- Teochew people
Total population estimated 25-30 million worldwide Regions with significant populations Greater China (Guangdong, Hong Kong), Southeast Asia (Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia), North America (US, Canada), Australasia (Australia, New Zealand), France Languages
Teochew + language(s) of their country of residence
Religion Related ethnic groups
Hoklo people (Hokkien)
Teochew people Chinese 潮州人 Literal meaning tide region people Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin Cháo-zhōu-rén Min - Hokkien POJ Tiô-chiu-lâng Cantonese (Yue) - Jyutping Ciu4-zau1-jan4
The Chaozhou people (commonly known as Teochew) are Han people, native to the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong province of China who speak the Teochew dialect. Today, most Teochew people live outside China in Southeast Asia especially in Singapore, Thailand, and Malaysia. They can also be found almost anywhere in the world, including North America, Australasia and France. The diaspora, is estimated to contain over 10 million people, which is as much as the population of Chaoshan itself. The Teochow speak a language closely related to Hokkien, whilst Teochew cuisine is distinctive. The ancestors of the Teochew people moved to present-day Chaoshan from the Central Plains of China in order to escape from a series of civil wars during the Jin Dynasty. The Teochews were typically known as the rich agriculturalists and merchants among the Chinese. Along with the Hokkien, Teochew are often referred to as the “Jews of China" because of their financial success. This continues to the present day, for example, the richest person in mainland China, Huang Guangyu, and the richest person of Chinese descent in the world, Li Ka-shing, are both of Teochew origin (and speak the language). Almost all Thai billionaires and millionares are of Teochew descent. Even though Teochew people comprise less than 2% of the Chinese population worldwide, they appear far out of proportion to their demographic numbers among the upper class and the wealthy Chinese.
Teochew can be romanised in a variety of schemes, and are known in Mandarin as Chaozhou ren and Cantonese as Chiuchao yan. In referring to themselves as ethnic Chinese, Teochew people generally use Deung nang (唐人; Mandarin: Tangren), literally Tang Dynasty people, as opposed to Hang nang (漢人/汉人; Mandarin: Hanren), which means 'Han Dynasty people'. Teochew people of the diaspora would generally use Hua nang (華人/华人; Mandarin: Huaren) to indicate Chinese heritage in a cultural sense.
Teochew people also commonly refer to each other as ga gi nang (家己人; Mandarin: jiajiren) which means 'our own people'.
Historically, these people were called Helao or Fulao, as they came mostly from Henan and Shanxi via Fujian,, with well-maintained language and customs from north-central China. As was recorded in pedigrees and ancient inscriptions, these people who had originally migrated to southern Fujian, especially from Quanzhou and Putian, made settlements toward Chaoshan in batches and soon spread all over the Chaoshan area.[when?] Geographic isolation and difficulty in traveling in the past made the Helao or Fulao become a relatively closed population. Recently, studies of genetic analysis supported that although all Han Chinese are indeed related and share a common root, the Teochew had closest links with the Minnan area of Fujian province and those from the Taihang Mountain range of north-central China.
They are known to Cantonese speakers as "Hoklo", literally meaning "men of Fujian", although the term “Teochew” is used in the Strait Settlements in the 19th century and early 20th century. "Teochew" is derived from Teochew prefecture (Chaozhou Fu) the departmental city where they originate.
Teochew immigration to Singapore
Since the 19th century, due to disadvantaged circumstances, significant numbers of Teochew people left their homeland for Singapore and a new life.
Early Teochew settlers could trace their origins to 8 counties/prefectures: Chao'an, Chenghai, Chaoyang, Jieyang, Raoping, Puning, Huilai and Nan'ao. Apart from these new immigrants leaving from Port Swatow, there were Teochews relocating to Singapore from Siam and Kepulauan Riau.
Today, Teochew is the second largest dialect in the island city-state.
Teochew in Taiwan
Most of the Teochew descendants in Taiwan have already been "hokkienized" ("hoklonized"). They speak the Taiwanese Hokkien language instead of Teochew. Some of them consider themselves as being Hakka. However, there are still some Teochew in Chaojhou township (潮州鎮), in Pingtung County (屏東縣).
Teochew culture is indispensable in constructing the single cultural entity in Guangdong Province, and is known worldwide as a unique part of world heritage. Throughout the lengthy history of over 1000 years, the region of Chaoshan, anciently named Teochew Prefecture, has bred and evolved a prestigious culture, which manifests its unique characteristics in language, opera, cuisine, tea practice, music and embroidery.
The Teochew dialect (潮州話) is considered one of the oldest Chinese dialects for it preserves many features from ancient Chinese that have been lost in some counterparts. It is spoken by roughly 10 million people in Chaoshan and more than 5 million outside the Chinese mainland.
Teochew opera (潮劇) is a traditional art form which has a history of more than 500 years and is now loved by 20 million Teochew people in over 20 countries and regions. Based on the local folk dances and ballads, Teochew opera has formed its own style under the influence of Nanxi Opera. Nanxi is one of the oldest Chinese operas that originated in the Song Dynasty. Its tunes are graceful and pleasant, full of local colour. The old form of choral accompaniment still preserves its special features. Clowns and females are the most distinctive characters in a Teochew opera, and fan-playing and acrobatic skills are more prominent than in other types of performances.
Gongfu tea (工夫茶), the 'espresso' of Chinese teas with a formidable kick, which was first sipped back in the Song Dynasty, is still flourishing and standing as an important part of social etiquette in Chaoshan. It is not uncommon that the tea ritual is practised in an ordinary Teochew household on a day-to-day basis. Although it tastes bitter when it first reaches the mouth, it is the lingering aftertaste that makes Ganghu tea probably the most charming tea culture in China. Drinking Ganghu tea, in this sense, is a form of art rather than an antidote to thirst.
Teochew music (潮州音樂) is popularly played in Chaoshan's teahouse scene. The Teochew string instrument, gong, drum and traditional Chinese flute, are typically involved in the form of ensemble. The current Chaozhou drum music is said to be similar to the form of the Drum and Wind Music of the Han and Tang Dynasties.
Teochew woodcarving（潮州木雕) is a form of Chinese woodcarving originating from the Tang Dynasty. It is very popular in Chaoshan, Teochew people used a great deal of Teochew wood carving in their splendid buildings.
Yingge dance（英歌）is a form of Chinese folk dance originating from the Ming Dynasty. It is one of the most representative form of folk arts. The performers makeup into 108 Stars of Destiny, holding the two small stick or tambourine to perform。
Few movies or television dramas however have been made of the Teochew people, one such notable drama is the Singaporean 1995 epic The Teochew Family, which was produced by Singaporean pioneer television producer Chua Swan (蔡萱), brother of Chua Lam.
Prominent Teochew people
- Mainland China
- Huang Guangyu (黄光裕; Ng Guangyu; Wong Kwong Yu) (1969—; Chaoyang, Guangdong), founder and chairman of GOME Group; the richest person in Mainland China
- Zhu Mengyi (朱孟依; Cu Mêng-i) (1959—; Fengshun, Guangdong), chairman of Guangdong Zhujiang Invest, Hopson Development
- Ma Huateng (馬化騰/马化腾; Bhê Huejam) (1971—; Chaoyang, Guangdong), General Manager of Tencent Computer System Co., Ltd and creator of QQ
- Huang Maoru (黄茂如; Ng Moudzu) (1965—; Huilai, Guangdong), founder of Maoye Group
- Zhou Zerong (周澤榮/周泽荣; Chiu Zak-uêng) (1955—; Chaoyang, Guangdong), founder of Kingold Group
- Hong Kong
- Li Ka-shing (李嘉誠/李嘉诚; Li Jiacheng; Li Kaishing) (1928—; Chaozhou, Guangdong), founder and chairman of Cheung Kong Group; the richest person of Chinese and Chinese descent in the world; very famous for his enormous fortune, business acumen and generous charity work.
- Charles Heung (向華強/向华强; Xiang Huaqiang; Heung Wa-Keung) (1948—; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), founder, chairman and CEO of China Star Group
- Lim Por-yen (林百欣; Lin Baixin; Lim Bêhyan) (1914-2005; Chaoyang, Guangdong); founder of Lai Sun Group, media tycoon, banker and charitarian
- Albert Yeung (楊受成/杨受成; Yang Shoucheng; Yêng Siuseng) (1944—; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), founder and chairman of Emperor Group
- Joseph Lau (劉鑾雄/刘銮雄; Liu Luanxong; Liu Luanghiong) (1951—; Chaozhou, Guangdong), founder, chairman and CEO of Chinese Estates Group
- Vincent Lo (羅康瑞/罗康瑞; Luo Kangri; Lua Kangsui) (1948—; Puning, Guangdong), founder and chairman of Shui On Group
- Chuang Shih Ping (庄世平/莊世平; Zhuang Shiping; Chuang Sipêng) (1911一2007; Puning, Guangdong), founder of Nanyang Commercial Bank
- Low Khiok Chiang (1843-1911]; born in Swatow, Guangdong), founder of Khiam Hoa Heng entreprises (1872-1950s)
- Chin Sophonpanich (Thai: ชิน โสภณพนิช; Chinese: 陳弼臣) (1910-1988; Chaoyang, Guangdong; born in Thailand), founder of Bangkok Bank
- Xie Yichu (謝易初/谢易初; Xie Yichu; Zia Goico） (1896—1983; Chenghai, Guangdong), founder of Charoen Pokphand Group and charitarian
- Dhanin Chearavanont (Thai: ธนินทร์ เจียรวนนท์; 謝國民/谢国民; Xie Guomin; Zia Gokmi) (1939－; Chenghai, Guangdong), CEO of Charoen Pokphand Group(Chia Tai Group)
- Prapa Viriyaprapaikit (Thai: ประภา วิริยประไพกิจ; 吳玉音/吴玉音; Wu Yuyin; Ghou Ghêg-im) (1932－; Raoping, Guangdong), founder of Sahaviriya
- Prachai Leophai-ratana (Thai: ประชัย เลี่ยวไพรัตน; 廖漢渲/廖汉渲; Liao Hanxuan; Liu Hangsuang) (; Chaoan, Guangdong), founder and former CEO of Thai Petrochemical Industry (TPI) and TPI Polene
- Chatri Sophonpanich (Thai: ชาตรี โสภณพนิช; 陳有漢/陈有汉; Chen Youhan; Tan U-hang) (1932－; Chaoyang, Guangdong), CEO of Bangkok Bank
- Krit Ratanarak (李智正; Li Zhizheng; Li Dizian) (－; Chenghai, Guangdong), CEO of Siam City Cement Public Company Limited and Bank of Ayudhya Public Company Limited
- Dr Udane Tejapaibul (Thai: อุเทน เตชะไพบูลย์; 鄭午樓/郑午楼; Zheng Wulou; Dên Ngoulau)（1913－；Chaoyang，Guangdong）, founder of Bangkok Metrepolitan Bank
- Mongkol Kanjanapas (Thai: มงคล กาญจนพาสน์; 黃子明/黄子明; Huang Ziming; Ng Zemêng)（1919—；Puning, Guangdong）, chairman of Hwa Kay Thai Holdings Limited
- Smarn Ophaswongse (Thai: สมาน โอภาสวงค์; 胡玉麟; Hu Yulin; Gou Ghêgluk) (1926—; Chaoan, Guangdong), one of Thailand's best-known rice traders
- Lien Ying Chow (連瀛洲/连瀛洲; Lian Yingzhou; Lian Yingzio) (1906-2004; Chaoyang, Guangdong), founder and CEO of Overseas Union Bank
- Tang Choon Keng (董俊競/董俊竞; Dong Junjing; Dang Junggeng) (1901-2000; Shantou, Guangdong), founder of Tangs
- Lim Nee Soon (林義順; Lin Yishun) (1879-1936; Shantou, Guangdong)
- Lee Wee Nam
- Quach Dam (1863-1927; Chaozhou, Guangdong), founder of Binh Tay Market -- one of the most famous and important markets in Cholon and Saigon, one of the richest people in Indochina at that time
- Tram Be (19??—; Chaoshan, Guangdong; born in Vietnam), founder of Trieu An Hospital in Saigon; one of the richest people in Vietnam
- Mainland China
- Zheng Zhengqiu (鄭正秋/郑正秋; Dên Zianciu) (1888—1935; Chaoyang, Guangdong), famous director, and the film "Nan Fu Nan Qi" (難夫難妻/难夫难妻; Nang Hu Nang Ci) directed by him was the first feature film in China's history
- Cai Chusheng (蔡楚生; Cua Cosên) (1906-1968; Chaoyang, Guangdong), famous director, and the film "Yu Guang Qu" (漁光曲/渔光曲; Heu Guang Kêg) directed by him received the first international film prize in China's history
- Hong Kong
- Mainland China
- Da-Wen Sun (孫大文/孙大文) (Chaozhou, Guangdong), leading world authority in food engineering education and research.
- Zeng Xijing (曾习经; ) (1867-1926; Jiexi, Guangdong),famous poet.
- Zhang Jingsheng (張競生/张竞生; Dion Shingsên) (1888-1970; Raoping, Guangdong),
- Du Guoyang (杜国庠) (1889-1961; Chenghai, Guangdong),philosopher.
- Xu Dishan (许地山) (1893-1941; Jieyang, Guangdong),philosopher.
- Zhan Antai (詹安泰; Dam Amtai) (1902-1967; Raoping, Guangdong), famous Chinese classic literary figure
- Xu Dixin (许涤新) (1906-1988; Raoping, Guangdong),
- Xue Shan (薛汕) (1906—; Chaozhou, Guangdong),
- Bi Ye (碧野) (1916-2008; Dabu, Guangdong),
- Qin Mu (秦牧; Cun Muk) (1919-1992; Chenghai, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), famous Chinese literary figure
- Hong Zicheng (洪子誠/洪子诚; Hong Zeshin) (1939—; Chaozhou, Guangdong), An Outstanding Scholar in the Field of the History of Literature
- Chen Pingyuan (陳平原/陈平原; Tan Pêngnguang) (1954—; Chaozhou, Guangdong), famous Chinese literary professor
- Zhao Tingyang (趙汀陽/赵汀阳; Dio Teng-iang) (1961—; Shantou, Guangdong), famous Chinese philosophy researcher.
- Hong Kong
- Tan Soo Khoon (1949—; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Singapore), former Member of the Parliament of Singapore
- Lee Boon Yang, former Minister for Information, Communications and the Arts
- Yeo Cheow Tong, former Minister for Transport
- Teo Chee Hean, Deputy Prime Minister
- Low Thia Khiang, Secretary-General, Workers’ Party, Member of Parliament for Aljunied
- Yaw Shin Leong, Member of Parliament, Hougang
- Lim Swee Say, Cabinet Minister in Prime Minister's Office
- Lim Boon Heng, former Cabinet Minister
- Cynthia Phua, former Member of Parliament
- Baey Yam Keng, Member of Parliament, Tampines
- Seng Han Thong, Member of Parliament, Yio Chu Kang
- Lim Hng Khiang, Minister for Trade and Industry
- George Yeo, former Minister for Foreign Affairs (Singapore)
- Teo Ser Luck, Senior Parliamentary Secretary for the Ministry of Community Development, Youth and Sports and Ministry of Transport
- United States
- Mainland China
- Hong Kong
- Canti Lau (劉錫明/劉锡明; Liu Ximing; Liu Siahmêng) (1964—; Chaoyang, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor and singer
- Emil Chau (周華健/周华健; Zhou Huajian; Chiu Hua-giang) (1960—; Chaoyang, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor and singer
- Matthew Ko (高鈞賢/高钧贤; Gao Junxian; Gao Jao-ghao) (1984—; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), model
- Rocky Cheng (鄭健樂/郑健乐; Zheng Jianle; Dên Giangghaoh) (1968—; Chaoyang, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), fitness trainer
- Kwong Wah (江華/江华; Jiang Hua; Gang Hua) (1962—; Shantou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor and singer
- Miriam Yeung (楊千嬅/杨千桦; Yang Qianhua; Yêng Cainhua) (1974—; Jieyang, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actress and singer
- Sammi Cheng (鄭秀文/郑秀文; Zheng Xiuwen; Dên Siu-mung) (1972—; Chenghai, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actress and singer
- Hugo Ng (吳岱融/吴岱融; Wu Dairong; Ng Dodzong) (1959—; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Singapore), actor, director and singer
- Ada Choi (蔡少芬/蔡少芬; Cai Shaofen; Choi Siufun) (1973—; Chaoshan, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actress
- Steven Ma (馬浚偉/马浚伟; Ma FengWei; Maa Zeonwai) (1971—; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor and singer
- Stephen Wong Cheung-Hing (黃長興) (1978—; Shantou, Guangdong; born in Hong Kong), actor
- Zoe Tay (郑惠玉/鄭惠玉; Zhèng Huìyù; Jeng Wai Yuk) (1968-; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Singapore), actress
- Chen Shucheng (陈澍承）（“1949－；Chaoshan, Chaozhou; born in Singapore, actor
- Chen Liping(陈莉萍）（"1965-:Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Singapore, actress
- Celest Chong (1973—; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Singapore), singer and actress
- Stefanie Sun (孫燕姿/孙燕姿; Sun Yanzi; Sung Ince) (1978—; Chaozhou, Guangdong; born in Singapore), singer
- South Korea
- Limahong (林鳳/林凤; Lin Feng; Lim Hong), (15??-15??; Raoping, Chaozhou, Guangdong), famous pirate
- Heung Chin (1???-19??, Chaozhou, Guangdong), founder of one of the most powerful underground societies in Hong Kong and Mainland China — Sun Yee On Triad
- Le Van Vien (aka Bay Vien; Vien the seventh) (1904-1970; Chaoshan, Guangdong; born in Vietnam), leader of a powerful Vietnamese criminal organisation — Binh Xuyen Organisation
- ^ a b c Genetic background associated with related populations at high risk for esophageal cancer between Chaoshan and Taihang Mountain areas in China, ScienceDirect, 2007, pp. 474–480, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6WG1-4PCR1M8-1-8&_cdi=6809&_user=10&_orig=search&_coverDate=10/31/2007&_sk=999099995&view=c&wchp=dGLbVlW-zSkWz&md5=063042e949aa8a2b0718425935f77385&ie=/sdarticle.pdf
- ^ gaginang.org
- ^ 星破解漢人基因圖譜 南北華人基因差異微妙 Yahoo! News retrieved 2010-01-15
- ^ Kingsley Bolton, Christopher Hutton, Triad societies: western accounts of the history, sociology and linguistics of Chinese secret societies, pg 93.
- ^ Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan(2010). 潮州八邑会馆与義安公司的历史渊源. Retrieved 18 January 2010
- ^ Woopidoo. Lee Ka Shing Biography. Retrieved 21 January 2010
- ^ Lam, C. (1996). Eating in Hong Kong 1997. World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd.
- ^ De Borja, M. R. and Douglass, W. A. (2005). Basques in the Philippines. Las Vegas: University of Nevada Press.
- UC Berkeley Teo-Chew Association
- Gaginang, a teochew nonprofit organization
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