- Megas doux
The megas doux (Greek: μέγας δούξ; English: grand duke) was one of the highest positions in the hierarchy of the later Byzantine Empire, denoting the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine navy. It is sometimes also given by the half-Latinizations megaduke or megadux (from Greek μεγαδούξ). The Greek word δούξ is the hellenized form of the Latin term dux, meaning leader or commander.
History and functions
The office was initially created by Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118), who reformed the derelict Byzantine navy and amalgamated the remnants of its various provincial squadrons into a unified force under the megas doux. The Emperor's brother-in-law John Doukas is usually considered to have been the first to hold the title, being raised to it in 1092, when he was tasked with suppressing the Turkish emir Tzachas. There is however a document dated to December 1085, where a monk Niketas signs as supervisor of the estates of an unnamed megas doux. The office of "doux of the fleet" (δούξ τοῦ στόλου), with similar responsibilities and hence perhaps a precursor of the office of megas doux, is also mentioned at the time, being given ca. 1086 to Manuel Boutoumites and in 1090 to Constantine Dalassenos.
John Doukas, the first known megas doux, led campaigns on both land and sea and was responsible for the re-establishment of firm Byzantine control over the Aegean and the islands of Crete and Cyprus in the years 1092–1093 and over western Anatolia in 1097. From this time the megas doux was also given overall control of the provinces of Hellas, the Peloponnese and Crete, which chiefly provided the manpower and resources for the fleet. However, since the megas doux was one of the Empire's senior officials, and mostly involved with the central government and various military campaigns, de factο governance of these provinces rested with the local praitōr and the various local leaders. During the 12th century, the post was dominated by the Kontostephanos family; one of its members, the megas doux Andronikos Kontostephanos was one of the most important officers of Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (r. 1143–1180), assisting him in achieving many land and naval victories.
With the virtual disappearance of the Byzantine fleet after the Fourth Crusade, the title was retained as an honorific in the Empire of Nicaea, where Michael VIII Palaiologos (r. 1259–1282) assumed the title when he became regent for John IV Laskaris (r. 1258–1261). It was also used by the Latin Empire: in 1207 the Latin emperor awarded the island of Lemnos and the hereditary title of megadux to the Venetian Filocalo Navigajoso ("imperiali privilegio Imperii Megaducha est effectus"). His descendants inherited the title and the rule of Lemnos until evicted by the Byzantines in 1278.
After the recovery of Constantinople in 1261, it reverted to its old function as commander-in-chief of the navy, and remained a high rank for the remainder of the empire, its holder ranking sixth after the emperor, between the prōtovestiarios and the prōtostratōr. As such, it was also sometimes conferred upon foreigners in imperial service, the most notable among these being the Italian Licario, who recovered many Aegean islands for Emperor Michael VIII, and Roger de Flor, head of the Catalan Company. After the mid-14th century, the office was sometimes held together with the office of mesazōn, the chief of the imperial secretariat. In this capacity, Alexios Apokaukos served as one of the leading members of the imperial government during the Civil War of 1341–1347, supporting John V Palaiologos (r. 1341–1391) against John VI Kantakouzenos (r. 1347–1354). The last and perhaps most famous megas doux and mesazōn was Loukas Notaras, who served under Constantine XI Palaiologos (r. 1449–1453) until the Fall of Constantinople.
List of known holders
Name Tenure Emperor(s) Notes Refs John Doukas 1092 – unknown Alexios I Komnenos Brother-in-law of Alexios I, previously governor of Dyrrhachium  Landulf 1099–1105 Alexios I Komnenos Admiral of Western origin  Isaac Kontostephanos 1105–1108 Alexios I Komnenos Dismissed for his incompetence in the wars against Bohemond  Marianos Maurokatakalon 1108 – unknown Alexios I Komnenos Successor of Isaac Konstostephanos  Eumathios Philokales after 1112 – after 1118 Alexios I Komnenos previously judicial official in Greece and long-time governor of Cyprus  Constantine Opos Unknown Alexios I Komnenos Distinguished general in the campaigns against the Turks  Leo Nikerites Unknown Alexios I Komnenos Eunuch, previously governor in Bulgaria and the Peloponnese  Nikephoros Vatatzes Unknown Alexios I Komnenos (?) Known only through a seal, possibly dating to the reign of Alexios I  Stephen Kontostephanos ca. 1145 (?) – 1149 Manuel I Komnenos Brother-in-law of Manuel I, was killed in office in 1149  Alexios Komnenos ca. 1155 – after 1161 Manuel I Komnenos Son of Anna Komnene and Nikephoros Bryennios the Younger  Andronikos Kontostephanos after 1161 – 1182 Manuel I Komnenos Manuel's nephew, he was the emperor's most trusted and distinguished general. Blinded by Andronikos I Komnenos in 1182  John Komnenos Unknown Manuel I Komnenos First cousin of Manuel I, son of the sebastokrator Andronikos Komnenos. He fell at Myriokephalon in 1176  Constantine Angelos Unknown Isaac II Angelos Afterwards governor of Philippopolis, he led an unsuccessful usurpation attempt  Michael Stryphnos ca. 1195 – after 1201/1202 Alexios III Angelos A favourite of Alexios III. He reportedly sold off the fleet's equipment to enrich himself  Theodotos Phokas ca. 1210 Theodore I Laskaris Uncle of Theodore I, emperor of Nicaea, known only from a monastic property deed dating to between 1206 and 1212  Michael Palaiologos 1258 John IV Laskaris The future Michael VIII, he assumed the office after the murder of George Mouzalon, when he was named regent for the young John IV. He was soon after raised to despotes and eventually to emperor.  Michael Laskaris 1259 – ca. 1272 Michael VIII Palaiologos Brother of Theodore I, due to his advanced age he never held actual command of the fleet. He held the office until his death  Alexios Doukas Philanthropenos ca. 1272 – ca. 1275 Michael VIII Palaiologos Previously protostrator and de facto commander of the fleet since ca. 1263. Held the office of megas doux until his death  Licario ca. 1275 – unknown Michael VIII Palaiologos Italian renegade who entered Byzantine service, he conquered Negroponte and many of the Aegean islands  Roger de Flor 1303–1304 Andronikos II Palaiologos Leader of the mercenary Catalan Company. He resigned his post in late 1304 favour of his lieutenant, Berenguer de Entença, and was murdered a few months later  Berenguer de Entença 1304–1305 Andronikos II Palaiologos Roger de Flor's lieutenant and successor as leader of the mercenary Catalan Company. He resigned his office after disagreeing with the emperor  Fernand Ximenes de Arenos 1307/1308 – unknown Andronikos II Palaiologos One of the leaders of the Catalan Company, he was named megas doux defected to the Byzantines  Syrgiannes Palaiologos 1321–1322 Andronikos II Palaiologos One of the main partisans of the young Andronikos III Palaiologos in the Byzantine civil war of 1321–1328, he defected to the aged Andronikos II, who rewarded him with the office of megas doux. After plotting against him as well, he was imprisoned.  Isaac Asanes unknown – 1341 Andronikos III Palaiologos Replaced in office by Alexios Apokaukos  Alexios Apokaukos 1341–1345 Andronikos III Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
A former partisan and protégé of John Kantakouzenos, Apokaukos was instrumental in the outbreak of the Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347, and until his murder in 1345 led the anti-Kantakouzenist regency for John V  Asomatianos Tzamplakon ca. 1348 John VI Kantakouzenos Head of the fleet during the Byzantine–Genoese War of 1348–1349. He died some time before 1356  [Paul?] Mamonas early 15th century Manuel II Palaiologos The Mamonas family were hereditary rulers of Monemvasia  Manuel unknown – 1410 Manuel II Palaiologos Mentioned only in an anonymous chronicle as dying of an epidemic in 1410  Paraspondelos ca. 1437 John VIII Palaiologos Known only as the father-in-law of Demetrios Palaiologos  Loukas Notaras after 1441 – 1453 John VIII Palaiologos
Constantine XI Palaiologos
Notaras served both John VIII and Constantine XI as chief minister, and was executed by the Ottomans after the Fall of Constantinople 
In the famous 1490 Valencian epic romance Tirant lo Blanc, the valiant knight Tirant the White from Brittany gets to Constantinople and becomes a Byzantine megadux. This story has no basis in actual history, though it might have been inspired by the above-mentioned cases of the office being conferred upon foreigners.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Kazhdan (1991), p. 1330
- ^ Polemis (1968), p. 67; Skoulatos (1980), p. 147
- ^ Skoulatos (1980), pp. 61, 181
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- ^ Angold (1997), p. 151
- ^ Magdalino (2002), p. 234
- ^ Bartusis (1997), p. 274
- ^ Bartusis (1997), p. 381
- ^ Bartusis (1997), p. 60
- ^ a b c Guilland (1967), p. 543
- ^ Skoulatos (1980), pp. 169–171
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- ^ Skoulatos (1980), pp. 186–187
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- ^ a b Guilland (1967), p. 545
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- ^ Nicol (1993), p. 131
- ^ a b c d e Guilland (1967), p. 550
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- ^ Kazhdan (1991), p. 1997
- ^ Nicol (1993), pp. 157–158
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- ^ Nicol (1993), p. 223
- ^ a b c d Guilland (1967), p. 551
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