- Anglican Church of Southern Africa
Anglican Church of Southern Africa Primate Thabo Makgoba Territory Angola, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Saint Helena, South Africa and Swaziland Members approximately 3-4 million Website www.anglicanchurchsa.org Anglicanism Portal
The Anglican Church of Southern Africa, known until 2006 as the Church of the Province of Southern Africa, is the Anglican province in the southern part of Africa, including dioceses in Angola, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Saint Helena, South Africa and Swaziland. In South Africa, there are at least 2.4 million Anglicans out of an estimated population of 45 million.
The primate is the Archbishop of Cape Town. The current archbishop is Thabo Makgoba who succeeded Njongonkulu Ndungane. During the years 1986 to 1996 the primate was Nobel Peace Prize laureate Desmond Tutu.
The first Anglican clergy to minister regularly at the Cape were military chaplains who accompanied the troops when the British occupied the Cape Colony in 1795 and then again in 1806. The second British occupation resulted in a growing influx of civil servants and settlers who were members of the Church of England, and so civil or colonial chaplains were appointed to minister to their needs. These were under the authority of the governor.
The first missionary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel arrived in 1821. He was the Revd William Wright. He opened a church and school in Wynberg, a fashionable suburb of Cape Town. Allen Gardiner, a missionary of the Church Missionary Society went to Zululand, and arranged for a priest, Francis Owen to be sent to the royal residence of King Dingane. Owen witnessed the massacre of Piet Retief, the Voortrekker leader, and his companions, who had come to negotiate a land treaty with Dingane, and left soon afterwards.
The Anglican Church in Southern Africa at this time was under the Bishop of Calcutta, whose diocese effectively included the East Indies and the entire Southern Hemisphere. Bishops en route for Calcutta sometimes stopped at the Cape for confirmations, and occasionally ordination of clergy, but these visits were sporadic. It became apparent that a bishop was needed for South Africa, and in 1847 Robert Gray was consecrated as the first bishop of Cape Town in Westminster Abbey. The new bishop landed in Cape Town in 1848.
Some Church of England parishes in the then Cape Colony refused to join the Church of the Province of South Africa when it was constituted in 1870. These parishes expanded throughout South Africa calling themselves the Church of England in South Africa.
Desmond Tutu rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. Tutu was elected and ordained the first black South African Anglican Archbishop of Cape Town, South Africa, and primate of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984, the Albert Schweitzer Prize for Humanitarianism, and the Magubela prize for liberty in 1986.
In 2006, the name Church of the Province of Southern Africa was dropped to avoid historic confusion as to its ambiguous name. The church was renamed the Anglican Church of Southern Africa.
The polity of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa is Episcopalian church governance, which is the same as other Anglican churches. The church maintains a system of geographical parishes organized into dioceses. The Province is divided into various dioceses, each led by its own bishop:
- The Diocese of Cape Town (Est. 1847)
- The Diocese of Angola (Est. 2003)
- The Diocese of Christ the King (Est. 1990, from the Diocese of Johannesburg)
- The Diocese of False Bay (Est. 2005, from the Diocese of Cape Town)
- The Diocese of the Free State (Est. 1863, formerly Diocese of Bloemfontein)
- The Diocese of George (Est. 1911)
- The Diocese of Grahamstown (Est. 1853)
- The Diocese of Highveld (Est. 1990, from the Diocese of Johannesburg)
- The Diocese of Johannesburg (Est. 1922, from the Diocese of Pretoria)
- The Diocese of Kimberley and Kuruman (Est. 1911, from the Diocese of the Free State)
- The Diocese of Lebombo (Est. 1893)
- The Diocese of Lesotho (Est. 1950, from the Diocese of Free State)
- The Diocese of Matlosane (Est. 1990, formerly Diocese of Klerksdorp, from the Diocese of Johannesburg)
- The Diocese of Mpumalanga (Est. 2004, from the Diocese of Pretoria)
- The Diocese of Mbhashe (Est. 2010, from the Diocese of Mthatha)
- The Diocese of Mthatha (Est. 1872 as Diocese of St John's, renamed in 2006 as Mthatha)
- The Diocese of Namibia (Est. 1924, formerly Diocese of Damaraland)
- The Diocese of Natal (Est. 1853)
- The Diocese of Niassa (Est. 1979, from the Diocese of Lebombo)
- The Diocese of Port Elizabeth (Est. 1970)
- The Diocese of Pretoria (Est. 1878, from the Diocese of Bloemfontein, now Free State)
- The Diocese of Saldanha Bay (Est. 2005, from the Diocese of Cape Town)
- The Diocese of St Helena (Est. 1859)
- The Diocese of St Mark the Evangelist (Est. 1987, from the Diocese of Pretoria)
- The Diocese of Swaziland (Est. 1968)
- The Diocese of Ukhahlamba (Est. 2009, from the Diocese of Grahamstown)
- The Diocese of Umzimvubu (Est. 1991, from the Diocese of St John's, now Mthatha)
- The Diocese of Zululand (Est. 1870)
- The Most Revd Thabo Makgoba - Archbishop of Cape Town
- The Right Revd Andre Soares - Bishop of Angola
- The Right Revd Peter Lee - Bishop of Christ the King
- The Right Revd Mervyn Castle - Bishop of False Bay
- The Right Revd Patrick Glover - Bishop of the Free State
- The Right Revd Brian Melvin Marajh - Bishop of George
- The Right Revd Ebenezer St Mark Ntlali - Bishop of Grahamstown
- The Right Revd David Bannermann - Bishop of Highveld
- The Right Revd Brian Germond - Bishop of Johannesburg
- The Right Revd Oswald Swartz - Bishop of Kimberley and Kuruman
- The Right Revd Dinis Sengulane - Bishop of Lebombo
- The Right Revd Mallane Adam Taaso - Bishop of Lesotho
- The Right Revd Molopi Diseko - Bishop of Matlosane
- The Right Revd Elliot Williams - Bishop of Mbhashe
- The Right Revd Daniel Kgomosotho - Bishop of Mpumalanga
- The Right Revd Sitembele Tobela Mzamane - Bishop of Mthatha
- The Right Revd Nathaniel Nakwatumbah - Bishop of Namibia
- The Right Revd Rubin Philip - Bishop of Natal
- The Right Revd Mark van Koevering - Bishop of Niassa
- The Right Revd Bethlehem Nopece - Bishop of Port Elizabeth
- The Right Revd Jo Seoka - Bishop of Pretoria, Anglican Diocese of Pretoria
- The Right Revd Richard David Fenwick - Bishop of St Helena
- The Right Revd Raphael Hess - Bishop of Saldanha Bay
- The Right Revd Martin Breytenbach - Bishop of St Mark the Evangelist, Anglican Diocese of St Mark the Evangelist
- The Right Revd Meshack Mabuza - Bishop of Swaziland
- The Right Revd Mlibo Ngewu - Bishop of Umzimvubu
- The Right Revd Dino Gabriel - Bishop of Zululand
Liturgy and the Anglican Prayer Book
The Anglican church was a product of the English Reformation and political contexts of the sixteenth century. Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, was instrumental in determining the form Anglicanism was to take, not by writing confessional statements or significant theological treaties, but through his authoring of the Book of Common Prayer in 1549 and 1552. All expressions of Anglicanism forever after defined itself in relation to the concept of the Prayer Book, whether being faithful to the Reformed tradition or seeking different approaches. Other denominations have found unity in confessional documents, or doctrinal formularies, or a systematically articulated theology, or the pronouncements of magisterial authorities.
When the work of revising the liturgy in the twentieth century was undertaken it was with the understanding that it was touching the nerve-centre of the Anglican ethos, since Anglican identity takes a more intangible form, deeply dependent upon the influence and binding effect of its liturgical worship. The most recent revision of the Prayer Book resulted in the publishing of An Anglican Prayer Book (1989). The Anglican Prayer Book stands alongside the South African Book of Common Prayer (1954). Both the 1989 and 1954 prayers books have the English 1662 Book of Common Prayer as a common source.
The work of the revision reflected the worldwide liturgical renewal, most notably in relation to the Roman Catholic Church as a result of decisions reached at its Second Vatican Council. Another influence was the charismatic renewal, which has had a marked impact on the Anglican Church of Southern Africa. Particular care was taken to meet evangelical concerns in a Province that is historically High Church rather than Low Church in its main emphasis. Theological breadth – catholic, evangelical, charismatic, and liberal – was aimed at in order to achieve balance and to accommodate these various convictions.
These sensitivities and influences are most evident in the Eucharistic liturgy. Four Eucharistic prayers are given to accommodate different theological preferences. Two are taken from the Church of England, one is borrowed with permission from the Roman Catholic Canon, and pride of place is given in the First Eucharistic Prayer to an indigenous product. The influence of the liturgical movement can be seen in the overall structure and language of the Eucharist, including seeking a sense of continuity with the early, apostolic church.
In tracing this line of continuity from the Lord’s Table to the Communion Table, a prayer traditionally ascribed to Hippolytus (c215), Bishop of Rome, called the Apostolic Tradition, captured the imagination of contemporary liturgists and now appears in the modern liturgical books of different churches both Roman Catholic and Protestant. The opening lines of all Four Eucharistic prayers closely mirror the wording of Hippolytus. The Fourth Eucharistic Prayer most closely maintains the link with the Hippolytus liturgy, but allows slight variation with respect to the wording of “we offer you” and “we bring before you” to accommodate different theological persuasions. This is an example of how the Anglican Church of Southern Africa in making revisions for the 1989 Anglican Prayer Book adopted a more conciliatory approach to the various ecclesiastical factions, foreshadowing the conciliatory context of South African politics in the early 90s in regard to political factions and political change.
Doctrine and practice
The centre of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa's teaching is the life and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The basic teachings of the church, (contained in the catechism), include:
- Jesus Christ is fully human and fully God. He died and was resurrected from the dead.
- Jesus provides the way of eternal life for those who believe.
- The Old and New Testaments of the Bible were written by people "under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit". The Apocrypha are additional books that are used in Christian worship, but not for the formation of doctrine.
- The two great and necessary sacraments are Holy Baptism and Holy Eucharist
- Other sacramental rites are confirmation, ordination, marriage, reconciliation of a penitent, and unction.
- Belief in heaven, hell, and Jesus's return in glory.
The threefold sources of authority in Anglicanism are scripture, tradition, and reason. These three sources uphold and critique each other in a dynamic way. This balance of scripture, tradition and reason is traced to the work of Richard Hooker, a sixteenth century apologist. In Hooker's model, scripture is the primary means of arriving at doctrine and things stated plainly in scripture are accepted as true. Issues that are ambiguous are determined by tradition, which is checked by reason.
The Anglican Church of Southern Africa embraces three orders of ministry: deacon, priest, and bishop. A local variant of the Book of Common Prayer is used. The Church is known for having Anglo-Catholic leanings.
Social issues and ecumenical relations
The Anglican Church of Southern Africa is regarded as the most liberal Anglican province in Africa, particularly on issues such as ordination of women and homosexuality. Gene Robinson's election as bishop of New Hampshire in the Episcopal Church in the United States of America prompted warnings of a possible schism in the Anglican Communion. Retired South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu stated that he did not see what "all the fuss" was about, saying the election would not roil the Church of the Province of Southern Africa. The Anglican Church of Southern Africa is a member of the ecumenical World Council of Churches.
- ^ Anglican Church of Southern Africa: The Church
- ^ Hefling, C. “Introduction: Anglicans and Common Prayer” in Hefling, C. & Shattuck, C. (Eds) (2006) The Oxford Guide to the Book of Common Prayer: A worldwide survey
- ^ Nuttall, M. “The Province of Southern Africa” in Hefling, C. & Shattuck, C. (Eds) (2006) The Oxford Guide to the Book of Common Prayer: A worldwide survey
- ^ General Preface, An Anglican Prayer Book (1989) Church of the Province of Southern Africa
- ^ a b c Nuttall, M, “The Province of Southern Africa” in Hefling, C. & Shattuck, C. (Eds) (2006) The Oxford Guide to the Book of Common Prayer: A worldwide survey
- ^ Johnson, M.E. “The Apostolic Tradition” in Wainwright, G. & Westerfield Tucker, K. B. (Eds) (2006) The Oxford History of Christian Worship
- ^ Anglican Listening Detail on how scripture, tradition, and reason work to "uphold and critique each other in a dynamic way".
- ^ World Council of Churches
- Elphick, Richard & Davenport, Rodney (eds). (1997). Christianity in South Africa: a political, social and cultural history. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20940-0
- Hinchliff, Peter (1968). The church in South Africa. London: SPCK. ISBN 0-281-02277-1.
- Neill, Stephen (1965). Anglicanism. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books
- Page, B. T. (1947). The harvest of good hope. London: SPCK.
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Anglican Church of Southern Africa
Primate: Archbishop of Cape Town
Dioceses: Angola · Cape Town (Metropolitan diocese) · Christ the King · False Bay · Free State · George · Grahamstown · Highveld · Johannesburg · Kimberley & Kuruman · Lebombo · Lesotho · Matlosane · Mpumalanga · Mthatha · Namibia · Natal · Niassa · Port Elizabeth · Pretoria · Saldanha Bay · St Helena · St Mark the Evangelist · Swaziland · Umzimvubu · Zululand
Former Dioceses: Bloemfontein · Klerksdorp · Orange Free State · South Eastern Transvaal · St John's
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