Infobox Ethnic group
group = Manchu (Manju, Man) 满族
population = approx. 10.68 million (2000)cite web|url=http://www.china.org.cn/e-groups/shaoshu/shao-manchu.htm|title=Ethnic Groups - china.org.cn - The Manchu ethnic minority|language=English|accessdate=2008-09-26]
regions = flag|China (
Heilongjiang· Jilin· Liaoning) There may also be members in North Korea, Siberiaof Russia, Canada, Japanand United States
languages = Manchu (very small population),
religions = Historicaly
Shamanism, Heaven worshipand Ancestor worship; nowadays Buddhismand Ancestor worshipcite book|last=Sate Nationalities Affairs Commission|title=Selected pictures of Chinese ethnic groups|editor=Zhang Yongfa and Fang Yongming|publisher=China Pictorial Publishing House|date=September 2005|edition=First edition|pages=Page 48|isbn=7-80024-956-5|language=English] cite book|last=Wang Can|coauthors=Wang Pingxing|title=Ethnic groups in China|publisher=China Intercontinental Press|date=May 2004|isbn=7-5085-0490-9|language=English]
Xibe, other Tungusic peoples
The Manchu people ( in its place.
The Manchu ethnicity have largely been assimilated with the
Han Chinese. The Manchu languageis almost extinct, now spoken only among a small number of elderly people in remote rural areas of northeastern China and a few scholars; there are around ten thousand speakers of Sibe (Xibo), a Manchu dialect spoken in the Iliregion of Xinjiang. In recent years, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in Manchu culture among both ethnic Manchus and Han. The number of Chinese today with some Manchu ancestry is quite large, and the adoption of favorable policies towards ethnic minorities (such as preferential university admission and government employment opportunities) has encouraged some people with mixed-Han and Manchu ancestry to re-identify themselves as Manchu.
Aspects of Manchu customs and traditions can be seen in local cuisines, language and customs in today's Manchuria as well as cities in that region. After the fall of the
Ming Dynasty, Manchus also adopted many Han customs and traditions.
They traditionally coiled their hair in high tufts on top of their heads and wore earrings, long gowns and embroidered shoes. The women with higher social standing wore silk and satin clothing while cotton clothing was worn by women of lower social standing. Variants of such vestments (including "
qi pao" and " ma gua", Mandarin dress) are still popular all over China. The man's clothing once consisted of a short and adjusted jacket over a long gown with a belt at the waist to facilitate horse-riding and hunting. Unlike the Han, the Manchu did not practice foot binding.Edward J. M. Rhoads, "Manchus & Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861-1928 ". University of Washington Press, 2000. Page 62. ISBN 0295980400. Partially available [http://books.google.com.au/books?id=QiM2pF5PDR8C on Google Books] ]
The traditional Manchu dwellings were made up of three quarters. In the center of the house was the kitchen while the wings contained the dormitory and the living room. The unique Manchu tradition did not allow people to die on "nahan" () to the west or north. Believing that doors were made for living souls, the Manchus allowed dead bodies to be taken out only through windows. Ground burial was the general practice.
Ancestors of the Manchu were the peoples of the
Mongolian steppes. The first ancestors of the Manchu were the Sushen, a people who lived during the second and first millennia BC. They were followed by the Yiloupeople, who were active from AD 202 to 220. The Wuji followed in the fifth century and the tribes of the Mohein the sixth century. One of the tribes of the Mohe, the Heishui (Black Water) tribe, eventually became the ancestors of the Jurchens, from whom the Manchu originated.Huang, P: "New Light on the origins of the Manchu.", page 239-282. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies,vol 50, no.1 1990 Retrieved from JSTOR database July 18, 2006]
Jurchensunder the Wanyan clan established the Jin Dynasty(literally Golden Dynasty) that ruled the northern half of China (1115–1234) and rivaled the Song Dynastyin southern China. The Jin were conquered by the Mongolsunder Genghis Khan.
Before the seventeenth century, the ancestors of the Manchus were generally a
pastoralpeople, hunting, fishingand engaging in limited agricultureand pig-farming.
Founding of the Qing Dynasty
In 1616 a Manchu leader,
Nurhaci(1559-1626) broke away from the power of the decaying Ming Dynastyand established the Later Jin Dynasty (後金 Hòu Jīn) / "Amaga Aisin Gurun" (", and formally changed the name of the nationality to Manchu.
The early significance of "Manchu" has not been established satisfactorily. It may have been an old term for the Jianzhou Jurchens. One theory claims that the name came from the
Bodhisattva Mañjuśrī(the Bodhisattva of Wisdom), of which Nurhaci claimed to be an incarnation. Another theory is that the Manchus, like a number of other Tungusic peoples, take their name from the common Tungusic word *"mangu(n)", 'a great river'.
Beijingwas captured by Li Zicheng's peasant rebels in 1644, the last Ming Emperor Chongzhen committed suicide. The Manchu then allied with Ming Dynastygeneral Wu Sanguiand seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the new ruling Qing dynasty. Over the next two decades, the Manchu took command of all of China.
For political purposes, the early
Manchurianemperors took wives descended from the MongolGreat Khans, so that their descendants (such as the KangxiEmperor) would also be seen as legitimate heirs of the Mongolian Yuan dynasty. During the Qing Dynasty, the Manchu government made efforts to preserve Manchu culture and the language. These efforts were largely unsuccessful in that Manchus gradually adopted the customs and language of the surrounding Han Chinese and, by the nineteenth century, spoken Manchu was rarely used even in the Imperial court. Written Manchu, however, was still used for the keeping of records and communication between the emperor and the Banner officials until the collapse of the dynasty. The Qing dynasty also maintained a system of dual appointments in which all major imperial offices would have a Manchu and a Han Chinese member. Because of the small number of Manchus, this insured that a large fraction of them would be government officials.
Near the end of the Qing Dynasty, Manchus were portrayed as outside colonizers by Chinese nationalists such as
Sun Yat-Sen, even though the Republican revolution he brought about was supported by many reform-minded Manchu officials and military officers. This portrayal quickly dissipated after the 1911 revolutionas the new Republic of China now sought to include Manchus within its national identity.
In 1931, the
Empire of Japancreated a puppet state in Manchuria called Manchukuo. The new state was nominally ruled by Emperor Puyi. By this time the population of Manchuria was overwhelmingly Han Chinese, and though Manchukuo was intended to be a state for Manchus, the way its borders were drawn produced a state that had a majority Han population. Manchukuo was abolished at the end of World War II, with its territory incorporated back into China.
=Autonomous Areas designated for Manchus =
Ethnic groups in Chinese history
List of Manchu clans
* 9th Infantry Regiment
War crimes in Manchukuo
Fu Manchu, a fictional character of Manchu ancestry
Pamela Kyle Crossley, author of many scholarly and some popular works on Manchus and Manchu history
Cao Xueqin- Famous writer.
Nalan Xingde- Famous poet.
Na Ying- Pop Star.
Zhao Junzhe- Football player.
* Lang Lang - Pianist.
Pu Yi- Last Emperor of Qing Dynasty and Emperor of Manchukuo.
Lang Ping- Ex-Volleyball player, now coaching USA Women's Volleyball National Team.
Lao She- writer.
* Qigong - Calligrapher
* [http://www.qiren.cn/ Qiren.cn] (Simplified Chinese)
Ethnic groups in China
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