Comparison of e-book formats

Comparison of e-book formats


The following is a comparison of e-book formats used to create and publish e-books.

A writer or publisher has many options when it comes to choosing a format for publication. While the average end-user might arguably simply want to read books, every format has its proponents. The myriad e-book formats are sometimes collectively referred to as the "Tower of eBabel".[1]

The file size for texts without images depends on the file format, but is always relatively small compared with a richly illustrated text.

Format descriptions

Formats available include, but are by no means limited to:

Amazon Kindle

Format: Kindle
Published as: .azw

With the launch of the Kindle eBook reader, created the proprietary format, AZW. It is based on the Mobipocket standard, with a slightly different serial number scheme (it uses an asterisk instead of a dollar sign) and its own DRM formatting. Because the eBooks bought on the Kindle are delivered over its wireless system called Whispernet, the user does not see the AZW files during the download process. The Kindle format is now available on a variety of platforms.

Archos Diffusion

Format: Archos Reader
Published as: .aeh

The AEH format is an XML-based proprietary format developed by the French firm Archos Diffusion. AEH files use a proprietary DRM and encryption method and are readable only in the Archos Player. It supports various input formats for text, audio or video, such as PDF, WMA, MP3, WMV, and allows multiple interactive functions such as bookmarking, advanced plain-text searching, dynamic text highlighting, etc.

Broadband eBooks (BBeB)

Format: Sony media
Published as: .lrf; .lrx

The digital book format used by Sony Corporation. It is a proprietary format, but some reader software for general-purpose computers, particularly under Linux (for example, calibre's internal viewer[2]), have the capability to read it. The LRX file extension represents a DRM encrypted eBook.

Comic Book Archive file

Format: compressed images
Published as: .cbr (RAR); .cbz (ZIP); .cb7 (7z); .cbt (TAR); .cba (ACE)

A Comic Book Archive file or ComicBook Reader File consists of a series of image files, typically PNG (lossless compression) or JPEG (lossy compression) files, stored as a single archive file, for the purpose of sequential viewing of images, especially comic books. The idea was made popular by the CDisplay image viewer; since then, many viewers for different platforms have been created. Comic Book Archive files are not a distinct file format; only the file name extension differs from a standard file of the given archive type. Some applications support additional tag information (like artists or story information) in the form of embedded XML files in the archive, or use of the Zip comment function.

Compiled HM

Format: Microsoft Compiled HTML Help
Published as: .chm

CHM format is a proprietary format based on HTML. Multiple pages and embedded graphics are distributed along with proprietary metadata as a single compressed file. In contrast, in HTML, a site consists of multiple HTML files and associated image files in standardized formats.


Format: DAISY
Published as:

The Digital Accessible Information SYstem (DAISY) is an XML-based open standard maintained by the DAISY Consortium for people with print disabilities. DAISY has wide international support with features for multimedia, navigation and synchronization. A subset of the DAISY format has been adopted by law in the United States as the National Instructional Material Accessibility Standard (NIMAS), and K-12 textbooks and instructional materials are now required to be provided to students with disabilities.

DAISY is already aligned with the EPUB open standard, and is expected to fully converge with its forthcoming EPUB3 revision.[3]

Desktop Author

Format: DNL Reader
Published as: .dnl; .exe

Desktop Author is an electronic publishing suite that allows creation of digital web books with virtual turning pages. Digital web books of any publication type can be written in this format, including brochures, e-books, digital photo albums, e-cards, digital diaries, online resumes, quizzes, exams, tests, forms and surveys. DesktopAuthor packages the e-book into a ".dnl" or ".exe" book. Each can be a single, plain stand-alone executable file which does not require any other programs to view it. DNL files can be viewed inside a web browser or stand-alone via the DNL Reader.

DNL format is an e-Book format, one which replicates the real life alternative, namely page turning Books. The DNL e-Book is developed by DNAML Pty Limited an Australian company established in 1999. A DNL e-Book can be produced using DeskTop Author or DeskTop Communicator.


Format: DjVu
Published as: .djvu

DjVu is a format specialized for storing scanned documents. It includes advanced compressors optimized for low-color images, such as text documents. Individual files may contain one or more pages. DjVu files cannot be re-flowed.

The contained page images are divided in separate layers (such as multi-color, low-resolution, background layer using lossy compression, and few-colors, high-resolution, tightly-compressed foreground layer), each compressed in the best available method. The format is designed to decompress very quickly, even faster than vector-based formats.

The advantage of DjVu is that it is possible to take a high-resolution scan (300-400 DPI), good enough for both on-screen reading and printing, and store it very efficiently. Several dozens of 300 DPI black-and-white scans can be stored in less than a megabyte.


Published as: .epub
The EPUB logo.

The .epub or OEBPS format is an open standard for e-books created by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). It combines three IDPF open standards:

  • Open Publication Structure (OPS) 2.0, which describes the content markup (either XHTML or Daisy DTBook)
  • Open Packaging Format (OPF) 2.0, which describes the structure of an .epub in XML
  • OEBPS Container Format (OCF) 1.0, which bundles files together (as a renamed ZIP file)

The EPUB format is rapidly gaining popularity and as of 2011 is the most widely supported vendor-independent XML-based e-book format. The format can be read at least by the Kobo eReader, Apple's iBooks app running on iOS devices such as the iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad, Barnes and Noble Nook, Sony Reader, BeBook, Bookeen Cybook Gen3 (with firmware v. 2 and up), COOL-ER, Adobe Digital Editions, Lexcycle Stanza, BookGlutton, AZARDI, FBReader, Aldiko, Moon+ Reader and WordPlayer on Android, Freda on Windows Mobile and Windows Phone 7, and the Mozilla Firefox add-on EPUBReader. Several other desktop reader software programs are currently implementing support for the format, such as dotReader, FBReader, Mobipocket, uBook and Okular.

The only notable device lacking integrated support for the EPUB format is the Amazon Kindle, although there has recently been speculation that the Kindle will soon support this format.[4]

Adobe Digital Editions uses .epub format for its e-books, with DRM protection provided through their proprietary ADEPT mechanism. The recently developed ADEPT framework and scripts have been reverse-engineered to circumvent this DRM system.[5]

DSLibris, a project, is able to decode e-books in .epub and .xht format for reading on Nintendo DS systems.


Formerly Palm Digital Media/Peanut Press
Format: Palm Media
Published as: .pdb

eReader is a freeware program for viewing Palm Digital Media electronic books which use the pdb format used by many Palm applications. Versions are available for iPhone, PalmOS, WebOS, Android, Symbian, BlackBerry, Windows Mobile Pocket PC/Smartphone, desktop Windows, and Macintosh. The reader shows text one page at a time, as paper books do. eReader supports embedded hyperlinks and images. Additionally, the Stanza application for the iPhone and iPod Touch can read both encrypted and unencrypted eReader files.

The program supports features like bookmarks and footnotes, enabling the user to mark any page with a bookmark, and any part of the text with a footnote-like commentary. Footnotes can later be exported as a Memo document.

The company also offers two Windows/MacOS programs for producing e-books: the Dropbook, which is free, and the eBook Studio, which is not. Dropbook is a file-oriented PML-to-PDB converter; eBook Studio incorporates a WYSIWYG editor. Both programs are compatible with simple text files.

On July 20, 2009, Barnes & Noble announced[6] that the eReader format will be the method they will use to deliver e-books. Their Nook Reader supports the eReader format,[7] but it is not currently supported on Barnes & Noble's NookColor. eReader format is also supported by the discontinued eSlick, an e-reading device from Foxit Software.

FictionBook (Fb2)

Format: FictionBook
Published as: .fb2

FictionBook[8] is a popular XML-based e-book format, supported by free readers such as FBReader, Bebook, Haali Reader and STDU Viewer.

Founder Electronics

Format: Apabi Reader
Published as: .xeb; .ceb

APABI is a format deviced by Founder Electronics. It is a popular format for Chinese e-books. It can be read using the Apabi Reader software, and produced using Apabi Publisher. Both .xeb and .ceb files are encoded binary files. The Iliad e-book device includes an Apabi 'viewer'.

Hypertext Markup Language

Format: Hypertext
Published as: .htm; .html

HTML is the markup language used for most web pages. E-books using HTML can be read using a Web browser. The specifications for the format are available without charge from the W3C.

HTML adds specially marked meta-elements to otherwise plain text encoded using character sets like ASCII or UTF-8. As such, suitably formatted files can be, and sometimes are, generated by hand using a plain text editor or programmer's editor. Many HTML generator applications exist to ease this process and often require less intricate knowledge of the format details involved.

HTML on its own is not a particularly efficient format to store information in, requiring more storage space for a given work than many other formats. However, several e-Book formats including the Amazon Kindle, Open eBook, Compressed HM, Mobipocket and EPUB store each book chapter in HTML format, then use ZIP compression to compress the HTML data, images, metadata and style sheets into a single, significantly smaller, file.

HTML files encompass a wide range of standards[9] and displaying HTML files correctly can be complicated. Additionally many of the features supported, such as forms, are not relevant to e-books.

IEC 62448

Format: IEC 62448
Published as:

IEC 62448 is an international standard created by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)), Technical Committee 100, Technical Area 10 (Multimedia e-publishing and e-book).

The current version of IEC 62448 is an umbrella standard that contains as appendices two concrete formats, XMDF of Sharp and BBeB of Sony. However, BBeB has been discontinued by Sony and the version of XMDF that is in the specification is out of date. The IEC TA10 group is discussing next steps, and has invited the IDPF organization which has standardized EPUB to be a liaison. It is possible that the current version of EPUB and/or the forthcoming EPUB3 revision may be added to IEC 62448. Meanwhile a number of Japanese companies have proposed that IEC standardize a proposed new Japanese-centric file format that is expected to unify DotBook of Voyager Japan and XMDF of Sharp. This new format has not been publicly disclosed as of November, 2010 but it is supposed to cover basic representations for the Japanese language. Technically speaking, this revision is supposed to provide a Japanese minimum set, a Japanese extension set, and a stylesheet language. These issues were discussed in the TC100 meeting held in October 2010 but no decisions were taken besides offering the liaison status to IDPF.

Microsoft LIT

Format: Microsoft Reader
Published as: .lit

DRM-protected LIT files are only readable in the proprietary Microsoft Reader program, as the .LIT format, otherwise similar to Microsoft's CHM format, includes Digital Rights Management features. Other third party readers, such as Lexcycle Stanza, can read unprotected LIT files. There are also tools such as Convert Lit, which can convert .lit files to HTML files or OEBPS files.

The Microsoft Reader uses patented ClearType display technology. In Reader navigation works with a keyboard, mouse, stylus, or through electronic bookmarks. The Catalog Library records reader books in a personalized "home page", and books are displayed with ClearType to improve readability. A user can add annotations and notes to any page, create large-print e-books with a single command, or create free-form drawings on the reader pages. A built-in dictionary allows the user to look up words.

Microsoft announced Microsoft Reader will be discontinued on August 30th 2012.


Format: Mobipocket
Published as: .prc; .mobi

The Mobipocket e-book format is based on the Open eBook standard using XHTML and can include JavaScript and frames. It also supports native SQL queries to be used with embedded databases. There is a corresponding e-book reader. A free e-book of the German Wikipedia has been published in Mobipocket format.[10]

The Mobipocket Reader has a home page library. Readers can add blank pages in any part of a book and add free-hand drawings. Annotations — highlights, bookmarks, corrections, notes, and drawings — can be applied, organized, and recalled from a single location. Images are converted to GIF format and have a maximum size of 64K,[11] sufficient for mobile phones with small screens, but rather restrictive for newer gadgets. Mobipocket Reader has electronic bookmarks, and a built-in dictionary.

The reader has a full screen mode for reading and support for many PDAs, Communicators, and Smartphones. Mobipocket products support most Windows, Symbian, BlackBerry and Palm operating systems, but not the Android platform. Using WINE, the reader works under Linux or Mac OS X. Third-party applications like Okular and FBReader can also be used under Linux or Mac OS X, but they work only with unencrypted files.

The Amazon Kindle's AZW format is basically just the Mobipocket format with a slightly different serial number scheme (it uses an asterisk instead of a Dollar sign), and .prc publications can be read directly on the Kindle. The Kindle AZW format also lacks some Mobipocket features such as javascript.[12]

Mobipocket has developed an .epub to .mobi converter called KindleGen[13] (supports IDPF 1.0 and IDPF 2.0 epub format, according to the company).

Notably, Eastern European letters with diacritical marks are not supported[citation needed].

Multimedia eBooks

Format: Eveda
Published as: .exe or .html

A multimedia ebook is media and book content that utilizes a combination of different book content formats. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content formats) or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content formats.

The 'multimedia ebook' term is used in contrast to media which only utilize traditional forms of printed or text books. Multimedia ebooks include a combination of text, audio, images, video, and/or interactive content formats. Much like how a traditional book can contain images to help the text tell a story, a multimedia ebook can contain other elements not formerly possible to help tell the story.

With the advent of more widespread tablet-like computers, such as the smartphone, some publishing houses are planning to make multimedia ebooks, such as Penguin.[14]

Newton eBook

Format: Newton eBook
Published as: .pkg

Commonly known as an Apple Newton book; a single Newton package file can contain multiple books (for example, the three books of a trilogy might be packaged together). All systems running the Newton operating system (the most common include the Newton MessagePads, eMates, Siemens Secretary Stations, Motorola Marcos, Digital Ocean Seahorses and Tarpons) have built-in support for viewing Newton books. The Newton package format was released to the public by Newton, Inc. prior to that company's absorption into Apple Computer. The format is thus arguably open and various people have written readers for it (writing a Newton book converter has even been assigned as a university-level class project[15]).

Newton books have no support for DRM or encryption. They do support internal links, potentially multiple tables of contents and indexes, embedded gray scale images, and even some scripting capability (for example, it's possible to make a book in which the reader can influence the outcome).[16] Newton books utilize Unicode and are thus available in numerous languages. An individual Newton book may actually contain multiple views representing the same content in different ways (such as for different screen resolutions).

Open Electronic Package

Format: Open eBook
Published as: .opf

OPF is an XML-based e-book format created by E-Book Systems; it has been superseded by the EPUB electronic publication standard.

Portable Document Format

Format: Adobe Portable Document Format
Published as: .pdf

A file format created by Adobe Systems, initially to provide a standard form for storing printable documents containing a set of page images. The format derives from PostScript, but without language features like loops, and with added support for features like compression, passwords and DRM. Because PDF documents can easily be viewed and printed by users on a variety of computer platforms, they are very common on the World Wide Web. The specification of the format is available without charge from Adobe.

Since the format is designed to reproduce page images, the text traditionally could not be re-flowed to fit the screen width or size. As a result PDF files designed for printing on standard paper sizes are less easily viewed on screens with limited size or resolution, such as those found on mobile phones and e-book readers. Adobe has addressed this drawback by adding a re-flow facility to its Acrobat Reader software, but for it to work the document must be marked for re-flowing at creation[17] — meaning that existing PDF documents won't benefit unless they are tagged and resaved. The Windows Mobile (aka Pocket PC) version of Adobe Acrobat will automatically attempt to tag a PDF for reflow during the synchronization process using an installed plugin to Active Sync. However, this tagging process will not work on most locked or password protected PDF documents. It also doesn't work at present (2009–10) on the Windows Mobile Device Center (the successor to Active Sync) as found in Windows Vista and Windows 7. Thus, automatic tagging support during synchronization is limited to Windows XP/2000.

Multiple products support creating and tagging PDF files, such as Adobe Acrobat, PDFCreator,, iText, and FOP, and several programming libraries. Third party viewers such as xpdf are also available. Mac OS X has built-in PDF support, both for creation as part of the printing system and for display using the built-in Preview application.

PDF files are supported on many e-book readers including: Mobipocket, iRex iLiad, iRex DR1000, Sony Reader, Bookeen Cybook, Foxit eSlick, Amazon Kindle (2, 3, International & DX)[citation needed], Barnes & Noble Nook[citation needed], the iPad, PocketBook Reader, Bebook Neo and the Kobo eReader. Also, pdf files can be read on the iPod Touch using the free Stanza app. On iPad, there are also many readers as Stanza, iBook, FlipReader, ...

Scientific papers and books are often found in PDF format. In this case, the problem of showing tables and equations correctly has been dealt with, when the PDF was created. When trying to reflow such text, ereaders typically obtain very poor results[citation needed].

Plain text files

Format: text
Published as: .txt

E-books in plain text exist. The size in bytes is simply the number of characters, including spaces, and with a new line counting for 1 or 2. For example, the Bible, an 800,000-word book, is about 4 MB.[18] The ASCII standard allows ASCII-only text files to be interchanged and readable on Unix, Macintosh, Microsoft Windows, DOS, and other systems. These differ in their preferred line ending convention and their interpretation of values outside the ASCII range (their character encoding). Conversion of files from one to another line-ending convention is easily possible with free software on all computers.[citation needed]


Format: Plucker
Published as:

Plucker is an Open Source free mobile and desktop e-book reader application with its own associated file format and software to automatically generate Plucker files from text, PDF, HTML, or other document format files, web sites or RSS feeds. The format is public and well-documented. Free readers are available for all kinds of desktop computers and many PDAs.


Format: PostScript
Published as: .ps

PostScript is a page description language used in the electronic and desktop publishing areas for defining the contents and layout of a printed page, which can be used by a rendering program to assemble and create the actual output bitmap. Many office printers directly support interpreting PostScript and printing the result. As a result, the format also sees wide use in the Unix world.


Format: SSReader
Published as: .pdg

The digital book format used by a popular digital library company 超星数字图书馆[19] in China. It is a proprietary raster image compression and binding format, with reading time OCR plug-in modules. The company scanned a huge number of Chinese books in the China National Library and this becomes the major stock of their service. The detailed format is not published. There are also some other commercial e-book formats used in Chinese digital libraries.


Format: TealDoc
Published as: .pdb

TealPoint Software's proprietary reader for Palm OS. In addition to its own format, it opens plain text and PalmDoc files. Newer versions of the software include an editor for Palm OS. Embedded images must be converted to TealPoint's proprietary TealPaint format. The format uses HTML like tags for formatting and has been reverse-engineered for 3rd party programs to edit and convert to/from TealDoc format.

Text Encoding Initiative

Format: TEI Lite
Published as: .xml[citation needed]

TEI Lite is the most[citation needed] popular of the TEI-based (and thus XML-based or SGML-based) electronic text formats.


Format: TomeRaider
Published as: .tr2; .tr3

The TomeRaider e-book format is a proprietary format. There are versions of TomeRaider for Windows, Windows Mobile (aka Pocket PC), Palm, Symbian, iPhone and more[specify]. Several Wikipedias are available as TomeRaider files with all articles unabridged, some even with nearly all images. Capabilities of the TomeRaider3 e-book reader vary considerably per platform: the Windows and Windows Mobile editions support full HTML and CSS. The Palm edition supports limited HTML (e.g., no tables, no fonts), and CSS support is missing. For Symbian there is only the older TomeRaider2 format, which does not render images or offer category search facilities. Despite these differences any TomeRaider e-book can be browsed on all supported platforms. The Tomeraider website[20] claims to have over 4000 e-books available, including free versions of the Internet Movie Database and Wikipedia.

Comparison tables


Format Filename extension DRM support Image support Table support Sound support Interactivity support Word wrap support Open standard Embedded annotation support Book- marking Video support
ArghosReader .aeh Yes Yes  ? No No Yes No  ? Yes  ?
DjVu .djvu  ? Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes  ?
EPUB (IDPF) .epub Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes/No[f 1] Yes/No[f 2] Yes[f 3]
FictionBook .fb2 No Yes Yes/No[f 4] No No Yes Yes Yes  ?  ?
HTML .html No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes[f 5]
Kindle .azw Yes Yes Yes[f 6][21] Yes[f 7][22] Yes Yes No Yes Yes  ?
Microsoft Reader .lit Yes Yes  ? No No Yes No  ? Yes  ?
Mobipocket .prc, .mobi Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes  ?
Multimedia EBook .exe Yes Yes  ? Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes  ?
eReader .pdb Yes Yes  ? No No Yes No Yes Yes  ?
Plain text .txt No No No No No Yes Yes No No No
Plucker .pdb Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes  ?
Portable Document Format .pdf Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes[f 8]
PostScript .ps No Yes  ? No No No Yes  ?  ?  ?
Repligo .rgo  ? Yes Yes No No Yes No No No  ?
TealDoc .pdb Yes Yes  ? No No Yes Yes  ? Yes  ?
Tome Raider .tr2, .tr3 Yes Yes  ? No No Yes No  ?  ?  ?
  1. ^ Depends of the eReader application
  2. ^ Depends of the eReader application
  3. ^ With ePub 3
  4. ^ Table support added in FictionBook V2.1. Not supported in V2.0
  5. ^ With HTML 5
  6. ^ Supported in all except 1st Generation Kindle. (Support level is as it is in mobipocket)
  7. ^ Supported only in kindle for iPhone, iPod, iPad.
  8. ^ With Flash Embeded

Supporting Platforms

Reader  Plain text PDF ePub HTML Mobi- Pocket Fiction- Book (Fb2) DjVu Broadband eBook (BBeB)[h 1] eReader[h 1] Kindle[h 1] WOLF[h 1] Tome Raider[h 1] Open eBook[h 2]
Amazon Kindle 1 Yes No No No Yes No No No No Yes No No No
Amazon Kindle 2, DX Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No No
Amazon Kindle 3 Yes Yes No[h 3] Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No No
Amazon Kindle Fire Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No No
Android Devices Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[h 4][23] Yes Yes[h 4][24] No Yes[h 4][25] Yes No Yes[h 4][20] Yes[h 4]
Apple iOS Devices Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[h 4] Yes[h 4] Yes[h 4] No Yes[h 4] Yes[h 4] No Yes[h 4] Yes[h 4]
Azbooka WISEreader Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No
Barnes & Noble Nook Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No No No
Barnes & Noble Nook Color Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No
Bookeen Cybook Gen3, Opus Yes Yes Yes[h 5] Yes Yes[h 5] Yes[h 6] No No No No No No Yes
COOL-ER Classic Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No
Foxit eSlick Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No No No
Hanlin e-Reader V3 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No
Hanvon WISEreader Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No
iRex iLiad Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No No
Iriver Story Yes Yes Yes No No Yes[h 4] Yes[h 4] No No No No No No
Kobo eReader Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No
Nokia N900 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes
NUUTbook 2 Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No
OLPC XO, Sugar Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No No No No No
Onyx Boox 60 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No
Mac OS X Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes ? ? Yes
Windows Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes ? Yes Yes[h 7] ? ? Yes
Pocketbook 301 Plus, 302, 360° Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No
Sony Reader Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No No No No
Viewsonic VEB612 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No
Windows Phone 7 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No No
  1. ^ a b c d e Proprietary format
  2. ^ Predecessor of ePUB
  3. ^ Yes if you use the Duokan alternate Kindle OS(third-party sofware addon).
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Requires latest firmware
  5. ^ a b Versions support either ePUB or MobiPocket
  6. ^ Only ePUB version and with FW 2.0+
  7. ^ DRM protected publications are supported as of Kindle for PC v1.3.0

See also


General information
  • Chandler, S. (2007). From entrepreneur to infopreneur: Make money with books, ebooks, and information products. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Rich, J. (2006). Self-publishing for dummies. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
  • Cavanaugh, T. W. (2006). The digital reader: Using e-books in K-12 education. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.
  • Cope, B., & Mason, D. (2002). Markets for electronic book products. C-2-C series, bk. 3.2. Altona, Vic: Common Ground Pub.
  • Henke, H. (2001). Electronic books and epublishing: A practical guide for authors. London: Springer.
  • Hanttula, D. (2001). Pocket PC handbook.

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

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