( _ru. Гла́сность, IPA-ru|ˈglasnəsʲtʲ)is literally defined as publicity and sometimes figuratively interpreted as "tipping a vase to let someone see into the vase, but not the bottom of the vase".Fact|date=September 2008
Glasnost is the policy of maximal publicity, openness, and transparency in the activities of all government institutions in the
Soviet Union, together with freedom of information, introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev.
The word is a
transliterationof the Russian word Гласность and was frequently used by Gorbachev to specifythe policies he believed might help reduce the corruption at the top of the Communist Party andthe Soviet government, and moderate the abuse of administrative power in the Central Committee.
Glasnost can also refer to the specific period in the history of the USSR during the 1980s when there was less censorship and greater freedom of information.
Glasnost in USSR and in Russia
This word appeared in 1985-1990 as a part of the program of reforms called
perestroika, whose goals included combating corruption and the abuse of privilege by the political classes. In the broadest sense, it aimed to liberalize freedom of the press gradually, and to allow for freedom of dissent. [ [http://www.tamu.edu/upress/BOOKS/1999/gibbs.htm Gorbachev's Glasnost: The Soviet Media in the First Phase of Perestroika by Joseph Gibbs] ] The policy met resistance during the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, when authorities hid the true extent of the nuclear accident for several days.
Through his policy of glasnost, Gorbachev pressured conservatives within the Communist Party who opposed
perestroika, his programs of economic restructuring. By cultivating a spirit of intellectual and cultural openness which encouraged public debate and participation, Gorbachev hoped to increase the Soviet people's support for and participation in perestroika.
Areas of concern
While in the West the notion of "glasnost" is associated with
freedom of speech, the main goal of this policy was to make the country's management transparent and open to debate, thus circumventing the narrow circle of apparatchiks who previously exercised complete control of the economy. Through reviewing the past or current mistakes being made, it was hoped that the Soviet people would back reforms such as perestroika.
Glasnost gave new freedoms to the people, such as a greater freedom of information by opening the secret parts for unallowed literature in the libraries [ [http://www.ib.hu-berlin.de/~pbruhn/glasnost.htm Glasnost] im sowjetischen Bibliothekswesen] [ А.П. Шикман: "Совершенно несекретно" in: Советская библиография, 1988,6 (231), P.3-12 ] and a greater freedom of speech — a radical change, as control of speech and suppression of government criticism had previously been a central part of the Soviet system. There was also a greater degree of freedom within the media. In the late 1980s, the Soviet government came under increased criticism, as did Leninist ideology (which Gorbachev had attempted to preserve as the foundation for reform), and members of the Soviet population were more outspoken in their view that the Soviet government had become a failure. Glasnost did indeed provide freedom of expression, far beyond what Gorbachev had intended, and changed citizens' views towards the government, which played a key role in the collapse of the Soviet Union.
censorshipresulted in the Communist Party losing its grip on the media. Before long, much to the embarrassment of the authorities, the media began to expose severe social and economic problems which the Soviet government had long denied and covered up. Long-denied problems such as poor housing, food shortages, alcoholism, widespread pollution, creeping mortality rates and the second-rate position of women were now receiving increased attention. Moreover, under glasnost, the people were able to learn significantly more about the horrors committed by the government when Joseph Stalinwas in power. Although Nikita Khrushchevdenounced Stalin's personality cult, information about the true proportions of his atrocities was still suppressed. In all, the very positive view of Soviet life which had long been presented to the public by the official media was being rapidly dismantled, and the negative aspects of life in the Soviet Union were brought into the spotlight. This began to undermine the faith of the public in the Soviet system.
Political openness continued to produce
unintended consequences. In elections to the regional assemblies of the Soviet Union's constituent republics, nationalists swept the board. As Gorbachev had weakened the system of internal political repression, the ability of the USSR's central Moscow government to impose its will on the USSR's constituent republics had been largely undermined. During the 1980s, calls for greater independence from Moscow's rule grew louder. This was especially marked in the Baltic Republicsof Estonia, Lithuaniaand Latvia, which had been annexed into the Soviet Union by Joseph Stalinin 1940. Nationalist feeling also took hold in other Soviet republics such as Ukraine, Georgia and Azerbaijan.
Starting in the mid-1980s, the Baltic states used the reforms provided by glasnost to assert their rights to protect their environment and their historic monuments and, later, their claims to sovereignty and independence. When the Balts withstood outside threats, they exposed an irresolute Kremlin. Bolstering separatism in other Soviet republics, the Balts triggered multiple challenges to the
Soviet Union. Supported by Russian leader Boris Yeltsin, the Baltic republics asserted their sovereignty.
The rise of nationalism under glasnost also reawakened simmering ethnic tensions throughout the union. For example, in February 1988,
Nagorno-Karabakh, a predominantly ethnic Armenian region in the Azerbaijan SSR, passed a resolution calling for unification with the Armenian SSR. Violence against local Azeris was then reported on Soviet television, which provoked massacres of Armenians in the Azerbaijani city of Sumgait.
The freedoms generated under Glasnost enabled increased contact between Soviet citizens and the western world, particularly with the
United States. Restrictions on travel were loosened, allowing increased business and cultural contact. For example, one key meeting location was in the U.S. at the Dakin Building, then owned by American philanthropistHenry Dakin, who had extensive Russian contacts:
During the late 1980s, as glasnost and
perestroikaled to the liquidation of the Soviet empire, the Dakin building was the location for a series of groups facilitating United States-Russian contacts. They included the Center for U.S.-U.S.S.R. Initiatives, which helped more than 1000 Americans visit the Soviet Union and more than 100 then-Soviet citizens visit the U.S. ["Cyberspace", San Francisco Chronicle, Page A-14, November 20, 1995]
While thousands of
political prisoners and many dissidents were released in the spirit of glasnost, Gorbachev's original goal of using glasnost and perestroika to reform the Soviet Unionwas not achieved. In 1991, the Soviet Union was dissolved following a failed coup by conservative elements who were opposed to Gorbachev's reforms.
*cite book |last=Cohen |first=Stephen F. |authorlink= |coauthors=Katrina Vanden Heuvel |others= |title=Voices of Glasnost: Interviews With Gorbachev's Reformers |year=1989 repr. 1990 |publisher=W. W. Norton & Company |location= |isbn=0393307352
*cite book |last=Gibbs|first=Joseph |title=Gorbachev's Glasnost: The Soviet Media in the First Phase of Perestroika |year=1999 |publisher=Texas A&M University Press |location= |isbn=0890968926
*Glasnost posters from [http://www.plakaty.ru/posters?id=2195 1987] and [http://www.plakaty.ru/posters?id=739 1988] .
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