Scottish Government

Scottish Government
Scottish Government
Riaghaltas na h-Alba
Scottish Government logo.png
Logo of the Scottish Government
Government overview
Formed 1999
Jurisdiction Scotland
Headquarters St Andrew's House, Edinburgh, Scotland
Annual budget £29,266.8 million (2010/11)
Minister responsible The Rt Hon. Alex Salmond MSP, First Minister
Government executive Sir Peter Housden, Permanent Secretary

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The Scottish Government (Scottish Gaelic: Riaghaltas na h-Alba) is the executive arm of the devolved government of Scotland. It was established in 1999 as the Scottish Executive, from the extant Scottish Office, and the term Scottish Executive (or Administration) remains its legal name under the Scotland Act 1998.[1] Following the 2007 Scottish Parliament election, the term Executive was changed to Government by the Scottish National Party administration in 2007.[2] The Scotland Bill (2011) contains a clause which, if the Bill passes into law, will makes this change legal in statute.


Executive arm of government

The Scottish Government is responsible in Scotland for all issues that are not explicitly reserved to the United Kingdom Parliament at Westminster by Schedule 5 of the Scotland Act 1998; such devolved matters include NHS Scotland, education, justice and policing, rural affairs, economic development and transport.

The Scottish Government has the responsibility for an annual budget of more than £27 billion in the financial year 2005-2006, rising to more than £30 billion in 2007-2008.[3]

The Government is led by the First Minister. The Scottish Parliament nominates one of its Members to be appointed as First Minister by the Queen. He is assisted by various Cabinet Secretaries (Ministers) with individual portfolios and remits, who are appointed by him with the approval of Parliament. Junior Scottish Ministers are similarly appointed to assist Cabinet Secretaries in their work. The Scottish Law Officers, the Lord Advocate and Solicitor General can be appointed from outside the Parliament's membership, but are subject to its approval. The First Minister, the Cabinet Secretaries and the Scottish Law Officers are the Members of the Scottish Government. They are collectively known as the "Scottish Ministers".

The members of the Government have substantial influence over legislation in Scotland, putting forward the majority of Bills that are successful in becoming Acts of the Scottish Parliament.[4]

Since 2007, the Scottish Government has been formed by the Scottish National Party who are the largest party in the Scottish Parliament, although prior to 2011 they did not possess an overall majority. In the 2011 Scottish Parliament election, the Scottish National Party won the first overall majority in the history of the Scottish Parliament. The current First Minister is Alex Salmond.


The structure of the ministerial team used by the Scottish National Party (SNP) after their election victory in May 2007 differs from the previous Administration. The nomenclature of Cabinet Secretary has been introduced. The Cabinet Secretaries and junior Ministers are:[5][6][7]

Portfolio Minister
First Minister Rt Hon Alex Salmond MSP
Deputy First Minister
Cabinet Secretary for Health, Wellbeing and Cities Strategy
Nicola Sturgeon MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Finance, Employment and Sustainable Growth John Swinney MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Infrastructure and Capital Investment Alex Neil MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning Mike Russell MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Justice Kenny MacAskill MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Rural Affairs and the Environment Richard Lochhead MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Parliament and Government Strategy Bruce Crawford MSP
Cabinet Secretary for Culture and External Affairs Fiona Hyslop MSP
Minister for Energy, Enterprise and Tourism Fergus Ewing MSP
Minister for Local Government and Planning Aileen Campbell MSP
Minister for Housing and Transport Keith Brown MSP
Minister for Learning and Skills Alasdair Allan MSP
Minister for Children and Young People Angela Constance MSP
Minister for Public Health Michael Matheson MSP
Minister for Commonwealth Games and Sport Shona Robison MSP
Minister for Community Safety and Legal Affairs Roseanna Cunningham MSP
Minister for Parliamentary Business and Chief Whip Brian Adam MSP
Minister for Environment and Climate Change Stewart Stevenson MSP
Lord Advocate Frank Mulholland QC
Solicitor General for Scotland Lesley Thomson


St Andrew's House, on Calton Hill

The Scottish Cabinet normally meets weekly on Tuesday afternoons in Bute House, the official residence of the First Minister. It is the supreme collective decision-making body of the Scottish Government. The Cabinet consists of the Scottish Ministers (Cabinet Secretaries), excluding the Scottish Law Officers (the Lord Advocate and the Solicitor General). The Lord Advocate attends meetings of the Cabinet only when requested by the First Minister, and he is not formally a member.[8]

The Cabinet is supported by the Cabinet Secretariat, which is based at St Andrew's House.

Cabinet sub-committees

There are three sub-committees of Cabinet:[9]

  • Cabinet Sub-Committee on Legislation
    • Membership: the Deputy First Minister and Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing, the Minister for Parliamentary Business, and the Lord Advocate.
  • Scottish Government Resilience Room (SGoRR) Cabinet Sub-Committee
    • Membership: Cabinet Secretary for Justice (Chair), the Cabinet Secretary for Finance and Sustainable Growth, the Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing, the Cabinet Secretary for Rural Affairs and the Environment and the Lord Advocate.
  • Glasgow 2014 Legacy Plan Delivery Group
    • Membership: Deputy First Minister and Cabinet Secretary for Health and Wellbeing (Chair), Minister for Community Safety, Minister for Culture, External Affairs and the Constitution, Minister for Enterprise, Energy and Tourism, Minister for Environment, Minister for Housing and Communities, Minister for Public Health and Sport, Minister for Schools and Skills, and the Minister for Transport, Infrastructure and Climate Change.


The main headquarters building of the Scottish Government is St Andrew's House, on Calton Hill in Edinburgh. Some other Government departments are based at Victoria Quay in Leith, Pentland House in Gorgie, Saughton House on Broomhouse Drive and Atlantic Quay on Broomielaw, Glasgow. The Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service has its head offices, and the Lord Advocate's Chambers, at Chambers Street in central Edinburgh.

There are numerous other Edinburgh properties occupied by the Scottish Government. Security Branch is based in the old Governor's House on the site of the former Calton Gaol, next door to St Andrew's House on Regent Road. The Government Car Service for Scotland also has its Edinburgh offices on Bonnington Road, in Leith. Other offices are scattered around central Edinburgh, including Bute House on Charlotte Square, the official residence of the First Minister.

New St Andrew's House, behind Edinburgh's St. James' Centre, was once a large Scottish Office building, which was occupied from 1973 until 1997, when the last remaining staff moved to Victoria Quay.

The Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning Department is located in central Glasgow, and the Government has other offices across Scotland. The First Minister has use of the Scotland Office building, Dover House in Whitehall when necessary.[10]

The Scottish Government has a European Union representative office, located at Rond-Point Robert Schuman in Brussels, Belgium, which forms a part of the United Kingdom Permanent Representation to the European Union.[11] The Scottish Government also maintains an office within the British Embassy in Washington, DC, and has accredited representatives within the British Embassy in Beijing.

Civil Service

The term Scottish Government also denotes the civil service supporting Scottish Ministers. According to the most recent (2006) reports, there are 15,263 civil servants working in core Scottish Government departments and agencies.[12] The civil service is a matter reserved to the United Kingdom Parliament (rather than devolved to Holyrood): Scottish Government civil servants work within the rules and customs of the United Kingdom civil service, but "owe their loyalty to the devolved administration rather than the UK government".[13]

Permanent Secretary

The Permanent Secretary supports the First Minister and the Cabinet. The current incumbent is Sir Peter Housden who took over from Sir John Elvidge in July 2010, who in turn took over from Sir Muir Russell in 2003. Sir Peter Housden is the most senior civil servant in Scotland and heads the Strategic Board of the Scottish Government.

The Permanent Secretary is a member of the Home Civil Service, and therefore takes part in the Permanent Secretaries Management Group of the UK Civil Service[14] and is answerable to the most senior civil servant in the UK, the Cabinet Secretary, for his professional conduct. He remains, however, at the direction of the Scottish Ministers.


In December 2010, the Directorates of the Scottish Government were re-organised, each one being headed by a Director-General (DG) .

Supporting these directorates are a variety of other corporate service teams and professional groups.[15]

The Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service provides the independent public prosecution service for Scotland, and is a Ministerial Department of the Scottish Government. The department is headed by the Lord Advocate, who under the Scottish legal system is responsible for prosecution, along with the area Procurators fiscal.

Strategic Board

The Strategic Board is the 'top table' for the organisation. It consists of the Permanent Secretary along with the five Director-Generals, the Chief Scientific Officer, the Chief Economic Adviser and three non Executive Directors.[16] The Board is responsible for overseeing the achievement of the Government's five strategic objectives listed below.

Occupation Name
Permanent Secretary Sir Peter Housden
Director General Finance Alyson Stafford
Director General Learning and Justice Leslie Evans
Director General Enterprise and Environment Mike Neilson (Acting)
Director-General Health and Social Care and Chief Executive of NHS Scotland Derek Feeley (Acting)
Director-General Governance and Communities Paul Gray
Chief Scientific Officer Professor Anne Glover
Chief Economic Adviser Dr. Andrew Goudie
Non-Executive Director Professor William Bound
Non-Executive Director Sandy Begbie
Non-Executive Director Heather Logan[16]

In 2007, the Scottish Government set for itself an overall purpose:

"To focus Government and public services on creating a more successful country, with opportunities for all of Scotland to flourish, through increasing sustainable economic growth."

Each Director General leads the task on delivering one of the Government's strategic objectives, resulting from this purpose:

Wealthier and Fairer : "Enable businesses and people to increase their wealth and more people to share fairly in that wealth."
Healthier : "Help people to sustain and improve their health, especially in disadvantaged communities, ensuring better, local and faster access to health care."
Safer and Stronger : "Help local communities to flourish, becoming stronger, safer place to live, offering improved opportunities and a better quality of life."
Smarter : "Expand opportunities for Scots to succeed from nurture through to life long learning ensuring higher and more widely shared achievements."
Greener : "Improve Scotland's natural and built environment and the sustainable use and enjoyment of it."

Executive agencies

In order to deliver its work, there are 17 Executive Agencies established by Ministers as part of government departments, or as departments in their own right, to carry out a discrete area of work. These include, for example, the Scottish Prison Service and Transport Scotland. Executive agencies are staffed by civil servants.

There are two non-Ministerial departments that form part of the Scottish Administration, and therefore the devolved administration, but answer directly to the Scottish Parliament rather than to Ministers: these are the General Register Office for Scotland and the Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator.

Public bodies

The Scottish Government is also responsible for a large number of non-departmental public bodies. These include executive NDPBs (e.g. Scottish Enterprise); advisory NDPBs (e.g. the Scottish Law Commission); tribunals (e.g. the Children’s Panel and Additional Support Needs Tribunals for Scotland); and nationalised industries (e.g. Scottish Water). These are staffed by public servants, rather than civil servants.

The Scottish Government is also responsible for some other public bodies that are not classed as non-departmental public bodies, such as NHS Boards, Visiting Committees for Scottish Penal Establishments or HM Chief Inspector of Constabulary for Scotland.

Change of name

The Scottish Executive's original logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption. The logo was replaced in September 2007, with the name changed to "Scottish Government", and the Flag of Scotland used instead of the Royal Arms.

In January 2001, the then First Minister Henry McLeish suggested changing the official name of the executive arm from "Scottish Executive" to "Scottish Government". The reaction from the UK Government and from some Labour Party members and Scottish Labour MPs was allegedly hostile.[17] This reaction was in contrast to a 2001 public survey by then-Labour chief whip Tom McCabe, which showed that only 29% of the Scottish public wanted the title Scottish Executive to remain.[18]

Scottish politicians, including the Labour First Minister, had often referred to the Executive as the "government" and this trend increased following the 2007 election, when politicians from throughout the political spectrum referred to the new administration as the "Scottish government". On 2 September 2007, the government announced that the Scottish Executive was to be re-branded as the "Scottish Government".

The renaming was decided unilaterally by the minority government; as a consequence, the SNP was criticised by the three Unionist opposition parties for acting without allowing for parliamentary scrutiny, debate or approval of their plan. However, the term "Scottish Government" has become common usage by all such parties.[19]

"Scottish Executive" remains the legal name according to the wording of section 44(1) of the Scotland Act 1998.[18] Neither the Scottish Executive nor the Scottish Parliament are able to change the legal name by themselves, as this will require the UK Parliament to pass an amendment to the Scotland Act. Clause 15 of the Scotland Bill 2010-11 will, if passed, formally change the name of the Executive to the "Scottish Government".[20]

The UK Government has, in the vast majority of cases, adopted the new term of "Government",[21] while in some cases using the phrase "Scottish Administration".[22] The official Gaelic title, "Riaghaltas na h-Alba" has always meant "Government of Scotland".

At the same time that the Scottish Government began to use its new name, a new emblem was adopted. The earlier version featured the old name and a version of the Royal Arms for Scotland, but without the motto, the helm, the mantling, the crest, the war-cry above the crest, or the flags of Scotland and England carried by the supporters. In the rendering used, both supporters appeared to be crowned with the Crown of Scotland, whereas in the Royal Arms, the Scottish unicorn is usually shown crowned with the Scottish Crown, and the English lion with St Edward's Crown.

In the September 2007 rebranding, this depiction of the Royal Arms was replaced by one of the Flag of Scotland. However, the Royal Arms are still used by the Government for some official documents, such as directions issued in exercise of powers provided by legislation.[23]

See also


  1. ^ Section 44 of the Scotland Act 1998 retrieved from the Statute Law Database
  2. ^ Scottish Executive renames itself, BBC News, 3 September 2007.
  3. ^ The Scottish Government,
  4. ^
  5. ^ FM nominates his cabinet, Scottish Executive, 16 May 2007
  6. ^ Changes to Scottish Government, Scottish Government, 10 February 2009
  7. ^ Keith Brown named new Scottish transport minister, BBC news, 12 December 2010
  8. ^ Scottish Cabinet-related Information, Scottish Government web site
  9. ^ [1] Scottish Cabinet Current Cabinet Sub-Committees, Scottish Government web site
  10. ^
  11. ^ [2] Scottish Government EU Office, UKRep web site
  12. ^
  13. ^ FAQ,
  14. ^ [3] Civil Service. PSMG Membership.
  15. ^ "Directorates" Scottish Government. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  16. ^ a b "Strategic Board" Scottish Government. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
  17. ^ Britten, Nick (2001-06-19). "Fury at bid to rename Scottish Executive". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2008-07-03. "Henry McLeish, the First Minister, threatened to set himself on a collision course with Tony Blair by wanting to rename the Executive the Scottish Government. The proposal caused an immediate split in Labour ranks and left McLeish facing allegations of arrogance and over-ambition. Scotland Office minister Brian Wilson said that the First Minister should think carefully about using the term "Government". He said: "Maybe they should take time to look at how other countries with two tiers of government handle this. Nobody in Germany has any difficulty distinguishing between the government and the devolved administrations."" 
  18. ^ a b "Scottish Executive renames itself". BBC News ( 2007-09-03. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  19. ^ [4] Scottish Parliament. Official Report. 25th February 2010
  20. ^ "Scotland Act 2010-11". Bills before Parliament. Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 28 February 2011. 
  21. ^ [5] About the Scotland Office, Scotland Office web site.
  22. ^ [6] Hansard. HC Deb 3 Feb 2010
  23. ^ [7] Accountant in Bankruptcy Annual Report 2009: Direction by the Scottish Ministers, p.61.

External links

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