—  Prefecture-level city  —
the City of Jixi • 鸡西市
a trunk road in Jiguan Distinct
Jixi (red) in Heilongjiang province (orange) and China
Jixi is located in Heilongjiang
Location of the city centre in Heilongjiang
Coordinates: 45°18′N 130°58′E / 45.3°N 130.967°E / 45.3; 130.967Coordinates: 45°18′N 130°58′E / 45.3°N 130.967°E / 45.3; 130.967
Country China
Province Heilongjiang
established time 1957.03.07
 – mayor Zhu Deyi (朱德义)
 – secretary of a municipal committee of the CPC Xu Zhaojun(许兆君)[1]
 – Prefecture-level city 22,351 km2 (8,629.8 sq mi)
 – Urban 79.2 km2 (30.6 sq mi)
 – Metro 2,234 km2 (862.6 sq mi)
Elevation 230 m (755 ft)
Population (2010)
 – Prefecture-level city 1,862,161
 – Density 86.1/km2 (223/sq mi)
 – Urban 757,647
 – Metro 918,700
Time zone China standard time (UTC+8)
zipcode 158100
Area code(s) 0467
Website http://www.jixi.gov.cn/

Jixi (simplified Chinese: 鸡西; traditional Chinese: 鶏西; pinyin: Jīxī; Russian: Цзиси) is a city in eastern Heilongjiang Province in the People's Republic of China. At the 2010 census, 1,862,161 people resided within its administrative area of 22,351 square kilometers and 757,647 in its built up area made of 4 out of 6 urban districts (including Jiguan, Didao, Hengshan and Chengzihe).[2] Jixi is on Muling River about 30 km from the border with Russia and 120 km from Khanka Lake. The mayor of Jixi is Zhu Deyi (朱德义) since July 2009. The area is one of the important coal mining base in China. A crater on asteroid 253 Mathilde, whose craters have been named after famous coalfields from across the world, was named after the city.


Administrative divisions and population

List of Districts and zones in Jixi

The prefecture-level city of Jixi has direct jurisdiction over 6 districts (区 qu), 2 county-level cities (市 shi) and 1 county (县 xian):

Jixi mcp.png
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2003 est.) Area (km2) Density (/km2)
1 Jiguan District 鸡冠区 Jīguān Qū 331,814 144 2,292
2 Hengshan District 恒山区 Héngshān Qū 173,545 587 307
3 Didao District 滴道区 Dīdào Qū 117,735 515 233
4 Lishu District 梨树区 Líshù Qū 89,025 396 227
5 Chengzihe District 城子河区 Chéngzǐhé Qū 140,885 181 829
6 Mashan District 麻山区 Máshān Qū 36,624 411 97
7 Hulin City 虎林市 Hǔlín Shì 293,760 9,329 32
8 Mishan City 密山市 Mìshān Shì 432,229 7,724 56
9 Jidong County 鸡东县 Jīdōng Xiàn 295,415 3,753 80


The 2000 national survey ethnic composition proportion

Nationality Population Ratio
Han Chinese 1,852,345 95.19%
Korean 50,580 2.6%
Manchu 33,512 1.7%
Mongol 4,184 0.22%
Hui 3,270 0.17%
Miao 408 0.02%
Xibe 356 0.02%
Zhuang 308 0.02%
Tujia 229 0.01%
Else 865 0.05%


Ancient times

Jixi was a nomadic area of the Jurchen and Goguryeo people. By the Shang Dynasty, dwellers here had began to communicated with people in Central Plain. It was in the Han Dynasty that primitive agriculture in this region had made a great progress. During the Tang Dynasty, Jixi was under the control of the Balhae. As the Manchu conquered the territories occupied by the Ming Dynasty in 1644, the basin of the Amur River was blocked in order to protect the Manchu people's place of origin. In this period, the population of the Jixi region experienced a sharp decrease. In 1662, the Kangxi Emperor set Ninguta General to dominate the territory. Since a large number of people engaged in reclaiming wasteland and collecting ginseng, Jixi and the whole Ussuri River basin became the base of medicinal materials gradually.

Early modern period

Muling Colliery in the 1920s.

In the second half of 19th century, as Czarist Russia advanced through Siberia and reached the Sea of Okhotsk, the Qing officials like General Tepuqin (特普欽) made a proposal to open Manchuria for farming in order to oppose the conquest of Russia, and so the Qing government forsook the policy of blockading on the Northeast region of China. A large number of the Han Chinese, especially from the Shandong Peninsula and Zhili, migrated into Manchuria. The Qing government set up Mishan Prefecture in this territory in 1908. Coal resources was discovered constantly in Jixi during this period. In September 1914, a merchant named Yuan Dazhang from Mukden was approved to set up the Mixi Coal Mine Company, which represents the regular production of coal in Jixi. However, construction of Chinese Eastern Railway one of provisions bringed a nucleus of Russian Jews to northen Manchuria. In January 1924, Muling Coal Mine Corporation was operated jointly by the Jewish Solomon L. Skidelsky and Jilin Province, whose headquarters was in Ashihe Street, Nangang District, Harbin.[3] The output of Muling Colliery has reached 1.6 million tons in 1931. Since The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on September 19, 1931, the whole Manchuria was seized by Japan following the Mukden Incident and in 1932, a sympathetic government, Manchukuo, was established. the Jixi region became a colony of the Japanese. On December 15, 1935, Jixi Railway Station's construction was completed by South Manchuria Railway(SMR). On September 1, 1941, the Manchukuo government set up Jining County in Jixi territory. The first mayor of the county was Kubota Yutaka(久保田 豊).[4] The Japanese settlers totally slaughtered more than 100 thousand miners in Jixi mining area. On August 9 ,1945, Togashi Ichiro(冨樫 一郎), the conductor of Didao Colliery, ordered to destroy the coalpits in Hengshan, Didao and Muling as the Soviet Army closed in.

Modern era

The Cultural Square in Jixi

On August 12, 1945, the Soviet Army captured Jining County, and the Military Headquarter commanded the Jixi mining area to resume production. On October 18, 1947, Jixi Mining Bereau was founded in order to control the collieries and the Coal Mine Machinery Factory. On July 30, 1949, the Northeast Executive Committee allowed Jining County to change its name to Jixi County, which was administered by Songjiang Province. On June 19, 1954, Jixi County was administered by Heilongjiang Province as the Songjiang Province became part of Heilongjiang province..

By 1956, the population of Jixi had reached 234,154, and the output of coal rose to 5 million tons per year. On December 18, 1956, the State Council of China decided to set up Jixi City (Prefectural-Level) instead of Jixi County, administering 5 districts including Jiguan, Didao, Mashan, Hengshan and Lishu. On March 7, Jixi City was formally established. In 1970, Chengzihe District was established. In 1983, Jidong County was put under Jixi's administration. The coal-mining industry was developing rapidly during the 1970s and 1980s. By 1991, the total coal output of Jixi ranked second in the Chinese Mainland. In the 1980s, Mishan and Hulin were incorporated into Jixi's jurisdiction. Jixi has reached its current domain.



Jixi is located at the southern edge of the Sanjiang or Three Rivers Plain. Much of the prefecture area sits within the conjunction region between Changbai Mountain and the Wanda Mountains. The total area of the prefecture is 22,351 square kilometres (8,630 sq mi). Within its borders, Khanka Lake is the largest lake with an area of 4,380 square kilometres (1,691 sq mi), while the Muling River, Songacha River and the Ussuri River are the largest rivers in the prefecture.

Mineral resources

Jixi is estimated to have about 8 billion tons of coal reserves, ranking 2nd out of 13 prefectures and prefecture-level cities in Heilongjiang Province. The graphite reserves of Jixi is amount to 780 million tons, ranking first in Asia.[5] With the Khanka Lake being shared with Russia and the Muling River running through the city, Chinese medicinal herbs and freshwater resources are also rich.


Jixi has a monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa/Dwb),[6] with bitter but dry winters, and warm, humid summers. However, due to the relative proximity to the Sea of Japan, summer is comparatively cool and refreshing. Monthly averages range from −16.7 °C (1.9 °F) in January to 21.8 °C (71.2 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 4.0 °C (39.2 °F). Sunny weather dominates year-round, even in summer, where most of the year's precipitation occurs.

Climate data for Jixi (1951−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.5
Average high °C (°F) −11.3
Daily mean °C (°F) −16.7
Average low °C (°F) −22
Record low °C (°F) −34.7
Precipitation mm (inches) 4.7
humidity 64 60 53 52 55 70 76 78 71 60 61 65 63.8
Avg. precipitation days 5.3 5.8 5.9 8.7 13.0 15.8 14.6 13.0 10.9 8.8 6.8 6.9 115.5
Sunshine hours 180.9 198.4 244.1 232.4 254.3 238.7 236.0 227.3 221.4 206.9 173.0 151.0 2,564.4
Source: China Meteorological Administration Climate Data for Jixi



Steam locomotive in Jixi

In Jixi Railway Station, there are multiple daily departures to other cities in Heilongjiang such as Mudanjiang, Harbin, as well as Beijing. Jixi is also famous for its last remaining working steam locomotive in China, which attracts photographers from all over the world to take photos of steam locomotive.[7]


Jixi is linked to the national highway network through the G11 Hegang–Dalian Expressway, the Fangzheng-Hulin Highway and the busiest section in the city, the Jixi-Hulin-Jiansanjiang Expressway. This section connects the four major districts in Jixi including Jiguan District, Jidong, Mishan and Hulin.


Jixi Khanka-Lake Airport

Jixi Xingkaihu(Khanka Lake in English) Airport (simplified Chinese: 鸡西兴凯湖机场; traditional Chinese:雞西興凱湖機場) opened in 2009 and serves as the main civilian airport for Jixi. It takes about 30 minutes to reach downtown from the airport. Domestic flights are available to several cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Harbin and Qingdao.


  • GDP and economic data

Statistically, Jixi's GDP reached RMB 41.95 billion in 2010, representing a steady growth of 16.1% from a year earlier, ranked seventh among the 13 prefectures and prefecture-level cities in the province.[8] In 2010, value-added industrial output generated by enterprises with designated size or above rose 42.6% to RMB 9.51 billion[8]. In 2010, the foreign trade value of Jixi totaled US$710.01 million, up 41.7% year on year. Russia is the largest export destination[8].

  • Economic Features

The most important pillar industry in Jixi is coal mining. The economy of Jixi is mainly constructed round rich coal resources. Coal chemical industry, metallurgy and machinery are predominant. environmental protection industry, agriculture and tourist industry are also developing rapidly in recent years. However, Coal Economics still accounts for the main part of the entire economy system. Other pillar industries in Jixi include pharmaceuticals, food manufacturing, non-metal products and electricity production and supply. Large industrial companies are hosted in Jixi such as Huawei Wood and Heilongjiang Rixin Food, which is mainly engaged in edible fungus processing. The food company has annual processing capacity of 2,500 tons of edible fungus.[9]


Tourist sites in Jixi City itself include Jixi Museum in the west end of the city and Huayan Temple (华严寺) which almost faces the museum across Wenhua Road. Within roughly an hour's drive is the Qi Lin Shan (麒麟山) scenic area.

A few hours east of the city within the Jixi administrative region is the Russian lake and river border, a number of points along which are popular summer destinations for tourists, in particular:

Hutou Fortress

Underground Hutou Fortress

Hutou Fortress is the military base of Japan's Kwantung Army in northeast China on the Sino-Soviet border which is known as "Oriental Maginot Line". The Japanese built a large scale military fortress in Hutou since it is regarded as a dagger facing the defense between Vladivostok and Ussurisk by the header of Kwantung Army.[10] On August 26th, 1945, the Soviet Red Army finally captured the Fort. As the Hutou battle ended, Japan's unconditional surrender came 11 days later. Only 53 of the 1,400 Japanese soldiers survived.[11] It was signed about "The end of World War II".

Khanka Lake

Scenic Spot of Khanka Lake

Situated 120 kilometers from Jixi, Xingkai Hu or Khanka Lake is the largest freshwater lake in northeast Asia. In Manchu language, The name "Khanka" means the water flowing down from a higher to a lower place. Located on the border between Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China and Primorsky Krai, Russia, it is composed of one large lake and a small one which are divided by a sandy hill. In 1996, Jiang Zemin, the Secretary General of China and Russian President Boris Yeltsin subscribed the Sino-Russia Agreement on Khanka Lake Environmental Protection and Khanka Lake became a Nature Reserve protected by both Chinese and Russian government.[12] The lake is with vastly mist-covered water and the boundless water seems blending with the sky.

Kirin Mountain

Kirin Mountain Scenic and Historic Interest Area is one of the scenic regions in Jixi City. Bewitched natural scenery is made here by cragged mountains and clear water. The sight of the Qilin Mountain is Combined with the distinctive culture deliberately. This mountain faces north and its tail was in south. The north peak seems like the head and corn of a unicorn while the south peak looks like its tail. people named it Qilin Mountain because it is similar to a gigantic unicorn lying over there. People here regard this mountain as the representative of the God and consider it as the symbol of auspicious. The Qilin Mountain itself is the most essential part of this scenic region.

Ussuri River

Ussuri River is a largest tributary of Amur River(Heilongjiang River) on its right and an important boundary river between China and Russia. The length of Ussuri River is 905 km, with drainage area of 187,000 square kilometers. The river goes through the valley between the Wanda Mountains in China and the Sichote-Alin in Russia. Its beauty and natural landscapes are incomparable in China and it is among the few unpolluted rivers in China.[13]

Zhenbao Island

Zhenbao Island stands for the Island of Treasure in Chinese Language. On March 2, 1969, Sino-Soviet Zhenbao Island took place successively in large-scale armed conflict, which is a contradiction between the long-term friction between the Soviet Union by the Soviet side provoked a collision point. Now it has become a Nature Reserve and a National Forest Park.

Influence of ethnic Koreans

Cold Noodle(Naengmyeon) in Jixi

The Jixi region is known for its Korean ethnic minority. Cold Noodle (Naengmyeon in Korean, Leng Mian in Chinese), a traditional Korean dish made from wheat or buckwheat, is particularly associated with Jixi. The contemporary dish is a fusion of Korean and Northeastern Chinese flavors and derives its name from its distinctly cold taste. The noodles are often served with dried bean curd, Campanulaceae, and Pollack, amongst other ingredients. Also consumed by locals is Korean-style dog meat and fish-kettle.

Sister cities





  1. 陶智,唐克余 (1990) (in Chinese). 鸡西矿务局志. 鸡西市: 鸡西矿务局志编纂委员会. 
  2. The History of Jixi City(Chinese:鸡西市志),1979


  1. ^ 许兆君任鸡西市委书记 (Chinese)
  2. ^ 黑龙江省第六次全国人口普查情况新闻发布会 (Chinese)
  3. ^ Jews in China, Archie Ossin , 2001.
  4. ^ デジタル版 日本人名大辞典+Plusの解説 久保田豊(2)【くぼた-ゆたか】 (Japanese)
  5. ^ Profiles of China Provinces, Cities and Industrial Parks
  6. ^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633-1644.
  7. ^ the Last Steam Locomotive Alive 最后的蒸汽机车 (Chinese)
  8. ^ a b c "the main economic indicators of Jixi City in 2010: 鸡西市2010年主要经济指标完成情况" (in Chinese). Jixi City People's Government. Archived from the original on January 27, 2011. http://www.jixi.gov.cn/2010/news.asp?id=25804. Retrieved 2011-02-22. 
  9. ^ Profiles of China Provinces, Cities and Industrial Parks
  10. ^ 冈崎哲夫. 日苏虎头决战秘录--关东军虎头要塞失陷纪实. 1993. 哈尔滨工业大学出版社
  11. ^ Tan Tianyu. A Last Campaign of the Second World War——A Study on the Hutou Fortress Battle between Japan and the Soviet Union. 2009. Social Science Academy of Heilongjiang Province
  12. ^ Khanka lake-the largest freshwater lake in north east asia
  13. ^ Ussuri River-TouroChina.au

External links

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