Corn syrup

Corn syrup
Corn syrup on a black surface

Corn syrup is a food syrup, which is made from the starch of maize and contains varying amounts of maltose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade. Corn syrup is used in foods to soften texture, add volume, prevent crystallization of sugar, and enhance flavor. Corn syrup is distinct from high-fructose corn syrup, which is created when corn syrup undergoes enzymatic processing, producing a sweeter compound that contains higher levels of fructose.

The more general term glucose syrup is often used synonymously with corn syrup, since glucose syrup is most commonly made from corn starch.[1] Technically, glucose syrup is any liquid starch hydrolysate of mono-, di-, and higher-saccharides and can be made from any source of starch; wheat, rice and potatoes are the most common sources.[2]

Contents

Commercial preparation

Corn syrup is produced from number 2 yellow dent corn.[3] When wet milled, about 2.3 litres of corn are required to yield an average of 947g of starch, to produce 1 kg of glucose or dextrose syrup. A bushel (25 kg) of corn will yield an average of 31.5 pounds (14.3 kg) of starch, which in turn will yield about 33.3 pounds (15.1 kg) of syrup. Thus, it takes about 2,300 litres of corn to produce a tonne of glucose syrup, or 60 bushels (1524 kg) of corn to produce one short ton.[4]

Formerly, corn syrup was produced by combining corn starch with dilute hydrochloric acid, and then heating the mixture under pressure. Currently, corn syrup is mainly produced by first adding the enzyme α-amylase to a mixture of corn starch and water. α-amylase is secreted by various species of the bacterium Bacillus; the enzyme is isolated from the liquid in which the bacteria are grown. The enzyme breaks the starch into oligosaccharides, which are then broken into glucose molecules by adding the enzyme glucoamylase, known also as "γ-amylase". Glucoamylase is secreted by various species of the fungus Aspergillus; the enzyme is isolated from the liquid in which the fungus is grown. The glucose can then be transformed into fructose by passing the glucose through a column that is loaded with the enzyme D-xylose isomerase, an enzyme that is isolated from the growth medium of any of several bacteria.[5][6]

The viscosity and sweetness of the syrup depends on the extent to which the hydrolysis reaction has been carried out. To distinguish different grades of syrup, they are rated according to their dextrose equivalent (DE).

Uses

Its major uses in commercially prepared foods are as a thickener, sweetener and humectant (an ingredient that retains moisture and thus maintains a food's freshness).[7]

In the United States, cane sugar quotas raise the price of sugar;[8] hence, domestically produced corn syrup and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) are less expensive alternatives that are often used in American-made processed and mass-produced foods, candies, soft drinks and fruit drinks to help control cost.[7]

Glucose syrup was the primary corn sweetener in the United States prior to the expanded use of HFCS production. HFCS is a variant in which other enzymes are used to convert some of the glucose into fructose. The resulting syrup is sweeter and more soluble. Corn syrup is also available as a retail product.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Sugar Association Alternative Carbohydrate Sweeteners". http://www.sugar.org/consumers/sweet_by_nature.asp?id=277. 
  2. ^ "International Starch Association Starch and Glucose Glossary". http://www.starch.dk/isi/starch/glosary.htm. 
  3. ^ "Dent corn" (Zea mays var. indentata) is so called because the tops of its kernels are slightly indented. See Merriam-Webster dictionary.
  4. ^ Trends in U.S. production and use of glucose syrup and dextrose, 1965-1990, and prospects for the future - U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service report [1]
  5. ^ "The use of enzymes in starch hydrolysis". http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/biology/enztech/starch.html. Retrieved January, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Enzymatic starch hydrolysis: background". http://www.bpe.wur.nl/UK/Research/Dissertations/Enzymatic+starch+hydrolysis/Enzymatic+starch+hydrolysis+background/. Retrieved January, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b Knehr, Elaine. "Carbohydrate Sweeteners". Virgo Publishing. http://www.foodproductdesign.com/articles/2005/05/carbohydrate-sweeteners.aspx. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  8. ^ "U.S. Sugar Import Program". USDA. http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/imports/ussugar.asp. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • corn syrup — syrup prepared from corn. [1900 05, Amer.] * * * Sweet syrup produced by breaking down (hydrolyzing) cornstarch (a product of corn). Corn syrup contains dextrins, maltose, and dextrose and is used in baked goods, jelly and jam, and candy. High… …   Universalium

  • corn syrup — ☆ corn syrup n. a syrup made from cornstarch: it is a mixture of dextrose, maltose, and dextrins …   English World dictionary

  • corn syrup — n [U] a very sweet thick liquid made from ↑corn, used in cooking …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • corn syrup — corn ,syrup noun uncount AMERICAN a thick sweet brown sticky liquid made from CORN, used in cooking …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • corn syrup — noun syrup prepared from corn (Freq. 1) • Hypernyms: ↑syrup, ↑sirup * * * noun [noncount] : a sweet, thick liquid made from corn (sense 1) * * * ˌcorn ˈsyrup f41 [corn syrup] …   Useful english dictionary

  • corn syrup — corn′ syr up n. coo syrup prepared from corn • Etymology: 1900–05, amer …   From formal English to slang

  • corn syrup — noun Date: 1903 a syrup containing dextrins, maltose, and dextrose that is obtained by partial hydrolysis of cornstarch …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • corn syrup — /kɔn ˈsɪrəp/ (say kawn siruhp) noun US syrup prepared from maize …   Australian-English dictionary

  • corn syrup — noun A sticky sweet liquid, consisting of sugars dissolved in water, produced from corn (maize). Used as a sweetener in cooking, especially in commercial kitchens but also in candy making …   Wiktionary

  • corn syrup — noun (U) a very sweet thick liquid made from maize, used in cooking …   Longman dictionary of contemporary English

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”