- Latin Empire
Infobox Former Country
native_name = aut| Romania
conventional_long_name = Latin Empire of Constantinople
common_name = Latin Empire|
continent = Europe
region = Balkans
country = Greece
era = High Middle Ages
government_type = Monarchy|
year_start = 1204
year_end = 1261|
p1 = Byzantine Empire
flag_p1 = Flag_of_PalaeologusEmperor.svg
s1 = Byzantium under the Palaiologoi
flag_s1 = Flag_of_PalaeologusEmperor.svg|
symbol_type = Arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople
image_map_caption = The Latin Empire with its vassals and the Greek successor states after the partition of the Byzantine Empire, c. 1204. The borders are very uncertain.|
Latin, Old French(official)
religion = Roman Catholic (official)
Greek Orthodox (popular)|
leader1 = Baldwin I
leader2 = Henry
leader3 = Yolanda (regent)
leader4 = Robert I
John of Brienne(regent)
leader6 = Baldwin II
year_leader1 = 1204–1205
year_leader2 = 1206–1216
year_leader3 = 1217–1219
year_leader4 = 1219–1228
year_leader5 = 1228–1237
year_leader6 = 1237–1261
title_leader = EmperorThe Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople (original Latin name: "Imperium Romaniae", "Empire of Romania") is the name given by historians to the
Crusader statefounded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusadeon lands captured from the Byzantine Empireafter their sack of Constantinoplein 1204 and ended in 1261. The Empire was intended to supplant the Byzantine Empire as titular successor to the Roman Empirein the east, with a Western Catholic emperor enthroned in place of the Orthodox Byzantine Greeks. Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders, was crowned Emperor as Baldwin I on 16 May, 1204. The Latin Empire however failed to assert its authority over the other Latin states established in Greece, especially Venice, and was weakened by constant warfare with the Bulgarians and the Greek successor states, eventually falling to the Empire of Nicaeaunder Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologosin 1261. The last emperor, Baldwin II, went into exile, and the imperial title survived, with several claimants to it, until the 14th century.
Creation of the Latin Empire
By arrangement among the crusaders, Byzantine territory was divided: in the "Partitio terrarum imperii Romanie", signed on
1 October 1204, three eighths - including Creteand other islands - went to the Republic of Venice. The Latin Empire claimed the remainder, and did exert control over areas of Greece, divided into vassal fiefs: the Kingdom of Thessalonica, the Principality of Achaea, the Duchy of Athens, the Duchy of the Archipelagoand the short-lived duchies of Nicaea, Philippopolis, and Philadelphia. The Doge of Venicedid not rank as a vassal to the Empire, but his position in control of 3/8 of its territory and of parts of Constantinople itself, ensured Venice's influence in the Empire's affairs. However, much of the former Byzantine territory remained in the hands of rival successor states led by Byzantine Greek aristocrats, such as the Despotate of Epirus, the Empire of Nicaea, and the Empire of Trebizond, which were bent on reconquest from the Latins.
The crowning of Baldwin and the creation of the Latin Empire had the curious effect of creating three so-called Roman Empires in Europe at the same time, the others being the
Holy Roman Empireand the remnants of the Byzantine Empire (the direct successor of the ancient Roman Empire), none of which actually controlled the city of Rome.
The Empire in Asia Minor
The initial campaigns of the crusaders in Asia Minor resulted in the capture of most of
Bithyniaby 1205, with the defeat of the forces of Theodore I Lascarisat Poemanenum and Prusa. Latin successes continued, and in 1207 a truce was signed with Theodore, newly proclaimed Emperor of Nicaea. The Latins inflicted a further defeat on Nicaean forces at the Ryndakos river in October 1211, and three years later the treaty of Nymphaeum recognized their control of most of Bithynia and Mysia.
The peace was maintained until 1222, at which point the resurgent power of Nicaea felt sufficiently strong to challenge the Latin Empire, by that time weakened by constant warfare in its European provinces. At the
battle of Poemanenumin 1224, the Latin army was defeated, and by the next year Emperor Robert of Courtenaywas forced to cede all his Asian possessions to Nicaea, save Nicomediaand the territories directly across Constantinople. Nicaea turned also to the Aegean, capturing the islands awarded to the Empire. In 1235, finally, the last Latin possessions fell to Nicaea.
The Empire in Europe
Unlike in Asia, where the Latin Empire faced only an initially weak Nicaea, in Europe it was immediately confronted with a powerful enemy: the Bulgarian tsar
Kaloyan. When Baldwin campaigned against the Byzantine lords of Thrace, they called upon Kaloyan for help. At the Battle of Adrianople on 14 April 1205, the Latin heavy cavalry was lured into an ambush by Kaloyan's troops, and Emperor Baldwin was captured. He was imprisoned in the Bulgarian capital Tărnovo until his death later in 1205. Luckily for the new Latin Emperor, Henry of Flanders, Kaloyan was killed a couple of years later (1207) during a siege of Thessalonica, and the Bulgarian threat conclusively defeated with a victory the following year, which allowed Henry to reclaim most of the lost territories in Thrace until 1210, when peace was concluded with the marriage of Henry to Maria of Bulgaria, tsar Kaloyan's daughter.
At the same time, another Greek successor state, the
Despotate of Epirus, under Michael I Komnenos Doukas, posed a threat to the Empire's vassals in Thessalonica and Athens. Henry demanded his submission, which Michael provided, giving off his daughter to Henry's brother Eustace in the summer of 1209. This alliance allowed Henry to launch a campaign in Macedonia, Thessalyand Central Greeceagainst the rebellious dn|Lombard lords of Thessalonica. However, Michael's attack on the Kingdom of Thessalonica in 1210 forced him to return north to relieve the city and to force Michael back into submission.
In 1214 however, Michael died, and was succeeded by
Theodore Komnenos Doukas, who was determined to capture Thessalonica. On 11 June, 1216, while supervising repairs to the walls of Thessalonica, Henry died, and was succeeded by Peter of Courtenay, who himself was captured and executed by Theodore the following year. A regency was set up in Constantinople, headed by Peter's widow, Yolanda of Flandersuntil 1221, when her son Robert of Courtenaywas crowned Emperor. Distracted by the renewed war with Nicaea, and waiting in vain for assistance from Pope Honorius IIIand the King of France Philip II, the Latin Empire was unable to prevent the final fall of Thessalonica to Epirus in 1224. Epirote armies then conquered Thrace in 1225-26, appearing before Constantinople itself. The Latin Empire was saved for the time by the threat posed to Theodore by the Bulgarian tsar Ivan II Asen, and a truce was concluded in 1228.
Decline and Fall
After Robert of Courtenay died in 1228, a new regency under
John of Briennewas set up. After the disastrous Epirote defeat by the Bulgarians at the Battle of Klokotnitsa, the Epirote threat to the Latin Empire was removed, only to be replaced by Nicaea, which started acquiring territories in Greece. Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzesof Nicaea concluded an alliance with Bulgaria, which in 1235 resulted in joint campaign against the Latin Empire, and an unsuccessful siege of Constantinople the next year. In 1237, Baldwin II attained majority and took over the reins of a much-diminished state. The Empire's precarious situation forced him to travel often to Western Europe seeking aid, but largely without success. In order to gain money, he was forced to resort to desperate means, from removing the lead roofs of the Great Palace and selling them, to handing over his only son, Philip, to Venetian merchants as a guarantee for a loan.
By 1247, the Nicaeans had effectively surrounded Constantinople, with only the city's strong walls holding them at bay, and the
Battle of Pelagoniain 1258 signaled the beginning of the end of Latin predominance in Greece. Thus, on July 25, 1261, with most of the Latin troops away on campaign, the Nicaean general Alexios Strategopoulosfound an unguarded entrance to the city, and entered it with his troops, restoring the Byzantine Empire for his master, Michael VIII Palaiologos.
For about a century thereafter, the heirs of Baldwin II continued to use the title of Emperor of Constantinople, and were seen as the overlords of the various remaining Latin states in the Aegean. They exercised effective authority in Greece only when actually ruling as princes of Achaea, as in 1333–1383. Although they are generally regarded as titular emperors, the continued existence of Latin states in the Aegean that recognized them as their suzerains makes the term a misnomer; a more accurate description would be emperors-in-exile.
Organization and Society
The empire was formed and administrated on Western European feudal principles, incorporating some elements of the Byzantine bureaucracy. The Emperor was assisted by a council, composed of the various barons, the Venetian
podestaand his six-member council. This council had a major voice in the governance of the realm, especially in the periods of regency, where the Regent ("moderator imperii") was dependent on their consent to rule. The podesta, likewise, was an extremely influential member, being practically independent of the Emperor. He exercised authority over the Venetian quarters of Constantinople and the Venetian dominions within the Empire, assisted by a separate set of officials. His role was more that of an ambassador and vicegerentof Venice than a vassal to the Empire.
The elite of the empire were the Frankish and Venetian lords, headed by the Emperor, the barons and the lower-ranking vassals and liege lords, including many former Byzantine aristocrats. The bulk of the people were Orthodox Greeks, still divided according to the Byzantine system in income classes based on land ownership.
As with all Latin states, the Orthodox hierarchy was replaced by Catholic
prelates, but not suppressed. An expansive Catholic hierarchy was established, under the dual supervision of the Latin archbishopof Constantinople and the Papal legate, until the two offices were merged in 1231. Catholic monastic orders, such as the Cistercians, the Dominicans and the Franciscanswere established in the Empire. The Orthodox clergy retained its rites and customs, including its right to marriage, but was demoted to a subordinate position, subject to the local Latin bishops.
List of Emperors
Latin Emperors of Constantinople, 1204–1261
* Baldwin I (1204–1205)
* Henry (1206–1216), his brother
* Peter (1216–1217)
* Yolanda (1217–1219), Henry's sister
* Robert I (1219–1228), crowned 1221, their son
* Baldwin II (1228–1261), crowned 1240, died 1273, his brother, with...
John of Brienne, emperor regent (1229–1237), his father-in-law
Latin Emperors of Constantinople in exile, 1261–1383
* Baldwin II (1261–1273), in exile from Constantinople
* Philip I (1273–1283), his son
* Catherine I (1283–1308), his daughter, with...
Charles of Valois(1301–1308), her husband
* Catherine II (1308–1346), their daughter, with...
* Philip II (1313–1332), her husband
* Robert II (1346–1364), their son
* Philip III (1364–1373), his brother
James of Baux(1373–1383), his nephew
*"James willed his titular claims to Duke
Louis I of Anjou, also claimant to the throne of Naples, but Louis and his descendants never used the title."
* Bowman, Steven. "The Jews of Byzantium 1204-1453". Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1985.
* [http://www2.fhw.gr/chronos/projects/fragokratia/en/webpages/frago.html "The Latin Occupation in the Greek Lands - The Latin Empire", from the Foundation of the Hellenic World]
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