eds. Middle East Contemporary Survey: Volume III, 1978–79. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1980. + *Legum, Colin, et al., eds. Middle East Conte
  • Milani, Abbas, The Persian Sphinx: Amir Abbas Hoveyda and the Riddle of the Iranian Revolution, Mage Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0-934211-61-2.
  • Munson, Henry, Jr. Islam and Revolution in the Middle East. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
  • Nafisi, Azar. "Reading Lolita in Tehran." New York: Random House, 2003.
  • Nobari, Ali Reza, ed. Iran Erupts: Independence: News and Analysis of the Iranian National Movement. Stanford: Iran-America Documentation Group, 1978.
  • Nomani, Farhad & Sohrab Behdad, Class and Labor in Iran; Did the Revolution Matter? Syracuse University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-8156-3094-8
  • Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza, Response to History, Stein & Day Pub, 1980, ISBN 0-8128-2755-4.
  • Rahnema, Saeed & Sohrab Behdad, eds. Iran After the Revolution: Crisis of an Islamic State. London: I.B. Tauris, 1995.
  • Sick, Gary. All Fall Down: America's Tragic Encounter with Iran. New York: Penguin Books, 1986.
  • Shawcross, William, The Shah's last ride: The death of an ally, Touchstone, 1989, ISBN 0-671-68745-X.
  • Smith, Frank E. The Iranian Revolution. 1998.
  • Society for Iranian Studies, Iranian Revolution in Perspective. Special volume of Iranian Studies, 1980. Volume 13, nos. 1–4.
  • Time magazine, January 7, 1980. Man of the Year (Ayatollah Khomeini).
  • U.S. Department of State, American Foreign Policy Basic Documents, 1977–1980. Washington, DC: GPO, 1983. JX 1417 A56 1977–80 REF - 67 pages on Iran.
  • Yapp, M.E. The Near East Since the First World War: A History to 1995. London: Longman, 1996. Chapter 13: Iran, 1960–1989.

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