- National Treasures of Japan
National Treasures (国宝: kokuhō) are the most precious of Japan's Tangible Cultural Properties, as determined and designated by the Agency for Cultural Affairs (a subsidiary of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology). A Tangible Cultural Property is considered to be of historic or artistic value, classified either as "buildings and structures", or as "fine arts and crafts". Each National Treasure must show outstanding workmanship, a high value for world cultural history, or exceptional value for scholarship.
Approximately 20% of the National Treasures are structures such as castles, Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, or residences. The other 80% are paintings, scrolls, sutras, works of calligraphy, sculptures of wood, bronze, lacquer or stone, crafts such as pottery and lacquerware carvings, metalworks, swords and textiles, and archaeological and historical artefacts. The items span the period of ancient to early modern Japan before the Meiji period, including pieces of the world's oldest pottery from the Jōmon period, to 19th-century documents and writings. The designation of the Akasaka Palace in 2009 added a 20th-century National Treasure.
Japan has a comprehensive network of legislation for protecting, preserving, and classifying its cultural patrimony. The regard for physical and intangible properties and their protection is typical of Japanese preservation and restoration practices. Methods of protecting designated National Treasures include restrictions on alterations, transfer, and export, and financial support in the form of grants and tax reduction. The Agency for Cultural Affairs provides owners with advice on restoration, administration, and public display of the properties. These efforts are supplemented with laws that protect the built environment of designated structures and the necessary techniques for restoration of works.
Kansai, the region of Japan's capitals from ancient times to the 19th century, has the most National Treasures. Kyoto has about one in five National Treasures. Fine arts and crafts properties generally are owned privately or are in museums such as the national museums of Tokyo, Kyoto, and Nara, public prefectural and city museums, or private museums. Religious items are often housed in temples and Shinto shrines or in an adjacent museum or treasure house.
- 1 History
- 2 Designation procedure
- 3 Categories
- 4 Preservation and utilization measures
- 5 Statistics
- 6 Notes
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Background and early protection efforts
Japanese cultural properties were originally in the ownership of Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, and aristocratic or samurai families. Feudal Japan ended abruptly in 1867/68 when the Tokugawa shogunate was replaced by the Meiji Restoration. During the ensuing haibutsu kishaku (literally "abolish Buddhism and destroy Shākyamuni"), triggered by the official policy of separation of Shinto and Buddhism and anti-Buddhist movements propagating the return to Shinto, Buddhist buildings and artwork were destroyed. In 1871, the government confiscated temple lands, considered symbolic of the ruling elite. Properties belonging to the feudal lords were expropriated, historic castles and residences were destroyed, and an estimated 18,000 temples were closed. During the same period, Japanese cultural heritage was impacted by the rise of industrialization and westernisation. Buddhist and Shinto institutions became impoverished. Temples decayed, and valuable objects were exported.
In 1871, the Daijō-kan issued a decree to protect Japanese antiquities called the Plan for the Preservation of Ancient Artifacts (古器旧物保存方 koki kyūbutsu hozonkata ), based on recommendations from the universities. The decree ordered prefectures, temples, and shrines to compile lists of important buildings and art. These efforts proved to be ineffective in the face of radical westernisation. In 1880, the government allotted funds for the preservation of ancient shrines and temples.[nb 1] By 1894, 539 shrines and temples had received government funded subsidies to conduct repairs and reconstruction. The five-storied pagoda of Daigo-ji, the kon-dō of Tōshōdai-ji, and the hon-dō of Kiyomizudera are examples of buildings that underwent repairs during this period. A survey conducted in association with Okakura Kakuzō and Ernest Fenollosa between 1888 to 1897 was designed to evaluate and catalogue 210,000 objects of artistic or historic merit. The end of the 19th century was a period of political change in Japan as cultural values moved from the enthusiastic adoption of western ideas to a newly discovered interest in Japanese heritage. Japanese architectural history began to appear on curricula, and the first books on architectural history were published, stimulated by the newly compiled inventories of buildings and art.
Ancient Temples and Shrines Preservation Law
On June 5, 1897, the Ancient Temples and Shrines Preservation Law (古社寺保存法 koshaji hozonhō ) (law number 49) was enacted, the first systematic law for the preservation of Japanese historic art and architecture. Formulated under the guidance of architectural historian and architect Itō Chūta, the law established (in 20 articles) government funding for the preservation of buildings and the restoration of artworks. The law applied to architecture and pieces of art relating to an architectural structure, with the proviso that historic uniqueness and exceptional quality were to be established (article 2). Applications for financial support were to be made to the Ministry of Internal Affairs (article 1); and the responsibility for restoration or preservation lay in the hands of local officials (article 3). Restoration works were financed directly from the national coffers (article 3).
A second law was passed on December 15, 1897, which provided supplementary provisions to designate works of art in the possession of temples or shrines as "National Treasures" (国宝 kokuhō ), and provided for religious architecture to be designated as a "Specially Protected Building" (特別保護建造物 tokubetsu hogo kenzōbutsu ). While the main criteria were "artistic superiority" and "value as historical evidence and wealth of historical associations", the age of the piece was an additional factor. Designated artworks could be from any of the following categories: painting, sculpture, calligraphy, books, and handicrafts. Swords were added later. The law limited protection to items held at religious institutions, while articles in private ownership remained unprotected. Funds to be applied for the restoration of works of art and structures were increased from 20,000 yen to 150,000 yen, and fines were set for the destruction of cultural properties. Owners were required to register designated objects with newly created museums, which were granted first option of purchase in case of sale. Initially, 44 temple and shrine buildings and 155 relics were designated under the new law, including the kon-dō at Hōryū-ji.
The laws of 1897 are the foundation for today's preservation law. When they were enacted, only England, France, Greece, and four other European nations had similar legislation. As a result of the new laws, Tōdai-ji's Daibutsuden was restored beginning in 1906 and finishing in 1913. In 1914, the administration of cultural properties was transferred from the Ministry of Internal Affairs to the Ministry of Education (today MEXT).
Extension of the protection
At the beginning of the 20th century, modernisation transformed the Japanese landscape and posed a threat to historic and natural monuments. Societies of prominent men such as the "Imperial Ancient Sites Survey Society" or the "Society for the Investigation and Preservation of Historic Sites and Aged Trees" lobbied and achieved a resolution in the House of Peers for conservation measures. Eventually these efforts resulted in the 1919 Historical Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty, and Natural Monuments Preservation Law (史蹟名勝天然紀念物保存法 shiseki meishō enrenkinenbutsu hozonhō ), protecting and cataloguing such properties in the same manner as temples, shrines, and pieces of art.
By 1929 about 1,100 properties had been designated under the 1897 "Ancient Shrines and Temples Preservation Law". Most were religious buildings dating from the 7th to early 17th century. Approximately 500 buildings were extensively restored, with 90% of the funding provided by the national budget. Restorations during the Meiji period often employed new materials and techniques.
In 1929 the National Treasures Preservation Law (国宝保存法 kokuhō hozonhō ) was passed, effective on July 1 of that year. The law replaced the 1897 laws, and extended protection for National Treasures held by public and private institutions and private individuals in an effort to prevent the export or removal of cultural properties. The focus of protection was not only for religious buildings, but for castles, teahouses, residences, and more recent religious buildings. Many of these structures had been transferred from feudal to private ownership following the Meiji restoration. Some of the first residential buildings to be designated National Treasures were the Yoshimura residence in Osaka (1937) and the Ogawa residence in Kyoto (1944). The designation "National Treasure" was applied to objects of art and to historical buildings. The new law required permissions to be obtained for future alterations of designated properties.
The restoration of Tōdai-ji's Nandaimon gate in 1930 saw improved standards for preservation. An architect supervised the reconstruction works on-site. Extensive restoration reports became the norm, including plans, results of surveys, historical sources, and documentation of the work done. During the 1930s, about 70–75% of restoration costs came from the national budget, which increased even during the war.
In the early 1930s Japan suffered from the Great Depression. In an effort to prevent art objects not yet designated National Treasures from being exported because of the economic crisis, the Law Regarding the Preservation of Important Works of Fine Arts (重要美術品等ノ保存ニ関スル 法律 jūyō bijutsuhin tōno hozon ni kan suru hōritsu ) was passed on April 1, 1933. It provided a simplified designation procedure with temporary protection, including protections against exportations. About 8,000 objects were protected under the law, including temples, shrines, and residential buildings. By 1939, nine categories of properties consisting of 8,282 items (paintings, sculptures, architecture, documents, books, calligraphy, swords, crafts, and archaeological resources) had been designated as National Treasures and were forbidden to be exported.
During World War II many of the designated buildings were camouflaged, and water tanks and fire walls were installed for protection. Nonetheless, 206 designated buildings, including Hiroshima Castle, were destroyed from May to August 1945. The 9th century Buddhist text Tōdaiji Fujumonkō, designated a National Treasure in 1938, was destroyed in 1945 by fire as a result of the war.
Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties
When the kon-dō of Hōryū-ji, one of the oldest extant wooden buildings in the world, and the first to be protected under the "Ancient Temples and Shrines Preservation Law", caught fire on January 26, 1949, valuable 7th-century wall paintings were damaged. The incident accelerated the reorganisation of cultural property protection, and gave rise to the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties (文化財保護法 bunkazai hogohō ) which was drafted on May 30, 1950, and effective on August 29 of that year. The new law combined the laws of 1919, 1929, and 1933. The scope of the previous protection laws was expanded to cover "intangible cultural properties" such as performing and applied arts, "folk cultural properties", and "buried cultural properties". Before the enactment of this law, only intangible cultural properties of especially high value at risk of extinction had been protected. Even by international standards, a broad spectrum of properties was covered by the 1950 law. The law was the basis for the establishment of the Committee for the Protection of Cultural Properties, a precursor of today's Agency for Cultural Affairs. It allowed the selection of the most important cultural properties; set restrictions on the alteration, repair and export of cultural properties; and provided measures for the preservation and utilization of such properties.
The regulations implementing the law specified three broad categories of properties: tangible/intangible cultural properties and "historic sites, places of scenic beauty, and natural monuments". Tangible cultural properties were defined as objects of "high artistic or historic value" or archaeological materials (or other historic material) of "high scholarly value". Designated buildings were required to be outstanding in design or building technique, have a high historic or scholarly value, or be typical of a movement or area.
A system for tangible cultural properties was established with two gradings: Important Cultural Property and National Treasure. The minister of education designates important cultural properties as National Treasures if they are of "particularly high value from the standpoint of world culture or outstanding treasures for the Japanese people". All previously designated National Treasures were initially demoted to important cultural properties. Some have been designated as new National Treasures since June 9, 1951. Following a decision by the National Diet, properties to be nominated as a World Heritage Site are required to be protected under the 1950 law.
Recent developments in cultural properties protection
National Treasures have been designated according to the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties starting from June 9, 1951. This law, which is still in force, has since been supplemented with amendments and additional laws that reorganized the system for protection and preservation and extended its scope to a larger variety of cultural properties. Some of these changes indirectly affected the protection of designated National Treasures.
In the 1960s, the spectrum of protected buildings was expanded to include early examples of western architecture. In 1966, the Law for the Preservation of Ancient Capitals was passed. It was restricted to the ancient capitals of Kamakura, Heijō-kyō (Nara), Heian-kyō (Kyoto), Asuka, Yamato (present day Asuka, Nara), Fujiwara-kyō (Kashihara), Tenri, Sakurai, and Ikaruga, areas in which a large number of National Treasures exist. In 1975 the law was extended to include groups of historic buildings not necessarily located in capitals.
The second significant change of 1975 was that the government began to extend protection, not only to tangible or intangible properties for their direct historic or artistic value, but also to the techniques for the conservation of cultural properties. This step was necessary because of the lack of skilled craftsmen resulting from industrialization. The techniques to be protected included the mounting of paintings and calligraphy on scrolls; the repair of lacquerware and wooden sculptures; and the production of Noh masks, costumes, and instruments.
The two-tier system of "National Treasures" and "Important Cultural Properties" was supplemented in 1996 with a new level of Registered Cultural Property for items in significant need of preservation and use. Initially limited to buildings, the newly established level of importance functioned as a waiting list for nominated Important Cultural Properties, and as an extension for National Treasures. A large number of mainly industrial and historic residences from the late Edo to the Shōwa period were registered under this system. Compared to Important Cultural Properties and National Treasures, the registration of Cultural Property entails fewer responsibilities for the owner. Since the end of the 20th century, the Agency for Cultural Affairs has focused on designating structures built between 1868 and 1930 and those in underrepresented regions. The insufficient supply of raw materials and tools necessary for restoration works was realized by the agency. In 1999 protective authority was transferred to prefectures and designated cities. As a result of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake, 714[nb 2] cultural properties including five National Treasure buildings suffered damage. The affected National Treasures are: Zuigan-ji (Main Hall and Priest's Quarters),[nb 3] Ōsaki Hachiman-gū,[nb 4] Shiramizu Amidadō[nb 5] and the Buddha Hall of Seihaku-ji.[nb 6]
Cultural products with a tangible form that possess high historic, artistic, and academic value for Japan are listed in a three-tier system. Properties in need of preservation and use are catalogued as "Registered Cultural Properties".[nb 7] Important objects are designated as "Important Cultural Properties".
Important cultural properties that show truly exceptional workmanship, a particularly high value for the world cultural history, or an exceptional value to scholarship can be designated as "National Treasures". In order to achieve the designation, the owner of an important cultural property contacts or is contacted by the Agency for Cultural Affairs for information regarding the registration. In the latter case, the agency always asks the owner for consent beforehand, even though not required by law.[nb 8] The agency then contacts the Council for Cultural Affairs, which consists of five members appointed by the minister of education for their "wide and eminent views on and knowledge of culture". The council may seek support from an investigative commission, and eventually prepares a report to the Agency for Cultural Affairs. If they support the nomination, the property is placed on the registration list of cultural properties, the owner is informed of the outcome, and an announcement is made in the official gazette. The designation policy is deliberately restrained, keeping the number of designated properties low. In this respect the South Korean protective system is similar to that of Japan. In the 21st century, between one and five properties were designated every year.
The Agency for Cultural Affairs designates tangible cultural properties as National Treasures in thirteen categories based on type. The agency generally distinguishes between "buildings and structures" (建造物 kenzōbutsu ), and "fine arts and crafts" (美術工芸品 bijutsu kōgeihin ). Each main category is subdivided into subcategories. The 216 structural cultural properties are separated into six categories; and the 866 fine arts and crafts cultural properties are separated into seven categories.
The category "castles" (城郭 jōkaku ) includes eight designated National Treasures located at four sites: Himeji Castle, Matsumoto Castle, Inuyama castle, and Hikone Castle, and comprises sixteen structures such as donjons, watch towers, and connecting galleries. Himeji Castle, the most visited castle in Japan and a World Heritage Site, has five National Treasures; the other castles each have one. The designated structures present the apogee of Japanese castle construction, and date to the end of the Sengoku period, from the late 16th to the first half of the 17th century. Built of wood and plaster on a stone foundation, the castles were military fortifications, as well as political, cultural, and economic centres, and residences for the daimyo, his family, and retainers. The oldest structure in the category is a Bunroku era secondary donjon called the Northwest Small Tower, at Matsumoto Castle.
Modern and historical residences
Residential architecture includes two categories: "modern residences" (住居 jūkyo ) from the Meiji period onward; and "historical residences" (住宅 jūtaku ), which date to before 1867, the Edo period and earlier. Presently, the only modern residential National Treasure is the Akasaka Palace in Tokyo, built in 1909. Fourteen National Treasures, dating from between 1485 to 1657, are listed in the historical residences category. Ten are located in Kyoto. The structures include teahouses, shoin, and guest or reception halls.
National Treasures in the category of "shrines" (神社 jinja ) include main halls (honden), oratories (haiden), gates, offering halls (heiden), purification halls (haraedono), and other structures associated with Shinto shrines. Presently there are 38 National Treasures in this category, from the 12th century (late Heian period) to the 19th century (late Edo period). According to the tradition of Shikinen sengū-sai (式年遷宮祭), the buildings or shrines were faithfully rebuilt at regular intervals, adhering to the original design. In this manner, ancient styles have been replicated through the centuries to the present day. The oldest designated extant shrine structure is the main hall at Ujigami Shrine, dating from the 12th century (late Heian period). About half of the designated structures are located in three prefectures: Kyoto, Nara, and Shiga in the Kansai region of Japan. Nikkō Tōshō-gū has five National Treasures.
Structures associated with Buddhist temples such as main halls (butsuden, hon-dō and kon-dō), pagodas, belfries, corridors, and other halls or structures are designated in the category "temples" (寺院 jiin ). Presently 152 National Treasures have been designated in this category, including two of the oldest wooden structures in the world—from the 6th century—at Hōryū-ji and Tōdai-ji's Daibutsuden, the largest wooden building in the world. The structures cover more than 1,000 years of Japanese Buddhist architecture, from the 6th century (Asuka period) to the 19th century late Edo period. About three quarters of the designated properties are located in the Kansai region, with 60 National Treasure temple structures in Nara prefecture and 29 in Kyoto prefecture. The temple Hōryū-ji has the largest number of designated National Treasure buildings, with 18 structures.
There are three "miscellaneous structures" (その他 sono hoka ) that do not fall in any of the other categories. They are the North Noh stage in Kyoto's Nishi Hongan-ji, the auditorium of the former Shizutani School in Bizen, and the Roman Catholic Ōura Church in Nagasaki. The North Noh stage, dating to 1581, is the oldest extant structure of its kind, consisting of a stage, a side stage for the chorus (脇座 wakiza ), a place for musicians (後座 atoza ), and a passageway to enter or exit the stage (橋掛 hashigakari ).
Built during the mid-Edo period in 1701, the Auditorium of the Shizutani school, an educational institute for commoners, is a single-storied building. It has a hip-and-gable (irimoya) style tile roof composed of flat broad concave tiles and semi-cylindrical convex tiles that cover the seams. The 19.4 × 15.6 m (64 × 51 ft) structure is built of high quality woods such as zelkova, cedar, and camphor.
Ōura Church was established in 1864 by the French priest Bernard Petitjean of Fier to commemorate the 26 Christian martyrs executed by crucifixion on February 5, 1597, at Nagasaki. The facade of the church faces Nishizaka hill, the place of their execution. It is a gothic structure, and the oldest extant wooden church in Japan.
Valuable Japanese historical documents are designated in the category "ancient documents" (古文書 komonjo ). There are 60 items or sets of items in this category, ranging from letters and diaries to records. One National Treasure is a linen map, and another is an inscription on stone. However, all other objects in the category were created with a writing brush on paper, and in many cases present important examples of early calligraphy. The oldest item dates from the late 7th century and the most recent from the 19th century (late Edo period). Approximately half of the entries in the category are located in Kyoto.
The category "archaeological materials" (考古資料 kōkoshiryō ) includes some of the oldest cultural properties, with 44 designated National Treasures. Many of the National Treasures in this category consist of large sets of objects originally buried as part of graves or as offering for temple foundations, and subsequently excavated from tombs, kofun, sutra mounds, or other archaeological sites. The oldest items are flame-shaped pottery and dogū clay figurines from the Jōmon period that reflect early Japanese civilization. Other items listed include bronze mirrors and bells, jewellery, ancient swords, and knives. The most recent object, a hexagonal stone column, dates to the Nanboku-chō period, 1361. Most of the materials (26) are located in museums, with six National Treasures in the Tokyo National Museum.
The category "crafts" (工芸品 kōgeihin ) includes 252 National Treasures, of which 122 are in the subcategory of swords, and 130 are other craft items.
Swords are included in the crafts category, and either the sword itself or a sword mounting is designated as a National Treasure. Currently 110 swords and 12 sword mountings are National Treasures. The oldest designated properties date to the 7th century (Asuka period). However, 86 of the items are from the Kamakura period, with the most recent object from the Muromachi period. The designated items are located in Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, museums, and private collections.
The crafts category includes pottery from Japan, China and Korea; metalworks such as mirrors and temple bells; Buddhist ritual items and others; lacquerware such as boxes, furniture, harnesses, and portable shrines; textiles, armour, and other objects. These items date from classical to early modern Japan—7th century Asuka period to 18th century Edo period —and are housed in Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, and museums. Also included in this category are sacred treasures that worshippers presented to Asuka Shrine, Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū, Itsukushima Shrine, Kasuga-taisha, and Kumano Hayatama Taisha. The treasures were dedicated to the enshrined deity of the respective shrine. They comprise garments, household items, and other items.
Three National Treasure sets are catalogued in the category "historical materials" (歴史資料 rekishi shiryō ). One set consists of 1,251 items related to the Shō family, the kings of Ryūkyū, who ruled over most of the Ryukyu Islands between the 15th and 19th century. The designated items date to the second Shō Dynasty (between the 16th and 19th century), and are located in the Naha City Museum of History. Within this set are 1,166 documents or records, including construction plans or registers of funeral items; 85 are craft items including articles of clothing and furniture.
The second set comprises paintings, documents, ceremonial tools, harnesses, and items of clothing Hasekura Tsunenaga brought back from his 1613 to 1620 trade mission (Keichō Embassy) to Europe. Sent by Date Masamune, Lord of the Sendai Domain, Hasekura traveled via Mexico City and Madrid to Rome before returning to Japan. Located in the Sendai City Museum, the designated set of items consists of 47 objects: a Roman citizenship document dating from November 1615; a portrait of Pope Paul V; a portrait of Hasekura in prayer following his conversion in Madrid; 19 religious paintings; pictures of saints; ceremonial items such as rosaries; a cross and medals; 25 items of harnesses and clothing such as priests' garments; an Indonesian kris; and a Ceylonese dagger.
A third set consists of 2,345 Edo period items related to the Japanese surveyor and cartographer Inō Tadataka. The designated objects are in custody of the Inō Tadataka Memorial Hall in Katori, Chiba, and include 787 maps and drawings, 569 documents and records, 398 letters, 528 books, and 63 utensils such as surveying instruments.
Japanese and Chinese paintings from the 8th-century Classical Nara period to the early modern 19th-century Edo period are listed in the category "paintings" (絵画 kaiga ). The 158 National Treasures in the category include Buddhist themes, landscapes, portraits, and court scenes. Various base materials have been used: 90 are hanging scrolls; 38 are hand scrolls or emakimono; 20 are byōbu folding screens or paintings on sliding doors (fusuma); and three are albums. They are located in museums, Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, private collections, a university, and a tomb (Takamatsuzuka Tomb). A large proportion of items are housed in the national museums of Tokyo, Kyoto, and Nara. The greatest number of National Treasure paintings are located in Kyoto with 50, and Tokyo with 45, and more than half of the Tokyo paintings are located in the Tokyo National Museum.
Sculptures of Buddhist and Shintō deities, or of priests venerated as founders of temples, are listed in the category "sculptures" (彫刻 chōkoku ). There are 126 National Treasure sculptures or groups of sculptures from the 7th-century Asuka period to the 13th-century Kamakura period. Most (94) sculptures are wooden, eleven entries in the list are bronze, eleven are lacquer, seven are made of clay, and one entry, the Usuki Stone Buddhas, consists of a group of stone sculptures. The statues vary in size from just 10 cm (3.9 in) to 13 m (43 ft) and 15 m (49 ft) for the Great Buddhas of Nara and Kamakura. Seventy of the 126 entries are located in Nara prefecture while another 37 are in Kyoto prefecture. With few exceptions, the sculptures are located in Buddhist temples. Hōryū-ji and Kōfuku-ji are the locations with the most entries, at 17 each. The Ōkura Shūkokan Museum of Fine Arts in Tokyo, the Nara National Museum in Nara and the Yoshino Mikumari Shrine in Yoshino, Nara each have a single National Treasure in the sculpture category; one National Treasure that consists of four sculptures of Shinto gods is located at Kumano Hayatama Taisha; and the Usuki Stone Buddhas belong to Usuki city.
Written materials of various type such as sūtra transcriptions, poetry, historical books, and specialist books are designated in the category "writings" (書跡・典籍 shoseki, tenseki ). The 223 items or sets of items are National Treasures that date predominantly to classical Japan and the Imperial era of China from the 6th century to the Muromachi period. Most were made with a writing brush on paper and in many cases present important examples of calligraphy.
Preservation and utilization measures
To guarantee the preservation and utilization of designated National Treasures, a set of measures was laid down in the "Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties" of 1950. These direct measures are supplemented by indirect efforts aimed at protecting the built environment (in the case of architecture), or techniques necessary for restoration works.[nb 10]
The owners or managers of a National Treasure are responsible for the administration and restoration of the work. Should the property be lost, destroyed, damaged, altered, moved, or ownership be transferred, they must advise the Agency for Cultural affairs. Alterations to the property require a permit, and the agency is to be notified 30 days in advance when repairs are conducted.(§ 43). If requested, owners must supply information, and report to the commissioner of the Agency for Cultural Affairs, regarding the condition of the property (§ 54). If a National Treasure is damaged, the commissioner has the authority to order the owner or custodian to repair the property; if the owner is non-compliant, the commissioner may carry out repairs.[nb 11] If a National Treasure is to be sold, the government retains the first option to buy the item (§ 46). Transfers of National Treasures are generally restrictive, and export is prohibited.
If subsidies were granted to the property, the commissioner has the authority to recommend or order public access or a loan to a museum for a limited period.(§ 51). The requirement that private owners must allow access or cede rights to the property has been considered a reason that the properties under supervision of the Imperial Household Agency have not been designated as a National Treasure, with the exception of the Shōsōin. The Imperial Household Agency considers that Imperial properties have sufficient protection, and do not require additional protection provided by the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties. The government satisfies scientific and public interest in cultural properties by a system of documentation, and through the operation of museums and centres for cultural research.
Protection measures are not limited to the responsibilities of ownership. Apart from the prestige gained through the designation, owners are entitled to advantages such as local tax exemption, including fixed assets tax, special property tax, and city planning tax, as well as reduction of national taxes applied to the transfer of properties.
The Agency for Cultural Affairs provides owners or custodians with advice and guidance on matters of administration, restoration, and the public display of National Treasures. The agency promotes local activities aimed at the protection of cultural properties, such as activities for the study, protection, or transmission of cultural properties. A custodian can be named for a National Treasure (usually a local governing body) if the following circumstances exist: the owner cannot be located, the property is damaged, adequate protection of the property has not been provided, or public access to the property has not been allowed.
The government provides grants for repairs, maintenance, and the installation of fire prevention facilities and other disaster prevention systems. Subsidies are available to municipalities for purchasing land or cultural property structures. Designated properties generally increase in value. The budget allocated by the Agency for Cultural Affairs in fiscal 2009 for the "Facilitation of Preservation Projects for National Treasures and Important Cultural Properties" amounted to 12,013 million yen or 11.8% of the total budget of the agency. Enhancements of Cultural Properties Protection, including the former contingent, were allocated 62,219 million yen, or 61.0% of the total budget.
The Agency for Cultural Affairs of Japan publishes the list of National Treasures and other designated Japanese cultural artefacts at the Database of National Cultural Properties. As of July 1, 2010, there are 866 National Treasures in the arts and crafts category, and 216 in the buildings and structures category. The total number of arts and crafts items, as well as the total number of structures, is actually higher because related objects are sometimes grouped under a common name.
About 89% of structural National Treasures are religious in nature. Residences account for 8% of designated buildings; the remaining are castles and miscellaneous structures. More than 90% are wooden buildings, and about 13% of designated buildings are in private ownership. Of "fine arts and crafts" category, more than 30% of National Treasures are written materials such as documents, letters, or books. Swords, paintings, sculptures, and non-sword craft items each account for about 15% of National Treasures in this category.
The geographical distribution of National Treasures in Japan is highly uneven. Remote areas such as Hokkaido and Kyushu have few designated properties, and most prefectures may only have a couple of National Treasure structures. Two prefectures—Miyazaki and Tokushima—do not have any National Treasures.[nb 12]
Four prefectures in the Kansai region of central Honshū each have more than ten National Treasure structures: Hyōgo (11), Kyoto (48), Nara (64), and Shiga Prefecture (22). Together they comprise 145 or 67.5% of all structural National Treasures in Japan. Three sites have 90 structural National Treasures: Kyoto, the capital of Japan and the seat of the imperial court for more than 1,000 years; Hōryū-ji, founded by Prince Shotoku around 600; and Nara, capital of Japan from 710 to 784.
Fine arts and crafts National Treasures are distributed in a similar fashion, with fewer in remote areas, and a higher concentration in the Kansai region. The seven prefectures of the region harbor 481, or 55.5%, of all arts and crafts National Treasures. Tokyo, which has only two National Treasure buildings, has an exceptionally high number of cultural properties in this category. Of the 205 properties located in Tokyo, 87 are at the Tokyo National Museum.
The designated items provide an overview of the history of Japanese art and architecture from ancient to modern times, with the earliest archaeological National Treasures dating back 4,000 years, and the Akasaka Palace dating from the early 20th century. Items from any one of the categories of National Treasures may not represent the entire interval of time, but rather a shorter period of time determined by historical events, and coinciding with the time in which the specific artistry or type of architecture flourished.
Temple National Treasures cover the time from the late 7th century—about 150 years after the introduction of Buddhism to Japan in the mid-6th century—to the 19th century (early modern Japan). The history of Shinto shrines in Japan is even older than that of temples. However, because of the tradition of rebuilding shrines at regular intervals, known as Shikinen sengū-sai (式年遷宮祭), the oldest designated shrine structures date to the late 12th century. The archetypical Japanese castles are a product of a period of 50 years that began with the construction of Azuchi Castle in 1576, which marked a change in style and function of castles. Castle construction ended in 1620; the Tokugawa shogunate destroyed the Toyotomi clan in 1615 and subsequently prohibited the building of new castles.
In Japan, the first indications of stable living patterns and civilization date to the Jōmon period, from about 14,000 BC to 300 BC. Clay figurines (dogū) and some of the world's oldest pottery, discovered at sites in northern Japan, have been designated as the oldest National Treasures in the "archaeological materials" category. Some of the earliest items in this category are objects discovered in sutra mounds from the Kamakura period.
The starting date of designated "crafts", "writings", and "sculptures" is connected to the introduction of Buddhism to Japan in 552. A proportion of the oldest designated National Treasures of these categories were directly imported from mainland China and Korea. After the Kamakura period, the art of Japanese sculpture, which had been mainly religious in nature, deteriorated. Consequently there are no National Treasure sculptures from after the Kamakura period.
- ^ Under the policy of State Shinto, shrines had been receiving funds since 1874.
- ^ 704 items suffered damage. Since some of them have multiple designations, the total count is 714.
- ^ Cracked walls and pillars, some broken sculptures.
- ^ Slightly broken walls, lacquering and sculptures.
- ^ Slightly broken wall.
- ^ Broken ranma.
- ^ This applies primarily to works of the modern period such as houses, public structures, bridges, dikes, fences, and towers, threatened by land development and cultural shifts. Registration is a means to prevent the demolition of such structures without requiring an evaluation of their cultural value. Protection measures are moderate and include notification, guidance, and suggestions. As of April 1, 2009, there are 7,407 registered structures.
- ^ It is usually difficult to obtain consent from state properties and private firms.
- ^ The three stacked elements symbolise the continuity in time of cultural property protection: the past, the present, and the future.
- ^ These supplemental measures were added as amendments to the 1950 "Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties".
- ^ For important cultural properties, the commissioner's authority is only to recommend repairs.
- ^ A gilt bronze harness from the Saitobaru kofun in Miyazaki prefecture has been designated as National Treasure. It is now located at the Gotoh Museum in Tokyo.
- ^ Hickman 2002, p. 15
- ^ a b c d e f Jokilehto 2002, p. 280
- ^ a b c d e Agency for Cultural Affairs, ed. "Intangible Cultural Heritage" (PDF). Administration of Cultural Affairs in Japan ― Fiscal 2009. Asia/Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO (ACCU). http://www.bunka.go.jp/bunkazai/pamphlet/pdf/pamphlet_en_05.pdf. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Enders & Gutschow 1998, p. 12
- ^ a b Edwards 2005, p. 38
- ^ a b c Gibbon 2005, p. 331
- ^ a b Jokilehto 2002, p. 279
- ^ a b c d Edwards 2005, p. 39
- ^ a b c d e f g Coaldrake 2002, p. 248
- ^ a b c d Issarathumnoon, Wimonrart (2003–2004). "The Machizukuri bottom-up approach to conservation of historic communities: lessons for Thailand" (PDF). The Nippon Foundation. Urban Design Lab, Tokyo University. http://ud.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/book/2005aij/wi041112.pdf. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
- ^ a b c Coaldrake 2002, p. 249
- ^ a b c d e Mackay-Smith, Alexander (2000-04-29). "Mission to preserve and protect". Japan Times (Tokyo: Japan Times Ltd.). ISSN 0447-5763. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/fa20000429a2.html. Retrieved 2009-12-02.
- ^ a b c d e f g Gibbon 2005, p. 332
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Enders & Gutschow 1998, p. 13
- ^ Yoshida 2001, p. 135
- ^ "金堂" (in Japanese). Hōryū-ji. http://www.horyuji.or.jp/kondo.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
- ^ "五重塔" (in Japanese). Hōryū-ji. http://www.horyuji.or.jp/gojyunoto.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Cultural Properties for Future Generations" (PDF). Administration of Cultural Affairs in Japan. Agency for Cultural Affairs. 2011-03. http://www.bunka.go.jp/bunkazai/pamphlet/pdf/pamphlet_en_03_ver03.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
- ^ a b McVeigh 2004, p. 171
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Preservation and Utilization of Cultural Properties" (PDF). Administration of Cultural Affairs in Japan ― Fiscal 2009. Agency for Cultural Affairs. 2009. Archived from the original on November 10, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071110143150/http://www.bunka.go.jp/english/pdf/chapter_06.pdf. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
- ^ a b c Nobuko, Inaba (1998). "Policy and System of Urban / Territorial Conservation in Japan". Tokyo: Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties. http://www.tobunken.go.jp/~kokusen/ENGLISH/MEETING/SEMINAR/7SEMINAR/inaba.html. Retrieved 2009-11-30.
- ^ a b c d e Enders & Gutschow 1998, p. 14
- ^ a b Enders & Gutschow 1998, p. 15
- ^ a b "Damages to Cultural Properties in the "the Great East Japan Earthquake"" (PDF). Agency for Cultural Affairs. 2011-07-29. http://www.bunka.go.jp/english/pdf/2011_Tohoku_ver12.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
- ^ a b Gibbon 2005, p. 333
- ^ a b Gibbon 2005, p. 335
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "国指定文化財 データベース" (in Japanese). Database of National Cultural Properties. Agency for Cultural Affairs. 2008-11-01. http://www.bunka.go.jp/bsys/index.asp. Retrieved 2009-12-15.
- ^ Turnbull & Dennis 2003, p. 52
- ^ a b Deal 2007, p. 315
- ^ Turnbull & Dennis 2003, p. 21
- ^ Coaldrake 1996, pp. 105–106
- ^ a b "State Guest Houses". Cabinet Office Government of Japan. http://www8.cao.go.jp/geihinkan/e1-11.html. Retrieved 2009-12-01.
- ^ Kishida 2008, p. 33
- ^ Nishi & Hozumi 1996, p. 41
- ^ Kuroda 2005
- ^ "金堂 [Golden Hall]" (in Japanese). Hōryū-ji. http://www.horyuji.or.jp/kondo.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
- ^ "五重塔 [Five-storied Pagoda]" (in Japanese). Hōryū-ji. http://www.horyuji.or.jp/gojyunoto.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
- ^ "Nomination File". UNESCO. 1997-06. http://whc.unesco.org/p_dynamic/sites/passfile.cfm?filename=870&filetype=pdf&category=nominations. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
- ^ "大仏殿 [Great Buddha Hall]" (in Japanese). Tōdai-ji. http://www.todaiji.or.jp/contents/guidance/guidance4.html. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
- ^ "北能舞台 [North Noh stage]" (in Japanese). Nishi Hongan-ji. http://www.hongwanji.or.jp/about/kenzo/11.html. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
- ^ "History of the Shizutani School". Bizen city. http://www.city.bizen.okayama.jp/english/sizutani/detail.jsp. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
- ^ "Oura Catholic Church". Nagasaki Tourism Internet Committee. http://www.at-nagasaki.jp/foreign/english/spot/010.html. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
- ^ "額田寺伽藍並条里図 [Map of Nukata-dera garan and its vicinity]" (in Japanese). National Museum of Japanese History. http://www.rekihaku.ac.jp/gallery/nukata/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-11.
- ^ a b "那須国造碑 [Stone in Nasu County]". Ōtawara city tourist association. http://www.ohtawara.info/spot/ksaishi.html. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
- ^ "The University of Tokyo Library System Bulletin Vol 42, No 4" (PDF). Tokyo University library. 2003-09. http://www.lib.u-tokyo.ac.jp/koho/kanpo/vol42/vol42-4.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-03.
- ^ a b "教育ほっかいどう第374号－活動レポート－国宝「土偶」について [Education Hokkaidō issue 374 activity report, National Treasure dogū]" (in Japanese). Hokkaido Prefectural Government. 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-05-05. http://replay.web.archive.org/20080505052035/http://www.dokyoi.pref.hokkaido.lg.jp/kyouikuhokkaidou374-report-kokuhou.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-13.
- ^ a b "合掌土偶について – 八戸市 [Gasshō dogū – Hachinohe]" (in Japanese). Hachinohe. 2009. http://www.city.hachinohe.aomori.jp/index.cfm/12,21230,43,153,html. Retrieved 2009-11-30.
- ^ "普済寺 [Fusai-ji]". Tachikawa Bureau of Tourism. http://www.tbt.gr.jp/100sen/spot/fusaiji.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
- ^ "日高村文化財 国宝 [Hidaka Cultural Properties, National Treasure]". Hidaka. http://www.vill.hidaka.kochi.jp/kokuho-zyubun.html. Retrieved 2009-06-04.
- ^ Nagayama, Kōkan (1998). The Connoisseur's Book of Japanese Swords. Tokyo; New York: Kodansha International. p. 13. ISBN 4770020716. http://books.google.com/books?id=zPyswmGDBFkC.
- ^ "広島県の文化財 – 梨子地桐文螺鈿腰刀 [Cultural Properties of Hiroshima Prefecture — nashijikirimon raden koshigatana]". Hiroshima Prefecture. http://www.pref.hiroshima.lg.jp/kyouiku/hotline/bunkazai/data/101040060.html. Retrieved 2009-09-29.
- ^ "Writing box with eight bridges". Emuseum. Tokyo National Museum. http://www.emuseum.jp/detail/100196/000/000?mode=detail&d_lang=en&s_lang=en&class=8&title=&c_e=®ion=&era=¢ury=&cptype=&owner=&pos=1&num=6. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- ^ "沃懸地杏葉螺鈿平やなぐい かまくら GreenNet [Quiver]" (in Japanese). Kamakura city. http://guide.city.kamakura.kanagawa.jp/Link/kokuhoukan/t-yanagui111.html. Retrieved 2009-05-22.
- ^ "沃懸地杏葉螺鈿太刀 かまくら GreenNet [Long sword]" (in Japanese). Kamakura city. http://guide.city.kamakura.kanagawa.jp/Link/kokuhoukan/t-tachi111.html. Retrieved 2009-05-22.
- ^ "厳島神社古神宝類 [Old sacred treasures of Itsukushima Shrine]". Hiroshima Prefecture. http://www.pref.hiroshima.lg.jp/kyouiku/hotline/bunkazai/data/101040090.html. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- ^ "本宮御料古神宝類 [Old sacred treasures]". Kasuga Taisha. http://www.kasugataisha.or.jp/h_s_tearoom/treasure/treasure3.html. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- ^ "琉球国王尚家関係資料 [Materials of the Shō family — Kings of Ryūkyū]". Naha city. 2004-02-20. http://www.city.naha.okinawa.jp/wk_simin/snap_snap/y2006/m07/060708rekisihakubutukan_1.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-12.
- ^ "慶長遣欧使節関係資料 [Materials of the Keichō Embassy to Europe]". Miyagi Prefecture. 2004-02-20. http://www.pref.miyagi.jp/bunkazai/siteibunkazai/miyagi-no-bunkazai/07REKISI/01tunenaga.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-12.
- ^ "伊能忠敬記念館 [Inō Tadataka Memorial Hall]". Inō Tadataka Museum. http://www.city.katori.lg.jp/museum/data.html. Retrieved 2010-07-02.
- ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 471
- ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 482–485
- ^ Ise Jingu and Treasures of Shinto. Tokyo National Museum. 2009.
- ^ "仏教索引 [Buddhism index]" (in Japanese). janis. http://www.janis.or.jp/users/sairyuta/tera/sakuin.html. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
- ^ James M. Goodwin; Janet R. Goodwin. "The Usuki Site". University of California. Archived from the original on 2008-12-03. http://replay.web.archive.org/20081203100309/http://www.cs.ucla.edu/~jmg/sekiToKiwi/usuki-web/index.html. Retrieved 2009-06-16.
- ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, p. 595
- ^ Christine Guth Kanda (1985). Shinzō. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 81–85. ISBN 0674806506. http://books.google.de/books?id=xKuEXrKXdOgC&pg=RA1-PA51&lpg=RA1-PA51&dq=hachiman+statue+toji. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- ^ Ogawa, Seki & Yamazaki 2009, pp. 199
- ^ a b c d Gibbon 2005, p. 334
- ^ a b "Foundations for Cultural Administration" (PDF). Administration of Cultural Affairs in Japan ― Fiscal 2010. Agency for Cultural Affairs. 2003–2004. http://www.bunka.go.jp/english/pdf/h21_chapter_01.pdf. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
- ^ Sansom & Sansom 1958, p. 82
- ^ Young & Young 2007, p. 44
- ^ "Frequently asked questions about the Tokyo National Museum". Tokyo National Museum. http://www.tnm.jp/modules/r_free_page/index.php?id=156&lang=en. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
- ^ "National Treasure designation" (in Japanese). Tōkamachi City Museum. http://www.city.tokamachi.niigata.jp/site/museum/museum/treasure.html. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- ^ Sansom & Sansom 1958, p. 49
- ^ Young & Young 2007, p. 50
- ^ Coaldrake 1996, p. 104
- ^ Nishi & Hozumi 1996, p. 93
- ^ Coaldrake 1996, p. 106
- ^ Habu 2004, p. 27
- ^ Habu 2004, p. 83
- ^ "Special Exhibition – The Legacy of Fujiwara no Michinaga: Courtly Splendor and Pure Land Faith". Kyoto National Museum. http://www.kyohaku.go.jp/eng/tokubetsu/070424/shoukai/04_index_02.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- ^ Münsterberg 1957, p. 117
- Coaldrake, William Howard (1996). Architecture and Authority in Japan. Nissan Institute/Routledge Japanese studies (illustrated ed.). London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 041505754X. http://books.google.com/books?id=xREmtqqNVpUC&dq=twelve+castles+japan.
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