Estado Libre y Soberano
de Coahuila de Zaragoza
—  State  —


Anthem: Himno Coahuilense
State of Coahuila within Mexico
Coordinates: 27°18′08″N 102°02′41″W / 27.30222°N 102.04472°W / 27.30222; -102.04472Coordinates: 27°18′08″N 102°02′41″W / 27.30222°N 102.04472°W / 27.30222; -102.04472
Country Mexico
Capital Saltillo
Largest City Torreon
Municipalities 38
Admission May 7, 1824[1]
Order 16th[a]
 – Governor Jorge Torres López PRI
 – Senators[2] Guillermo Anaya PAN
Ernesto Saro B. PRI
Jesús María Ramón PRI
 – Deputies[3]
 – Total 151,563 km2 (58,518.8 sq mi)
  Ranked 3rd
Highest elevation[5] 3,710 m (12,172 ft)
Population (2010)[6]
 – Total 2,748,391
 – Rank 16th
 – Density 18.1/km2 (47/sq mi)
 – Density rank 26th
Demonym Coahuilense
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 – Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
Postal code 25 - 27
Area code
ISO 3166 code MX-COA
HDI increase 0.850 High Ranked 9th
GDP US$ 21,556,311.01 mil[b]
Website Official Web Site
^ a. Joined to the federation under the name of Coahuila y Texas also recognized as Coahuila y Tejas.
^ b. The state's GDP was 275,920,781 million of pesos in 2008,[7] amount corresponding to 21,556,311.01 millon of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).[8]

Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza (Spanish pronunciation: [koaˈwila ðe saɾaˈɣosa]), officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza (English: Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. The state is located in Northeastern Mexico.

Coahuila borders the Mexican states of Nuevo León to the east, Zacatecas and San Luis Potosí to the south, and Durango and Chihuahua to the west. To the north, Coahuila accounts for a 512 kilometres (318 mi) stretch of the U.S. - Mexico border, adjacent to the United States state of Texas along the course of the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte). With an area of 151,563 square kilometres (58,519 sq mi), it is the nation's third-largest state. It comprises 38 municipalities (municipios). In 2010, Coahuila's population is 2,655,187 inhabitants.

The capital of Coahuila is Saltillo, and its largest city is Torreón. Coahuila also includes the cities of Monclova (a former state capital), Piedras Negras, and Ciudad Acuña.



From the Nahuatl Kuahuilan also Cuahuilan (Place of the Trees). The researcher Vito Alessio Robles gave the final translation to the word Coahuila.


The Spanish explored the north of Mexico some decades after their victory in the capital of the Aztecs. Such exploration was delayed because the northern climate was harsher and there was no gold. The first Spanish settlement in the region, now called Coahuila, was at Minas de la Trinidad in 1577. Saltillo was settled in 1586 to form part of the province of New Spain, Nueva Vizcaya of the vice-royalty. Later it became one of first provinces of Nueva Extremadura to be explored by Europeans.

"Coahuila and Texas" was one of the constituent states of the newly independent United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution, and included Texas, Coahuila, and Nuevo León. Later in the same year Nuevo León was detached, but Texas remained a part of the state until 1835, when it seceded to form the Republic of Texas. Monclova was the capital of the state from 1833 to 1835.

In 1840 Coahuila briefly became a member of the short lived Republic of the Rio Grande.

On February 19, 1856, Santiago Vidaurri annexed Coahuila to his state, Nuevo León, but it regained its separate status in 1868.

During the Mexican Revolution, Francisco Villa attacked the city of Torreón.

On April 4, 2004, the border city of Piedras Negras was flooded. More than 30 people died and more than 4000 lost their homes.

In 2007, Coahuila became the first state in Mexico to offer civil unions (Pacto Civil de Solidaridad) to same-sex couples.[9]


The Sierra Madre Oriental runs northwest to southeast through the State, and the higher elevations are home to the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests.

East of the range, the land slopes gently toward the Rio Grande, and is drained by several rivers, including the Salado and its tributary the Sabinas. The Tamaulipan mezquital, a dry shrubland ecoregion, occupies the eastern portion of the State, and extends across the Rio Grande into southern Texas.

The portion of the State west of the Sierra Madre Oriental lies on the Mexican Plateau, and is part of the Chihuahuan Desert. The Bolsón de Mapimí is a large endorheic basin which covers much of the western portion of the State and extends into adjacent portions of Chihuahua, Durango, and Zacatecas. The Nazas River, which flows east from Durango, and the Aguanaval River, which flows north from Zacatecas, empty into lakes in the Bolsón. Torreón, the most populous city in the State, lies on the Nazas in the irrigated Laguna Region, the (Comarca Lagunera), which straddles the border of Coahuila and Durango.

Coahuila contains two biosphere reserves. Maderas del Carmen lies on the northern border of the State, and includes sections of the Chihuahuan desert and sky islands of pine-oak forest in the Sierra del Carmen. The springs, lakes, and wetlands of Cuatro Ciénegas lie west of Monclova on the west slope of the Sierra Madre.

Coahuila is largely arid or semi-arid, but the rivers of the State support extensive irrigated agriculture, particularly cotton. The Parras district in the southern part of the State produces wines and brandies. The pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre produce timber.


The last population census run across Mexico in the year 2005, reports Coahuila de Zaragoza as having roughly 2,500,000 inhabitants, which, considering its size, means that the state has a very low density, in fact as low as only 15 persons per square kilometer.

Coahuila's population is mainly made up of people of Criollo (European) extraction along with mestizos. Less than 7,500 natives reside in Coahuila, or merely 0.3% of the total population. The rest of the population is composed of American, Canadian, and Japanese communities.

The rest of the demographic particulars in the state are very similar to national averages, such as a high life expectancy (reaching 75 years of age) and a Catholic majority.


Institutions of higher learning in Coahuila, Mexico include:


About 95% of Mexico's coal reserves are found in Coahuila, which is the country's top mining state. Saltillo also has a growing automobile industry, hosting General Motors and Chrysler assembly plants.

As of 2005, Coahuila's economy represents 3.5% of Mexico's total gross domestic product or 22,874 million USD.[10] Coahuila's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 221,273 people are employed in the manufacturing sector.[11] Foreign direct investment in Coahuila was 143.1 million USD for 2005. The average wage for an employee in Coahuila is approximately 190 pesos per day.[citation needed] On the other hand Coahuila is the Mexican state with the highest level of public debt in the nation.


Coahuila is subdivided into five regions and 38 municipalities (municipios). For a full list with municipal seats, see: municipalities of Coahuila

Major communities

Saltillo, the capital of Coahuila.

List of governors

This list is incomplete

  • José María Garza Galán (1886–1893)[12]
  • José María Múzquiz (1894)
  • Miguel Cárdenas (1894–1909)
  • Jesús de Valle (1909–1911)
  • Venustiano Carranza (1911–1913)
  • Gustavo Espinoza Mireles (1917–1920)
  • Luis Gutiérrez Ortíz (1920–1921)
  • Arnulfo González (1921–1923)
  • Carlos Garza Castro (1923–1925)
  • Manuel Pérez Treviño (1925–1929)
  • Bruno Neira González (1929-1929)
  • Nazario S. Ortiz Garza (1929–1933)
  • Jesús Valdez Sánchez (1933–1937)
  • Pedro Rodríguez Triana (1937–1941)
  • Gabriel Cervera Riza (1941-1941)
  • Benecio López Padilla (1941–1945)
  • Ignacio Cepeda Dávila (1945–1947)
  • Ricardo Ainslie Rivera (1947–1948)
  • Paz Faz Risa (1948-1948)
  • Raúl López Sánchez (1948–1951)
  • Roman Cepeda Flores (1951–1957)
  • Raúl Madero González (1957–1963)
  • Braulio Fernández Aguirre (1963–1969)
  • Eulalio Gutiérrez Treviño (1969–1975)
  • Oscar Flores Tapia (1975–1981)
  • Francisco José Madero González (1981-1981)
  • José de las Fuentes Rodríguez (1981–1987)
  • Eliseo Mendoza Berrueto (1987–1993)
  • Rogelio Montemayor Seguy (1993–1999)
  • Enrique Martínez y Martínez (1999–2005)
  • Humberto Moreira Valdés (2005–2010) (Left)
  • Jorge Torres López (2010-) (Humberto Moreira's sustitute)
  • Rubén Moreira Valdés (2011-2017)

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ "La diputación provincial y el federalismo mexicano" (in Spanish). 
  2. ^ "Senadores por Coahuila LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Coahuila". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  4. ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  5. ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Proyecciones de la población de México 2005-2050". Consejo Nacional de Población. Retrieved August 10, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Coahuila.". 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  8. ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano.". Retrieved August 10, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Mexican state moves to allow same-sex unions", Advocate News,, January 11, 2007
  10. ^ Industrial Costs in Mexico - A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 90. 
  11. ^ Industrial Costs in Mexico - A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 92. 
  12. ^ Benjamin, Thomas, and William McNellie. Other Mexicos: Essays on Regional Mexican History, 1876-1911. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984.

External links

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  • Coahuila —   [koa u̯ila], Bundesstaat Mexikos, im Norden an der Grenze gegen die USA, 151 445 km2, (2000) 2,3 Mio. Einwohner; Hauptstadt ist Saltillo. Coahuila umfasst das nördliche mexikanische Hochland mit dem Bolsón de Mapimí und den nördlichen Teil der… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Coahuīla — (Cohahuila), Staat der Republik Mexiko, zwischen 25° und 29°50 nördl. Br., von Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Zacatecas, Durango, Chihuahua und Texas umgrenzt und von letzterm durch den Rio Grande getrennt, 165,099 qkm mit (1900) 280,899 Einw. (1,7 …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Coahuila — Coahuila, Staat im Innern des nördl. Mexiko, 165.099 qkm, (1900) 296.938 E.; Hauptstadt Saltillo …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Coahuila — [kō΄ə wē′lə] state of N Mexico, on the Texas border: 58,522 sq mi (151,571 sq km); pop. 1,972,000; cap. Saltillo …   English World dictionary

  • Coahuila — /kaw ah wee lah/, n. a state in N Mexico. 1,334,000; 58,067 sq. mi. (150,395 sq. km). Cap.: Saltillo. * * * State (pop., 2000: 2,298,070), northeastern Mexico. It covers 57,908 sq mi (149,982 sq km), and its capital is Saltillo. Coahuila occupies …   Universalium

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  • Coahuila — noun A state of Mexico. Syn: Coahuila de Zaragoza …   Wiktionary

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