Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1987 TV series)

Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1987 TV series)
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
Genre Action/Adventure
Science fiction
Format Animated series
Created by Kevin Eastman
Peter Laird
Developed by David Wise
Directed by Yoshikatsu Kasai (season 1)
Bill Wolf (seasons 2-7)
Tony Love (seasons 8-10)
Voices of James Avery
Cam Clarke
Townsend Coleman
Jim Cummings
Pat Fraley
Barry Gordon
Michael Gough
Renae Jacobs
Rob Paulsen
Peter Renaday
Theme music composer Chuck Lorre
Dennis C. Brown
Country of origin United States
No. of seasons 10
No. of episodes 193 (List of episodes)
Executive producer(s) Fred Wolf
Kevin Eastman
Peter Laird
Producer(s) Rudy Zamora (season 1)
Walt Kubiak
Andy Luckey (seasons 2-7)
Bill Wolf
Kara Vallow (seasons 8-10)
Running time 22 minutes
Production company(s) Murakami Wolf Swenson[1]
Fred Wolf Films
Mirage Studios
Surge Licensing
Distributor Group W Productions (1987-1990)
Original channel first-run syndication (Seasons 1—3)[2]
CBS (Seasons 4—10)[2]
Picture format 480i SDTV
Audio format Stereo (1987-1990)
CBS Stereosound (1990-1996)
Original run December 28, 1987 (1987-12-28) – November 2, 1996 (1996-11-02)

Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (known as Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles in Europe due to controversy at the time) is an American animated television series produced by Murakami-Wolf-Swenson. The pilot was shown during the week of December 28, 1987 in syndication as a five part miniseries and began its official run on October 1, 1988.[2] The series featured the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles characters created in comic book form by Kevin Eastman and Peter Laird. The property was changed considerably from the darker-toned comic, to make it more suitable for the family.[3]

The initial motivation behind the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles animated series was that, upon being approached to create a toy line, Playmates Toys was uneasy with the comic book characters' small cult following.[4] They requested that a television deal be acquired first, and after the initial five-episode series debuted, the California toy company released their first series of Ninja Turtles action figures in the summer of 1988.[5] The two media would correspond in marketing style and popularity for many years to come.

David Wise and Patti Howeth wrote the screenplay for the first five-part miniseries.[1] When the series continued in the second season, comic artist Jack Mendelsohn joined the show as the executive story editor. Wise went on to write over seventy episodes of the series, and was executive story editor for four later seasons as well. Wise left the series partway through the ninth season, and Jeffrey Scott took over as the story editor and chief writer for the rest of the show's run.

The show was in Saturday morning syndication from October 1, 1988 to September 9, 1989. After it became an instant hit, the show was expanded to five days a week and aired weekday afternoons in syndication in most markets, from September 25, 1989 to September 17, 1993.[2] Starting on September 8, 1990 (with a different opening sequence), the show began its secondary run on CBS's Saturday morning lineup, beginning as a 60-minute block from 1990 to 1993, initially airing a couple of Saturday exclusive episodes back to back. There would also be a brief "Turtle Tips" segment in between the two episodes which served as PSA about the environment or other issues. Beginning in 1994, the show began airing as a 30-minute block until the series ended. The series ran until November 2, 1996 when it aired its final episode.

The show helped launch the characters into mainstream popularity and became one of the most popular animated series in television history. Breakfast cereal, plush toys, and all manner of products featuring the characters appeared on the market during the late 1980s and early 1990s.[6] A successful Archie Comics comic book based on the animated show instead of the original black-and-white comics was published throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s. Action figures were top-sellers around the world. In 1990, the cartoon series was being shown daily on more than 125 television stations, and the comic books sold 125,000 copies a month.



The origin story in the TV series differs greatly from that of the original Mirage Studios comics. In this version, Splinter was formerly a human being, an honorable ninja master named Hamato Yoshi. Yoshi was banished from the Foot Clan in Japan after being deceived by the seditious Oroku Saki, who pinned Hamato Yoshi's dogi to the wall with a knife, preventing him from kneeling before their sensei which was seen as an insult. When Yoshi removed the knife, the sensei was again insulted believing Yoshi was drawing the blade in opposition to him. Exiled from the ninja clan, the disgraced Yoshi moved to New York where he was forced to live in the sewers.

While living in the sewers with the rats as his friends, Yoshi one day found four turtles, recently bought from a pet store by an unnamed boy who accidentally dropped them in the sewer. Yoshi returned one day from his explorations around New York to find the turtles covered with a strange glowing ooze. The substance caused the turtles, most recently exposed to Yoshi, to become humanoid, while Yoshi, most recently exposed to sewer rats, became a humanoid rat, and started going by the pseudonym "Splinter". This, and the following Archie TMNT Adventures Comics, is the only origin story in the TMNT franchise where the Turtles come to Yoshi before being exposed to mutagen. Also, Yoshi becomes a rat, whereas in most other versions, he is Yoshi's pet rat that becomes humanoid. This is also the only version in which the Turtles become fully grown immediately after exposure to the mutagen, whereas Splinter raises them from infancy in other versions. Yoshi adopts the four turtles as his sons and trains them in the art of ninjitsu. He names them after his favorite Italian renaissance artists: Leonardo da Vinci (Leonardo), Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (Donatello), Raffaello Sanzio (Raphael), and Michelangelo Buonarroti (Michaelangelo). In most versions, the Turtles tend to go by nicknames Leo, Donny, Raph, and Mikey, but in this version they are always addressed by their full names. Each Ninja Turtle wears a mask over his eyes with a distinctive color, and is trained in the art of a distinct weapon.

Meanwhile, Oroku Saki has left Japan and tracked Yoshi to New York City, where he intends to destroy him once and for all. He has become associated with Krang, a disembodied alien brain who has been banished from his home, Dimension X, where he was a great warlord. Saki has taken on a new persona, donning a suit covered with razor spikes, complemented by a long cape, and a metal mask over his mouth. He has also taken on the pseudonym "The Shredder".

It becomes clear in the first season that the mutagen that transformed the Turtles and Splinter into their new forms was dumped into the sewer by Shredder in an effort to destroy Yoshi. Shredder thought it was a deadly poison. The Turtles vow to take revenge on the Shredder for dishonoring their master, as well as turning him into a rat. The Turtles want to force him to turn Splinter back into a human again, though this quickly evolves into stopping Shredder's ongoing criminal career with the aid of Channel 6 reporter April O'Neil. The Turtles begin to take on the role of vigilante crime-fighters operating outside of the jurisdiction of law enforcement against any criminals, much like Casey Jones in the third season. For the first couple of seasons, it seems as if the Turtles are constantly preoccupied with hiding their existence. This seems to be slowly relaxed and, by the last few seasons, most citizens seem to be well aware of them. They also frequently have to deal with citizens misunderstanding them, thanks to the efforts of Burne Thompson, April's employer, and Vernon Fenwick, a Channel 6 cameraman, who distrust the Turtles and frequently blame them for the trouble that the Shredder and Krang cause.

Shredder, Krang, Bebop and Rocksteady (two street thugs morphed into animal form by exposure to the Shredder's mutagen), and a small army of robotic Foot Soldiers try to destroy the Turtles and take over the world. Much of their quest for world domination hinges on bringing the Technodrome (Krang's mobile fortress, and his and The Shredder's base of operation) to the surface as it was either stuck in the earth's core, Dimension X, the arctic, or Arctic Ocean.

In the last three seasons, the show, which had already lasted well past the average lifespan of most Saturday morning cartoon series, went through dramatic changes. The animation became darker and closer to the movies' style, the color of the sky in each episode changed from the traditional blue to a continuous and ominous dark-red sky (which was commonplace with newer action-oriented children's programming at that time), the theme song was changed, the introduction sequence added in clips from the first live-action film, and the show took on a darker, more action-oriented atmosphere.

The Turtles finally banish The Shredder and Krang to Dimension X at the end of the eighth season. They destroy the engines and the "trans-dimensional portal" of the Technodrome preventing them from returning to Earth, though he appears in a three part season ten episode "The Power Of Three". A new villain, Lord Dregg, an evil alien warlord, appeared as their new chief nemesis for the final two seasons. Lord Dregg begins a propaganda campaign against the Turtles, turning the general population against them and in favor of him and his forces. However, Dregg is eventually outed as a villain and the Turtles are finally hailed as heroes within the city. The turtles also suffered from severe mutations that would turn them into big hulks and lose their intelligence temporarily. Also the TMNT acquired a new ally, Carter, a black male with an incurable mutation disease before he left to look for a cure in the future.[7] In the last episode of the series, the Turtles trap Dregg in Dimension X.

In 2009, the Turtles, Shredder, Krang, and various other characters from the 1987 series returned for the 25th anniversary crossover movie Turtles Forever, in which they meet up with their counterparts from the 2003 series. Due to financial reasons, none of the original voice actors were able to reprise their roles, and replacement actors were used instead.


This version is also renowned for its critically acclaimed soundtrack. Through most of the series, the episodes featured a background music which reflected the mood of the situation (e.g. danger, action, exploration, confusion, mystery, victory), as well as ID music for settings such as the Technodrome, the sewers, Channel 6, etc. which contributes to the show's dynamic uniqueness. The soundtrack was composed by Dennis Challen Brown (credited as "D.C. Brown" and later as "Dennis C. Brown") and Chuck Lorre. Lorre penned the famous theme song (and did the spoken parts) and became a successful television producer. To date the soundtrack has never been released for retail, much to the dismay of fans. Chuck Lorre said he has never received any royalties.


Shredder as seen in the opening credits.

These are the core characters of the series and appear in nearly every episode for the first eight seasons. After the end of season eight, only the Turtles, April, Splinter, along with the new characters Carter, Lord Dregg, HiTech in season 9, and Mung in season 10 were retained as main characters although Shredder and Krang returned for three episodes in season ten.

  • Leonardo (voiced by Cam Clarke) - The blue-masked turtle, wields two katanas. He is the leader of the team and is the closest to Splinter.
  • Donatello (voiced by Barry Gordon) - The purple-masked turtle, wields a staff. He is the scientist of the team and is constantly tinkering with various inventions.
  • Raphael (voiced by Rob Paulsen until the end of season 9, and Michael Gough in season 10) - The red-masked turtle, wields two sai. In a radical departure from the angry and brooding incarnations, he is the jokester of the team and often comes out with sarcastic and witty remarks.
  • Michaelangelo (voiced by Townsend Coleman) - The orange-masked turtle, wields the whirling nunchakus and later a grappling hook (and often whirling pizzas). He is the most relaxed member of the team and is the source for many of the catch phrases of the series such as "Cowabunga!".
  • Splinter (voiced by Peter Renaday) - A strict and wizened sensei, is the mutant rat who trained the Turtles in ninjitsu.
  • April O'Neil (voiced by Renae Jacobs) - A red-headed TV reporter, discovers the Turtles' home in the sewers and befriends the TMNT.
  • Shredder (voiced by James Avery until early in Season 7, Dorian Harewood for some of season 3, Jim Cummings for some of Season 5 & the European vacation Season, Townsend Coleman for the rest of Season 7, and William E. Martin thereafter) - The arch-villain of the Turtles, is usually the main villain in other media, but in this TV series Shredder always, against his will, has to take orders from Krang.
  • Krang (voiced by Pat Fraley) - An extremely intelligent, disembodied brain from Dimension X, who commands the Technodrome. He funds and helps plan most of Shredder's schemes.
  • Bebop and Rocksteady (voiced by Barry Gordon and Cam Clarke) - Shredder's clumsy, oafish henchmen. A mutant warthog and a rhinoceros respectively.
  • Lord Dregg (voiced by the late Tony Jay) - An alien warlord who antagonizes the Turtles after Shredder and Krang are banished to Dimension X.


The logo in the edited UK opening sequence, which was also used in a few other countries.

In the UK, TMNT was released under the name Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles (TMHT). This was due to the controversy surrounding ninjas and related weapons such as nunchuks at the time.[8] The intro sequence was heavily edited because of this, replacing the word ninja with hero or fighting, using a digitally faded logo instead of the animated blob, and removing any scenes in which Michaelangelo wields his nunchuks, replacing them with random clips from the show.[9]

The TMHT version was aired in other European countries, including Ireland (except series 1, which had the original title), Belgium, Germany, Austria, Poland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland, in local dubs (the Finnish version was in English with subtitles, while Polish was in English with a lector). In Denmark the English censored version was aired on the national broadcaster TV2. It had subtitles as well, however, only season 2 and 3 were aired in this fashion. Season 1 was aired as one spliced feature, instead of the original five part miniseries. The movie was titled "The Epic Begins", and included heavy edits from each of the five episodes.

After the 2 seasons had aired on Danish TV, the show was cancelled, however it later returned with local dubs of episodes from season 5, and Denmark was also one of the first countries to get to see the episodes in which the turtles travel to Europe. These were also aired with subtitles.

The original series aired in early 2011 during the early morning hours on TV2 in Denmark. All 193 episodes have been re-dubbed, and this time they aired in their original US unedited form.

In Spain, the name of the cartoon was translated to Las Tortugas Ninja (with the word ninja in the title), but at first the TMHT version was still used for dubbing, although the original TMNT version was also alternatively aired. Other European countries (including Bulgaria, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia and Turkey) dubbed the original TMNT version.

In Ireland, the series was initially known as Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and the intro sequence was unedited when it debuted with the airing of the second season. After the first two episodes were broadcast, the name was changed to Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles and the intro was edited.

When shown on the BBC, phrases like "Let's kick some shell!" and "Bummer!" were removed from the episodes. The series Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation was also referred to as Hero Turtles, possibly using the term hero to separate the television series from the live action movies. The 2003 television series, however, remained intact when shown in the UK and Ireland. This led the UK and Ireland to have a disambiguation between the two animated series, using Hero Turtles to separate the 1987 television series from the other incarnations of the franchise. In 2009, a DVD of the first two seasons was released under the Ninja Turtles branding, thus bringing this version of the franchise into line with the later versions.

Status of the TMNT 1987 television series

There are currently no TV reruns of the original Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles animated series in North America. Although the last episode broadcast on CBS on November 2, 1996, reruns continued to air until August 16, 1997.[10] The show has not aired anywhere else in North America since except in Quebec on Super Écran, who rebroadcast the entire series from 2006 to 2008. Reruns had also aired on the USA Network's USA Cartoon Express from September 13, 1993 to September 15, 1996. Lionsgate Home Entertainment and Fred Wolf Films own the rights to the show, and they have been responsible for the DVD releases. Mirage Studios does not own the rights of the 1987 television series, so Lionsgate, Fred Wolf, nor CBS are under any obligation to inform them of future releases.[11] Many episodes were released on many VHS tapes from 1988 to 1996 by Family Home Entertainment. Some reruns were shown for UK audiences on BBC weekday mornings. In the Republic of Ireland, the series ended its original run on August 8, 1998, but the show is still regularly rerun on RTÉ Two.[12] In Yugoslavia the series was broadcast on RTS and on RTV Pink for several years until 2002. In Denmark the show is aired every weekday at 6.00 am on TV 2.


IGN named TMNT as the 55th best show in the Top 100 Best Animated TV Shows.[13]

While the story diverged heavily from the original conception of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and has never been considered canon with the universe of the original Mirage comics, the 1987 television series is largely the most notable and popular incarnation and drove the franchise to the phenomenal status it would achieve in pop culture.[14]

The show was criticised for its commercialism and violent content.[15][16]


  • James Avery - Shredder (1987-1993)
  • Greg Berg - Donatello (1989 alternate), Bebop (1989 alternate)
  • Cam Clarke - Leonardo, Rocksteady, Attila the Frog, Overdrive
  • Townsend Coleman - Michaelangelo, Master Splinter (1991 alternate), Krang (1989 alternate), Shredder (1993 alternate), Rat King, Burne Thompson (1989 alternate), Groundchuck, Muckman/Garson Grunge, Screwloose, Rahzar
  • Jim Cummings - Shredder (1991 and European Vacation alternate), Leatherhead, Dirk Savage, Dirtbag, Tokka
  • Jennifer Darling - Irma
  • Pat Fraley - Krang, Casey Jones, Baxter Stockman, Slash, Vernon Fenwick (1987), Burne Thompson, Zak "The Neutrino," Antrax, Barney Stockman, Napoleon Bonafrog, Scumbug
  • Barry Gordon - Donatello, Bebop
  • Michael Gough - (1996)
  • Dorian Harewood - Shredder (1989 alternate)
  • Renae Jacobs - April O'Neil
  • Tony Jay - Lord Dregg
  • Tress MacNeille - Kala "The Neutrino," Tempestra
  • William E. Martin - Shredder (1994-1996)
  • Nicholas Omana - Rasputin the Mad Frog
  • Rob Paulsen - Raphael (1987-1995), Zach, Joe Eyeball/Joe Junkey, Mutagen Man/Seymour Gutz, Ray, Wingnut
  • Thom Pinto - Raphael (1989 alternate), Dask "The Neutrino"
  • Hal Rayle - Raphael ("Vacation in Europe" episodes)
  • Peter Renaday - Master Splinter, Leatherhead (1993), Vernon Fenwick (1988-1994), General Traag, Big Louie, Chrome Dome
  • Bumper Robinson - Carter

Additional Voices


  • Cindy Akers - Assistant Dialogue Director (1991)
  • Susan Blu - Dialogue Director
  • Maitzi Morgan - Assistant Dialogue Director (1987-1990)

DVD releases

Region 1

Lionsgate Home Entertainment has released the series on DVD in Region 1, currently up to seasons 1–9 (with season 9 being released on August 16, 2011).[17] Initially it was released in volumes, with each volume containing 9-13 episodes in production order, with the exception of the first volume, which included bonus episodes from the last season. After six volumes, it was announced that the series would now be released in season sets, starting with season 4. However, the later sets are not complete seasons. The episodes "Once Upon a Time Machine" and the 1991 prime-time special "Planet of the Turtleoids" continue to not be a part of any season set to date.

DVD Name Ep # Release Date Additional Information
Volume 1 9 April 20, 2004 Contains all 5 episodes of season 1 and 4 bonus episodes from season 10
Volume 2 13 April 26, 2005 Contains all 13 episodes of season 2
Volume 3 12 December 6, 2005 Contains episodes 1-12 from season 3
Volume 4 April 4, 2006 Contains episodes 13-24 from season 3
Volume 5 August 29, 2006 Contains episodes 25-36 from season 3
Volume 6 December 5, 2006 Contains episodes 37-47 from season 3 and the first episode of season 4
Season 4 39 March 13, 2007 Contains all 13 syndicated episodes from Season 4 (including the first episode, which already appears on Volume 6), all 26 CBS episodes from Season 4, and one of the final two syndicated episodes of which aired in Season 5, but were left from Season 4.
  • All new interviews with James Avery (the voice of Shredder) and Pat Fraley (the voice of Krang/Slash)
  • Fresh from the Oven: A Recipe for a Cowabunga Cheese Pizza, Fit for a Ninja Turtle
Season 5 18 August 7, 2007 Contains all episodes from Season 5, except "Once Upon a Time Machine" and "Planet of the Turtleoids". Part 1 and 2
  • "The Turtles: A Ninjatastic Look Back" featuring all new-interviews with Barry Gordon (Donatello), Rob Paulsen (Raphael), Cam Clarke (Leonardo), and Townsend Coleman (Michelangelo).
  • "Under The Shell" with Usagi Yojimbo (interview with Townsend Coleman) and Baxter Stockman.
Season 6 16 April 8, 2008 Contains all 16 episodes from Season 6.
Season 7 27 May 12, 2009 Contains all 27 episodes from Season 7 and the "Europe Vacation" mini-series.
  • Re-released on November 3, 2009 as a complete season set minus the figurines.
Season 8 8 September 1, 2009 Contains all 8 episodes from Season 8.
Season 9 August 16, 2011 Contains all 8 episodes from Season 9.
Season 10 TBA TBA

Region 2

The first volume of the 25th Anniversary Edition, containing all episodes from the first two seasons in a PAL format, has recently been released on Region 2 DVDs by Lions Gate Home Entertainment.

DVD Name Ep # DVD # Release Date Additional Information
Season 1-2 22 3 May 25, 2009 Contains all episodes from seasons 1 and 2, plus 4 bonus episodes from season 10.

The series has also been released by German distributor KSM GmbH.

DVD Name Ep # DVD # Release Date Additional Information
DVD Collection 24 5 May 17, 2007 (Disk 1 & 2)
July 26, 2007 (DVD Collection)
August 17, 2007 (Disk 3 to 5)
Contains all episodes from season 8, 9, and 10.
  • First released in 5 Single DVDs entitled "Disks".
  • Later released as a DVD Collection containing this 5 Disks.
  • Both, the Single Release and the Collection only includes the German Audio Track.
Box 1 25 5 March 12, 2009 Contains all episodes from seasons 1 and 2, plus first 7 episodes from Season 3.
  • Contains the German Hero Turtles TV Version and the Uncut US Version as well.
Box 2 5 May 3, 2010 Contains 25 more episodes from Season 3.
  • Contains the German Hero Turtles TV Version and the Uncut US Version as well.
  • The 25 included episodes are announced to be in chronological Order.
Box 3 30 6 July 12, 2010 Contains the remaining 15 episodes from Season 3, the first two episodes from Season 4 and the complete "European Vacation" Side-Season.
  • Contains the German Hero Turtles TV Version and the Uncut US Version as well.
  • The 30 included episodes are announced to be in chronological Order.
Box 4 6 October 17, 2011 Contains 30 more episodes from Season 4.
  • Contains the German Hero Turtles TV Version and the Uncut US Version as well.
  • The 30 included episodes are announced to be in chronological Order.
Box 5 6 December 5, 2011 Contains the remaining Episodes from Season 4 as well as all episode from Season 5 and the first of Season 6.
  • Contains the German Hero Turtles TV Version and the Uncut US Version as well.
  • The 30 included episodes are announced to be in chronological Order.

Region 4

The Series is being released in Australia by Lions Gate Home Entertainment. Most of the DVD's are duplicates of the Region 1 discs released in America. Oddily enough the discs are in Region 4, but they are in NTSC picture format, instead of PAL.

DVD Name Ep # DVD # Release Date Additional Information
Volume 1 9 1 2009 Includes the complete first Season and four episodes from Season 10. (The same as the US version)
Volume 2 13 1 2009 Includes the entire second Season.
Volume 3 12 1 2009 Includes episodes 1-12 of Season 3.
Volume 4 12 1 2009 Includes episodes 13-24 of Season 3.
Volume 5 12 1 2009 Includes episodes 25-37 of Season 3.
Volume 6 12 1 2009 Includes episodes 38-47 of Season 3 and episode 1 of Season 4.
Volume 7 13 1 2009 Includes episodes 2-14 of Season 4.
Volume 8 13 1 2009 Includes episodes 15-27 of Season 4.
Volume 9 13 1 2009 Includes episodes 28-39 of Season 4 and episode 1 of Season 5.


Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Magazine is a children's magazine published quarterly by Welsh Publishing Group, Inc during the height of TMNT popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It was officially licensed by Eastman and Laird and available by subscription.

The $1.95, 32-page magazine featured articles about the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and a variety of other subjects, including an article on the last page of each issue spotlighting a real life turtle species. Mirage Studios staff artists such as Dan Berger and Jim Lawson provided a majority of the covers and spot illustrations. A pullout poster was available in every issue and was painted by Mirage Studios artist Michael Dooney.


  1. ^ a b Solomon, Charles (1987-12-28). "'Ninja Turtles' Crawls Out, Lands on Back". The Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1987-12-28/entertainment/ca-21302_1_mutant-ninja-turtles. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  2. ^ a b c d Carter, Bill (November 26, 1990). "THE MEDIA BUSINESS; Ninja Turtles Save the Day For CBS Children's Lineup". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/11/26/business/the-media-business-ninja-turtles-save-the-day-for-cbs-children-s-lineup.html. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  3. ^ "Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles On TV". IGN. http://uk.tv.ign.com/articles/774/774796p1.html. Retrieved 2010-08-15. 
  4. ^ Simpson, Janice C. (April 2, 1990). "Show Business: Lean, Green and on the Screen". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,969727-2,00.html#ixzz0h91fnBrj. Retrieved 2010-03-03. 
  5. ^ McGill, Douglas C. (December 25, 1988). "DYNAMIC DUO: Kevin Eastman and Peter Laird; Turning Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Into a Monster". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/12/25/business/dynamic-duo-kevin-eastman-peter-laird-turning-teenage-mutant-ninja-turtles-into.html?scp=1&sq=ninja%20turtles&st=cse&pagewanted=2. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  6. ^ "Shell Schlocked". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,318331,00.html. Retrieved 2010-12-19. 
  7. ^ Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 1987 series episode "Turtles to the Second Power"
  8. ^ Cohen, Susan (1991-04-07). "Teenage Mutant Ninja Television: Who's winning the battle over kids' TV?". Washington Post Magazine. 
  9. ^ "TMNT: The Renaissance Reptiles Return". Kung Fu Magazine. http://ezine.kungfumagazine.com/ezine/article.php?article=703. Retrieved 2009-12-27. 
  10. ^ The Daily Herald - August 16, 1997
  11. ^ "[1]" Official TMNT website'.' Retrieved 2007-09-06.
  12. ^ "[2]" RTÉ Guide. Retrieved 2007-09-01.
  13. ^ "55, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles". IGN. 2009-01-23. http://tv.ign.com/top-100-animated-tv-series/55.html. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  14. ^ Doheny, Kathleen (August 27, 1990). "Turtle Trouble : Children: Some parents believe Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles encourage aggression. Others say the Turtles are just harmless fun.". The Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1990-08-27/news/vw-116_1_teenage-mutant-ninja-turtles. Retrieved 2010-11-09. 
  15. ^ Doheny, Kathleen (August 27, 1990). "Turtle Trouble : Children: Some parents believe Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles encourage aggression. Others say the Turtles are just harmless fun.". The Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1990-08-27/news/vw-116_1_teenage-mutant-ninja-turtles/2. Retrieved 2010-11-09. 
  16. ^ "Ninja Influence on Australian Youth". The New York Times. August 16, 1990. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/08/16/movies/ninja-influence-on-australian-youth.html?src=pm. Retrieved 2010-12-29. 
  17. ^ http://www.tvshowsondvd.com/news/Teenage-Mutant-Ninja-Turtles-Season-9/15426

External links

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