Libyan Armed Forces

Libyan Armed Forces
Libyan Armed Forces
Founded 1951
Current form 2011
Service branches Libyan Army
Libyan Air Force
Libyan Navy
Headquarters Tripoli
Commander-in-Chief unclear
Active personnel unclear
Budget $1.90 billion (2008 est)
Percent of GDP 1.9% (2008 est)
Foreign suppliers Arms embargo in effect.
Related articles
History Military history of Libya
Six-Day War
1969 Coup d'etat
Yom Kippur War
Libyan-Egyptian War
Uganda-Tanzania War
Chadian–Libyan conflict
Gulf of Sidra incidents
Invasion of Anjouan
2011 Libyan civil war
Libya (orthographic projection).svg

The Libyan Armed Forces constituted the state defence organisation of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (1977–2011). As of early September 2011, with the overall victory by the rebels in the 2011 Libyan civil war, the Gaddafi-era armed forces have fragmented, and the existing rebel fighting forces have not coalesced into coherent national armed forces. Major General Suleiman Mahmoud al-Obeidi was named interim chief of staff of the rebellion's armed forces in mid July 2011, so is in theory the new government's senior military officer. As of early September 2011, he maintains a separate force from Abdelhakim Belhadj, the head of the Tripoli Military Council, though the two men are reportedly working to integrate the forces in western Libya into a cohesive military under the aegis of the National Transitional Council.[1]

Previously, the Gaddafi-era armed forces consisted of the Libyan Army, Libyan Air Force and the Libyan Navy with other services which include the People's Militia. In the leadup to or during the Libyan civil war, the total number of Libyan personnel was estimated at 76,000 [2] though the 2011 Libyan civil war wore the military's numbers away. There was no separate defence ministry; all defence activities were centralised under Gaddafi. There was a High Command of the Armed Forces (al-Qiyada al-ulya lil-quwwat al-musallaha).[3] Arms production is limited and manufacturers are state-owned.[4] Colonel Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr was the last minister of defence of the Gaddafi-era military.[citation needed]


Origins and history 1945–69

The roots of the contemporary Libyan armed forces can be traced to the Libyan Arab Force (popularly known as the Sanusi Army) of World War II.[5] Shortly after Italy entered the war, a number of Libyan leaders living in exile in Egypt called on their compatriots to organise themselves into military units and join the British in the war against the Axis powers. Five battalions, which were initially designed for guerrilla warfare in the Jabal al Akhdar region of Cyrenaica, were established under British command. Because the high mobility of the desert campaigns required a considerable degree of technical and mechanical expertise, the Libyan forces were used primarily as auxiliaries, guarding military installations and prisoners. One battalion, however, participated in the fighting at Tobruk.

After Britain succeeded in occupying the Libyan territories, the need for the British-trained and equipped Sanusi troops appeared to be over. The Sanusi Army was reluctant to disband, however, and the majority of its members arranged to be transferred to the local police force in Cyrenaica under the British military administration. When Libya gained its independence in 1951, veterans of the original Sanusi Army formed the nucleus of the Royal Libyan Army. British Army troops, part of Middle East Command and comprising 25th Armoured Brigade and briefly 10th Armoured Division, were still present after independence and stayed in Libya until at least 1957. Despite the Sanussi linage of the new army, King Idris I quickly came to distrust them.[6] The Free Officers' coup of 1952 in Egypt led many Libyan officers to be disenchanted with Idris and become great followers of Gamal Abdel Nasser. This situation reached the stage that the British Army officers retained by Idris to train and advise the new armed forces deemed the force entirely untrustworthy. They increasingly saw their role as to watch the army rather than to raise its effectiveness.

Meanwhile Idris formed a navy in 1962 and an air force in 1963. He attempted to counter his growing doubts about the loyalty of the army by stripping it of potential.[6] He placed loyal but often unqualified Cyrenaicans in all senior command positions, limited the armed forces to 6,500 men, kept the army lightly armed, and built up two rival paramilitary units, the National Security Force and the Cyrenaican Defence Force which was recruited from Cyrenaican Bedouin loyal to the Sanussi.[7] Together the two forces had a total of 14,000 men armed with helicopters, armoured cars, anti-tank weapons, and artillery.

These measures did not prevent, however, a group of army officers led by then Captain Muammar al-Gaddafi (a signals officer) seizing power on 1 September 1969. Pollack says that the defeat of the Arabs during the Six Day War of July 1967 was an important factor in the coup, as the officers believed that Libya should have dispatched forces to aid Egypt and the other Arab states. Idris had also tried to reform the military, but only half-heartedly, further frustrating young Libyan officers. Immediately after the coup, Gaddafi began to dismiss, arrest, or execute every officer above the rank of colonel in the armed forces, as well as some other lower-ranking officers closely linked to the monarchy. Then he began to reorganise the armed forces in line with his foreign policy plans.[8] Expansion of the army and amalgamation of the CDF and NSF into the army was the first priority, and by 1970 the force numbered nearly 20,000. Attention was also focused on the Air Force, with the pre-coup strength of 400 personnel and ten Northrop F-5 'Freedom Fighter' jet fighters planned to be supplemented with large-scale purchases of Mirage III fighters from France.


In 2009, before the fall of Colonel Gaddafi, the Libyan Army consisted of 25,000 volunteers with an additional 25,000 conscripts (total 50,000). At that time, the army was organised into 11 Border Defence and 4 Security Zones, one regime security brigade, 10 Tank Battalions, 10 Mechanized Infantry Battalions, 18 Infantry Battalions, 6 Commando Battalions, 22 Artillery Battalions, 4 SSM Brigade and 7 Air Defence Artillery Battalions.[9] Khamis Gaddafi's 32nd Brigade was one of the main regime protection forces. The 'Khamis Brigade' was considered by US diplomats in 2009 as the most capable of defending the regime.[10] In addition, the Revolutionary Guard Corps also served as a brigade-sized protection force for Gaddafi. In 2009, it emerged that a British Special Air Service team were training Libyan special forces.[11] Under Gaddafi, conscription was listed as 18 months.

In addition, seven military regions had been listed in various sources as part of the Gaddafi-era military. These regions appear to have included the Western Military Region (Tripoli), the Middle Military Region (Sirte), the Eastern Military Region (Tobruk), the Mountain Military Region (Gharyan), and regions headquartered at Kufra and Benghazi.[12] The final military region appears to have been the Southern Military Region headquartered at Sabha in the southeast.[13]

Though the Libyan army has a large amount of fighting equipment at its disposal, the vast majority was bought from the Soviet Union in the 1970s and 1980s and is largely obsolete. A high percentage remains in storage and a large amount of equipment has also been sold to various African countries. No major purchases of equipment have been made in recent years largely due to the decline of the economy and military sanctions experienced throughout the 1990s. This and various other internal factors has seriously decayed the strength of the whole of the Libyan Armed Forces over the years and it has lagged behind its major neighbors in terms of its military capabilities and real war fighting capability.

Libyan Air Defence missiles.

Libya dispatched a contingent to the Arab Deterrent Force in Lebanon in 1976 as the Lebanese Civil War escalated.[14] In the spring of 1979, after the Arab League had extended the mandate of the Arab Deterrent Force, the Sudanese, the Saudis and the UAE troops departed Lebanon, the Libyan troops were essentially abandoned and had to find their own way home, if at all.

From the late 1970s to around 1987, the armed forces were involved in the Chadian-Libyan conflict with four major incursions into Chad. The Libyan Army suffered great losses in these conflicts, especially that of the Toyota War of 1987, largely due to poor tactics and western aid to Chad. All of these incursions were eventually repulsed and Libya no longer occupies Chad.


The Libyan ground forces have a large amount of mostly Soviet equipment in service. These numbers do not take into account equipment destroyed or captured during the 2011 Libyan civil war.

The IISS estimated tank numbers in 2009 as 2,025:

  • T-55 - 500; 1,040 T-54/T-55 in store;
  • T-62 - 100; 70 in store;
  • T-72 - 150; 115 in store.

Russian official sources reported in 2010 that T-72s would be modernised with help from Russia.[15] 750 BTR-50 and BTR-60s were also reported by the IISS.

The IISS estimated there were 50 BRDM-2 and 70 EE-9 Cascavel reconnaissance vehicles, 1,000 BMP-1s, plus BMDs.[16] Other reported wheeled vehicles in service include 100 EE-11 Urutu and Czechoslovak OT-64 SKOT.[17]

The IISS estimated artillery in service in 2009 as totaling 2,421 pieces.

444 SP artillery pieces were reported:

647+ towed artillery pieces were reported:

830 Multiple rocket launchers were reported:

The IISS also estimated that Libya had 500 mortars:

  • 82mm – 428;
  • 120mm – ε48 M-43;
  • 160mm – ε24 M-160.

Surface to Surface Missiles reported in service include FROG-7 and SCUD-B, (416 missiles).

Anti Tank missiles reported in service include 400 French/German MILAN, and 620+ AT-3, AT-4, and AT-5, all of Soviet manufacture.

In 2009 the IISS estimated that Libya had Crotale, SA-7 Grail, SA-9/SA-13 surface to air missiles, and AA guns in Army service. A separate Air Defence Command has SA-2, SA-3, SA-5 Gammon, and SA-8b Gecko, plus guns.

Reported anti aircraft artillery includes Soviet 57 mm S-60, 23 mm self-propelled ZSU-23-4 and ZU-23-2, Czech M53/59 Praga, and Swedish Bofors 40mm guns.

Small arms reported in service include TT pistol, Browning Hi-Power, Beretta M12, FN P90, FN FAL, SKS, AK-47, AKM and AK-103 assault rifles, the FN F2000, Soviet RPD machine gun, RPK machine gun, PK machine guns, DShK heavy machine gun, KPV heavy machine guns, SG-43 Goryunov, and a number of RPG type and anti-aircraft missile systems: RPG-2, RPG-7, 9K32 Strela-2.

Air & Air Defence Forces

Libyan Su-22 fighter-bomber, 1985.

The Libyan Air Force was created after the US and UK pressured then-ruling King Idris to modernise his armed forces so that they could better stand off against revolutionary regimes in the Middle East. The LAF was created in 1963.[6] The Libyan Air Force had an estimated personnel strength of 22,000 in 2005. There are 13 military airbases in Libya.[18]

After US forces had left Libya in 1970, Wheelus Air Base, a previous US facility about seven miles from Tripoli, became a Libyan Air Force installation and was renamed Okba Ben Nafi Air Base. OBN AB housed the LPAF's headquarters and a large share of its major training facilities.

All combat aircraft of the Libyan air force that were not in the rebel forces hands were destroyed by NATO bombing during the civil war, effectively leading to the destruction of the Libyan air force.[19]

Jets & Bombers

Combat Aircraft's May 2011 issue included an article covering the air elements of the Libyan civil war.

The Libyan Air Defence Force is part of the Air Force and has the second largest defence network in region (second to Egypt). However the equipment – which is mainly Soviet weaponry from the 1960s and 1970s – is outdated and during the 1986 bombing of Libya by the US air force it proved inefficient. Only one of the 45 attacking US aircraft was shot down. Due to an embargo during the 1980s the system could not be upgraded following the US attack.[20]

Surface-to-Air Missiles include:


Libyan frigate Al Ghardabia in Valletta, 2005.

The Libyan Navy is the maritime force of Libya, established in November 1962. It is a fairly typical small navy with a few missile frigates, corvettes and patrol boats to defend the coastline, but with a very limited self-defence capability. The Navy has always been the smallest of Libya's services and has always been dependent on foreign sources for equipment, spare parts, and training. The total personnel of the Libyan Navy is about 8,000.

Its first warship was delivered in 1966. Initially the effective force was limited to smaller vessels, but this changed after the rise of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi in 1969. From this time, Libya started to buy armaments from Europe and the Soviet Union. The Customs and Harbour police were amalgamated with the Navy in 1970, extending the Navy's mission to include anti-smuggling and customs duties. Originally Libya received six submarines from the Soviet union in 1982, but it is very unlikely that the submarines are still operational.

Much of the Libyan Navy was rendered inoperable by NATO bombing in 2011,[21] and the exact number of surviving vessels is unknown.

Paramilitary forces

Pan-African Legion

In about 1980, Muammar Gaddafi introduced the Islamic Pan-African Legion, a body of mercenaries recruited primarily among dissidents from Sudan, Egypt, Tunisia, Mali, and Chad. West African states with Muslim populations have also been the source of some personnel. Believed to consist of about 7,000 individuals, the force has received training from experienced Palestinian and Syrian instructors. Some of those recruited to the legion were said to have been forcibly impressed from among nationals of neighboring countries who migrated to Libya in search of work.[citation needed]

According to the Military Balance published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the force was organized into one armored, one infantry, and one paratroop/commando brigade. It has been supplied with T-54 and T-55 tanks, armored personnel carriers, and EE-9 armored cars. The Islamic Pan-African Legion was reported to have been committed during the fighting in Chad in 1980 and was praised by Gaddafi for its success there. However, it was believed that many of the troops who fled the Chadian attacks of March 1987 were members of the Legion.[22]

Islamic Arab Legion

In an effort to realize Gaddafi's vision of a united Arab military force, plans for the creation of an Islamic Arab Legion have been announced from time to time. The goal, according to the Libyan press, would be to assemble an army of one million men and women fighters to prepare for the great Arab battle – “the battle of liberating Palestine, of toppling the reactionary regimes, of annihilating the borders, gates, and barriers between the countries of the Arab homeland, and of creating the single Arab Jamahiriya from the ocean to the gulf”. In March 1985, it was announced that the National Command of the Revolutionary Forces Command in the Arab Nation had been formed with Gaddafi at its head. A number of smaller radical Arab groups from Lebanon, Tunisia, Sudan, Iraq, the Persian Gulf states, and Jordan were represented at the inaugural meeting. Syrian Baath Party and radical Palestinian factions were also present. Each of these movements was expected to earmark 10 percent of its forces for service under the new command. As of April 1987, there was no information confirming the existence of such a militia.[22]

People’s Militia

The mission of the 45,000 People's Militia was territorial defence, and it was to function under the leadership of local military commanders. Gaddafi contended that it was the People's Militia that met the Egyptian incursions during the border clash of 1977, although the Egyptians insisted that their successful raids had been contested by regular army units. The militia forces are not known to have faced any other test that would permit an appraisal of their performance in home defence or as auxiliaries to the regular army. There was some evidence that local commanders had not responded energetically to their responsibility for training and supervising militia units. Militia units reportedly were generously equipped with arms, transport, and uniforms. In November 1985, it was announced that the first contingent of "armed people" trained as paratroopers had made a demonstration drop.[23]

The information above about the People's Militia is dated circa 1987; it is not clear whether the force still exists in 2011.

Uniforms, ranks, and insignia

When the army and navy were formed, the uniforms adopted by each service reflected British military and naval tradition. Modifications have occurred over the intervening years, however, and in early 1987 Libyan uniforms were similar to those worn by military personnel of a number of Middle Eastern Arab countries. The standard field uniform for Libyan paratroopers (Army commandos) is a two-piece camouflage uniform made of water repellent cotton. The shirt is similar in design to the United States Army fatigue shirt. The shirt and trousers are camouflaged in blue-green, light green, and dark brown. The standard headgear for paratroopers is a sky-blue beret. The uniforms of the air force, however, continued to resemble in both style and color the uniforms of the United States Air Force, which served as a model when the Libyan Air Force was established.[24]

Originally the rank structure of all three services was similar to that of the British Armed Forces, but some modifications were introduced in light of the small size of the Libyan military establishment. In early 1979, the system prescribed by law still included nine officer grades and five enlisted ranks; there were no warrant officer equivalents. Although three general officer grades continued to be authorized, they have not been used since the 1969 coup. Promoted to the grade of colonel (aqid) after assuming power, Gaddafi has maintained a ceiling on the grade level of his officers corps in keeping with his desire to avoid the ostentatious public image the generals of the monarchy had conveyed. In January 1976, the Arab Socialist Union's National Congress attempted to promote Gaddafi to major general. The Libyan leader stated that he would accept the honor as an expression of gratitude from his compatriots but would retain the title of colonel because it had become an accepted and traditional part of his name.[24]

See also

Forces of the 2011 Libyan civil war:


 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.

  1. ^ Flintoff, Corey (September 8, 2011). "Libyan Rebels Vie For Key Posts In Tripoli". National Public Radio. Retrieved 8 October 2011. 
  2. ^ RIAN/RIA Novosti, [1], 2011
  3. ^ Hanspeter Mattes, Challenges to Security Sector Governance in the Middle East: The Libyan Case, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, 2004 (, p.13
  4. ^ . Libya Defence & Security Report. United Nations. pp. p56–61. ISSN 1749-1517. 
  5. ^ Library of Congress Country Studies: Libya
  6. ^ a b c Pollack, 2002, p.359
  7. ^ In 1952 the CDF had 600 personnel organised as a personal bodyguard for the Emir. By 1969 the force had 6,000 personnel, organised into battalions., accessed June 2011.
  8. ^ Pollack, 2002, p.360
  9. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2009, p.256
  10. ^ Wikileaks,, United States diplomatic cables leak
  11. ^ BBC
  12. ^ Jane's World Armies, March 2011
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ IISS 2009
  17. ^ Middle East Military Balance, (2005), "Libyan Military", Libya, Accessed April 24, 2007
  18. ^ Middle East Military Balance: Libya
  19. ^
  20. ^ Sean O'Connor (May 11, 2010). "The Libyan SAM Network". Retrieved 11 March 2011. 
  21. ^
  22. ^ a b Library of Congress Country Study, Other Paramilitary Forces, 1988
  23. ^
  24. ^ a b Library of Congress Country Study, 1988, Uniforms, Ranks, and Insignia of the Armed Forces

Further reading

  • Global Security Article on Libya
  • Derek Lutterbeck, 'Arming Libya: Transfers of Conventional Weapons Past and Present,' Contemporary Security Policy, 30:3 (December 2009), pp 505–528, online published 30 November 2009
  • Kenneth M. Pollack, Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness 1948–91, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 2002, ISBN 0-8032-3733-2
  • Mansour O. El-Kikhia’s Libya’s Qaddafi: The Politics of Contradiction, pub 1997, ISBN 9780813014883, ISBN 0813014883

External links

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