Majlis of Iran

Majlis of Iran

Infobox Parliament
name = مجلس شورای اسلامی
"Majles-e Shura-ye Eslami"
Majlis of Iran
coa_pic =
coa-pic =
session_room =
house_type = Unicameral
leader1_type = Speaker
leader1 = Ali Larijani
party1 = Islamic Society of Engineers
election1 = May 2008
members = 290
p_groups = Conservatives
election3 = 7 May 2004
meeting_place = Majlis Building, Baharestan, Tehran
website = []
The Majlis of Iran (Persian: مجلس شورای اسلامی, lit. "Islamic Consultative Assembly"), also called The Iranian Parliament, is the national legislative body of Iran. The Majlis currently has 290 representatives, changed from the previous 270 seats since the February 18, 2000 election.

The current speaker of parliament is Ali Larijani, with first deputy speaker Mohammad Reza Bahonar and second deputy speaker Mohammad Hassan Aboutorabi-Fard. The presiding board member is Mousa Qorbani.

Pre-Revolution Majlis - "National Consultative Assembly"

Before the Islamic Revolution, Majlis was also the name of the lower house of the Iranian Legislature from 1906 to 1979, the upper house being the Senate.

It was created by the Iran Constitution of 1906 and first convened on 1906-10-06 (Iranian Calendar: 1285-Mehr-13,cite web|author=Mohammad Modarresi|title=An Introduction to the history of the Legislative Assembly In Iran: The First Parliament of the National Consultative Assembly (آشنایی با تاریخ مجالس قانونگذاری در ایران: دوره اول مجلس شورای ملی)|year=2005|publisher=The Research Center of Islamic Consultative Assembly (مرکز پژوهش‌های مجلس شورای اسلامی)|url=|format=PDF|language=Persian] ), soon gaining power under the rule of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Noteworthy bills passed by the Majlis under the Pahlavi Dynasty include the "Oil Nationalization Bill" (March 15, 1951) and the "Family Protection Law" (1967), which gave women many basic rights such as custody of children in case of divorce.

Women were not allowed to vote or be elected to the Majlis until 1963, as part of reforms under the Shah's "White Revolution". The reforms were regarded as dangerous, Westernizing trends by traditionalists, especially by the powerful Shia religious leaders, including Ayatollah Khomeini. The events led to a revolt on June 5, 1963 and the exile of Khomeini to Iraq. The twenty-first National Consultative Assembly, which included female representatives, opened on October 6, 1963.

The last session of the Pre-Revolution Majlis was held on 1979-02-07 (18 Bahman 1357 AP).

Islamic Republic - "Islamic Consultative Assembly"

After the Iranian Revolution in 1979, the Senate was abolished and in the 1989 revision of the constitution, the "National Consultative Assembly" became the "Islamic Consultative Assembly". The Iranian legislature thus became unicameral.

Currently, the Majlis' 290 members, five of whom represent non-Muslim religious minorities, are popularly elected for four-year terms. The Majlis can force the dismissal of cabinet ministers by no-confidence votes and can impeach the president for misconduct in office. Although the executive proposes most new laws, individual deputies of the Majlis also may introduce legislation. Deputies also may propose amendments to bills being debated. The Majlis also drafts legislation, ratifies international treaties, and approves the national budget. All Majlis candidates and all legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Guardian Council. Even though the Majlis is more democratic in nature than other governments in the region, it is not as powerful as the legislative bodies in, for example, the United States.Fact|date=March 2008

From 1979, the Majlis had convened at the building that used to house the Iranian Senate. A new building was built for the Assembly at Baharestan Square in central Tehran, near the old Majlis building that was used from 1906 to 1979. After several debates, the move was finally approved in 2004. The first session of the Majlis was held on November 16, 2004 in the new building.

ee also

* Strategic Majlis Research Center

Notes and references

External links

* [ The official website of the Majlis of Iran]
* [ History of Iran: Constitutional Revolution] , a history of Majlis from 1906 to 1953
* [ Iranian Ministry of Interior on the history of elections in Iran]
* [ A report on moving the Majles to Baharestan]
* [ The Council of Guardians] , Official website.
* [ The Majles] , Iran's parliament news service.
* [ Video Archive of Iran's Parliament]
* Kourosh Esmāili, "People & Power: The Iranian Campaign", Aljazeera, YouTube, 23 April 2008: [ (Part 1)] (11 min 25 sec), [ (Part 2)] (11 min 54 sec).

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