- Maria Luisa of Spain
Maria Luisa of Spain Holy Roman Empress Tenure 20 February 1790 – 1 March 1792 Grand Duchess of Tuscany Tenure 16 February 1764 – 20 February 1790 Spouse Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor Issue Maria Theresa, Queen of Saxony
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Charles, Duke of Teschen
Archduke Alexander Leopold
Joseph, Palatine of Hungary
Maria Clementina, Duchess of Calabria
Anton Victor, Archbishop of Cologne
Archduke Rainer Joseph
Rudolf, Archbishop of Olmütz
Full name María Luisa House House of Bourbon Father Charles III of Spain Mother Maria Amalia of Saxony Born 24 November 1745
Palace of Portici, Naples
Died 15 May 1792(aged 46)
Hofburg Palace, Vienna
Burial Imperial Crypt, Vienna
Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (Spanish: María Luisa, German: Maria Ludovika) (24 November 1745 – 15 May 1792) was Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Bohemia and Hungary as the spouse of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Due to her father, the future Charles III of Spain being given the throne of the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily in 1735, Maria Luisa was born a Princess of Naples and Sicily. When her father became King of Spain at the death of her half-uncle, Ferdinand VI of Spain in 1759, she became known as Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain. She still had the use of the style of Royal Highness.
Maria Louisa was born in Portici, in Campania, the site of the summer palace (Reggia di Portici) of her parents, King Charles, King of Naples and Sicily and Maria Amalia of Saxony. She was the fifth daughter, and second surviving child, of her parents. Her father became King of Spain as Charles III in 1759, and she moved with her family to Spain. Her first cousins included Louis XVI, Maria I of Portugal and Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia.
Grand Duchess of Tuscany
On 16 February 1764 she was married by proxy at Madrid to Archduke Peter Leopold, the second son of Emperor Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, and the heir apparent to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. The next year, on 5 August, she married him in person at Innsbruck. Only a few days later, the death of Emperor Francis made Maria Louisa's husband the new Grand Duke of Tuscany, and the newly married couple moved to Florence, where they would live for the next twenty-five years.
Holy Roman Empress
In 1790, on the death of Peter Leopold's childless brother, Joseph II, Maria Luisa's husband inherited the Habsburg lands in Central Europe, and was shortly thereafter elected Holy Roman Emperor. Taking the name of Leopold II, the new Emperor moved his family to Vienna, where Maria Luisa took on the role of imperial consort. Leopold died scarcely two years later, dying on 1 March 1792. Maria Luisa followed her husband to the grave in less than three months, not living long enough to see her eldest son Francis elected as the last Holy Roman Emperor.
Mozart's opera La clemenza di Tito was commissioned by the Estates of Bohemia as part of the festivities that accompanied the coronation of Maria Luisa and her husband Leopold as king and queen of Bohemia in Prague on 6 September 1791. In musical circles, Maria Luisa is famous for her putative denigration of Mozart's opera as "German rubbish" ("una porcheria tedesca"), however no claim that she made this remark pre-dates the publication in 1871 of Alfred Meissner's Rococo-Bilder: nach Aufzeichnungen meines Grossvaters, a collection of stories about cultural and political life in Prague in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
- Maria Theresa of Austria (14 January 1767 - 7 November 1827) married Anton of Saxony and had issue.
- Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (12 February 1768 - 2 March 1835) married Elisabeth of Württemberg and had issue; married Maria Teresa of Naples and Sicily and had issue; married Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este no issue; married Caroline Augusta of Bavaria no issue.
- Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany (6 May 1769 - 18 June 1824) married Luisa of Naples and Sicily and had issue; married Maria Ferdinanda of Saxony no issue.
- Maria Anna of Austria (22 April 1770 - 1 October 1809) died unmarried.
- Charles of Austria (5 September 1771 - 30 April 1847) married Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg and had issue.
- Alexander Leopold of Austria (14 August 1772 - 12 July 1795) died unmarried.
- Albrecht Johann Joseph of Austria (19 September 1773 - 22 July 1774) died in infancy.
- Maximilian of Austria (23 December 1774- 10 March 1778) died in infancy.
- Joseph of Austria (9 March 1776 - 13 January 1847) married Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia and had issue; married Hermine of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym and had issue; married Maria Dorothea of Württemberg and had issue.
- Maria Clementina of Austria (1777 - 1801) married Prince Francesco, Duke of Calabria and had issue.
- Anton of Austria (1779 - 1835) died unmarried unmarried, Grand Master of Teutonic Knights
- Johann of Austria (1782 - 1859) married morganatically.
- Rainer of Austria (30 September 1783 - 16 January 1853) married Elisabeth of Savoy and had issue.
- Louis of Austria (13 December 1784 - 21 December 1864) died unmarried.
- Rudolph of Austria (8 January 1788 - 24 July 1831) died unmarried.
Titles and Styles
- 24 November 1745 – 16 February 1764 Her Royal Highness The Infanta Dona Maria Luisa
- 16 February 1764 – 20 February 1790 Her Royal Highness The Grand Duchess of Tuscany
- 20 February 1790 – 15 May 1792 Her Imperial Majesty The Holy Roman Empress
ReferencesMaria Luisa of SpainBorn: 24 November 1745 Died: 15 May 1792
Italian nobility Preceded by
Maria Theresa of Austria
Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Princess Luisa of Naples and Sicily
German royalty Preceded by
Maria Josepha of Bavaria
Holy Roman Empress
Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
VacantTitle last held byElisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia
Archduchess of Austria
1790–1792The generations indicate descent form Charles I, under whom the crowns of Castile and Aragon were united, forming the Kingdom of Spain. Previously, the title Infanta had been largely use in the different realms.
1st GenerationMaria, Holy Roman Empress · Joan, Princess of Portugal 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th Generation 5th Generationnone 6th Generationnone 7th Generation 8th GenerationInfanta Maria Isabel · Infanta Maria Josefa · Infanta María Isabel Ana · Infanta Maria Josepha · Maria Luisa, Holy Roman Empress · Infanta Maria Teresa · Infanta Maria Ana 9th Generation 10th Generation 11th GenerationIsabella, Princess of Asturias · Infanta Maria Cristina · Maria de la Concepcio · Maria de Pilar · Maria de la Paz, Princess Louis Ferdinand of Bavaria · Eulalia, Duchess of Galliera · Maria Isabella, Countess of Paris* · Infanta Amalia of Orléans* · Infanta Cristina d'Orléans* · Infanta Maria de la Regla of Orléans* · Mercedes, Queen of Spain* 12th GenerationMercedes, Princess of Asturias · Maria Teresa, Princess Ferdinand of Bavaria 13th Generation 14th Generation 15th Generation 16th Generation*title granted by Royal Decree 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generationInfanta Isabella of Portugal · Anne of Bohemia and Hungary 4th generation 5th generation 6th generation 7th generationArchduchess Margaret Theresa of Austria^ · Archduchess Claudia Felicitas of Austria^ · Countess Palatine Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg 8th generationPrincess Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg · Princess Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 9th generationnone 10th generation 11th generationDuchess Elisabeth of Württemberg** · Princess Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily** · Princess Luisa of Naples and Sicily** · Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg** · Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia** · Princess Hermine of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym** · Duchess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg** · Princess Elisabeth of Savoy** · Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy*** 12th generation 13th generationPrincess Charlotte of Belgium · Princess Margaretha of Saxony · Princess Maria Annunciata of the Two Sicilies · Infanta Maria Theresa of Portugal · Princess Anna of Saxony** · Princess Alice of Parma** · Princess Maria Immaculata of the Two Sicilies** · Princess Isabella of Croÿ · Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria^ · Princess Auguste Maria of Bavaria 14th generation 15th generationPrincess Zita of Parma · Princess Franziska of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst · Princess Dorothea of Bavaria** · Countess Marie Valerie of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems** · Princess Ileana of Romania** · Princess Rosemary of Salm-Salm** · Countess Maria Theresa of Waldburg-Zeil** · Princess Maria of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg · Princess Christina of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg 16th generationPrincess Regina of Saxe-Meiningen · Princess Margherita of Savoy · Princess Anne Eugénie of Arenberg · Princess Yolande of Ligne · Countess Xenia Czernicheva-Besobrasova · Princess Anna Gabriele of Wrede · Countess Helena of Toerring-Jettenbach · Countess Ludmilla of Gallen · Princess Laetitia of Arenberg** · Countess Margaret Kálnoky von Köröspatak** · Maria Espinosa de los Monteros^^** · Countess Valerie of Podstatzky-Lichtenstein** · Freiin Eva Antonia von Hofmann** · Princess Anna Amelie of Schönburg-Waldenburg** · Countess Hedwig of Lichem-Löwenburg** · Freiin Edith von Sternbach** · Princess Margaret of Hohenberg · Countess Marie Christine of Hatzfeldt-Dönhoff · Eugenia de Calonge^^ · Freiin Maria Theresia von Gudenus 17th generationFreiin Francesca Thyssen-Bornemisza de Kászon et Impérfalva · Duchess Eilika of Oldenburg · Princess Astrid of Belgium*** · Princess Katharina of Isenburg-Birstein*** · Bettine Götz^^ · Paola de Temesváry^^ · Baroness Marie Hélène de Villenfagne de Vogelsanck · Princess Marie Astrid of Luxembourg · Princess Alexandra of Wrede · Princess María of the Two Sicilies · Sara Maya Al-Askari^^ · Mayasuni Heath^^ · Countess Katharina of Hardenberg · Ashmita Goswami^^ · Elyssa Edmonstone^^** · Countess Marie Gabrielle of Waldstein** 18th generationEstelle de Saint-Romain^^*also an infanta of Spain by marriage
**also a princess of Tuscany by marriage
***also a princess of Modena by marriage
^also an archduchess of Austria in her own right
^^did not have a royal or noble title by birth
2nd Generation 3rd Generationnone 4th GenerationMarguerite Louise d'Orléans · Eleonora Luisa Gonzaga 5th GenerationDuchess Violante Beatrice of Bavaria · Duchess Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg 6th Generationnone 7th Generation 8th GenerationDuchess Elisabeth of Württemberg* · Princess Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily* · Princess Luisa of Naples and Sicily* · Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg* · Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia* · Princess Hermine of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym* · Duchess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg* · Princess Elisabeth of Savoy* 9th GenerationPrincess Maria Anna of Saxony* 10th GenerationPrincess Anna of Saxony* · Princess Maria Immaculata of the Two Sicilies* 11th GenerationPrincess Maria Cristina of the Two Sicilies* · Infanta Blanca of Spain* · Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria* 12th GenerationPrincess Dorothea of Bavaria* · Countess Marie Valerie of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems* · Princess Ileana of Romania* · Princess Rosemary of Salm-Salm* · Countess Maria Theresa of Waldburg-Zeil* 13th GenerationPrincess Laetitia of Arenberg* · Countess Margaret Kálnoky von Köröspatak* · Maria Espinosa de los Monteros^* · Countess Valerie of Podstatzky-Lichtenstein* · Freiin Eva Antonia von Hofmann* · Princess Anna Amelie of Schönburg-Waldenburg* · Countess Hedwig of Lichem-Löwenburg* · Freiin Edith von Sternbach* 14th GenerationElyssa Edmonstone^* · Countess Marie Gabrielle of Waldstein*^did not have a royal or noble title by birth
* also an archduchess of Austria by marriageArchduchess Joanna of Austria (1574-1578) · Christina of Lorraine (1589-1609) · Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria (1609-1621) · Vittoria della Rovere (1634-1670) · Marguerite Louise d'Orléans (1670-1721) · Duchess Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg (1689-1728) · Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria (1737–1765) · Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (1765-1790) · Princess Luisa of Naples and Sicily (1790-1801) · Princess Maria Ferdinanda of Saxony (1821–1824) · Princess Maria Anna of Saxony (1824-1832) · Princess Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies (1833-1859)
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