 Functor

For functors as a synonym of "function objects" in computer programming to pass function pointers along with its state, see function object. For the use of the functor morphism presented here in functional programming see also the fmap function of Haskell's Functor class. Functor is also used to name functions in Prolog. For functors in linguistics, see Function word.
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a functor is a special type of mapping between categories. Functors can be thought of as homomorphisms between categories, or morphisms in the category of small categories.
Functors were first considered in algebraic topology, where algebraic objects (like the fundamental group) are associated to topological spaces, and algebraic homomorphisms are associated to continuous maps. Nowadays, functors are used throughout modern mathematics to relate various categories. The word functor was borrowed by mathematicians from the philosopher Rudolf Carnap,^{[1]} who used the term in a linguistic context.^{[2]}
Contents
Definition
Let C and D be categories. A functor F from C to D is a mapping that^{[3]}
 associates to each object an object ,
 associates to each morphism a morphism such that the following two conditions hold:
 for every object
 for all morphisms and
That is, functors must preserve identity morphisms and composition of morphisms.
Covariance and contravariance
There are many constructions in mathematics which would be functors but for the fact that they "turn morphisms around" and "reverse composition". We then define a contravariant functor F from C to D as a mapping that
 associates to each object an object
 associates to each morphism a morphism such that
 for every object ,
 for all morphisms and
Note that contravariant functors reverse the direction of composition.
Ordinary functors are also called covariant functors in order to distinguish them from contravariant ones. Note that one can also define a contravariant functor as a covariant functor on the dual category C^{op}.^{[4]} Some authors prefer to write all expressions covariantly. That is, instead of saying is a contravariant functor, they simply write (or sometimes ) and call it a functor.
Contravariant functors are also occasionally called cofunctors.
Opposite functor
Every functor induces the opposite functor , where C^{op} and D^{op} are the opposite categories to C and D.^{[5]} By definition, F^{op} maps objects and morphisms identically to F. Since C^{op} does not coincide with C as a category, and similarly for D, F^{op} is distinguished from F. For example, when composing with , one should use either or . Note that, following the property of opposite category, (F^{op})^{op} = F.
Bifunctors and multifunctors
A bifunctor (also known as a binary functor) is a functor in two arguments. The Hom functor is a natural example; it is contravariant in one argument, covariant in the other.
Formally, a bifunctor is a functor whose domain is a product category. For example, the Hom functor is of the type C^{op} × C → Set.
A multifunctor is a generalization of the functor concept to n variables. So, for example, a bifunctor is a multifunctor with n = 2.
Examples
Diagram: For categories C and J, a diagram of type J in C is a covariant functor .
(Category theoretical) presheaf: For categories C and J, a Jpresheaf on C is a contravariant functor .
Presheaves: If X is a topological space, then the open sets in X form a partially ordered set Open(X) under inclusion. Like every partially ordered set, Open(X) forms a small category by adding a single arrow U → V if and only if . Contravariant functors on Open(X) are called presheaves on X. For instance, by assigning to every open set U the associative algebra of realvalued continuous functions on U, one obtains a presheaf of algebras on X.
Constant functor: The functor C → D which maps every object of C to a fixed object X in D and every morphism in C to the identity morphism on X. Such a functor is called a constant or selection functor.
Endofunctor: A functor that maps a category to itself.
Identity functor in category C, written 1_{C} or id_{C}, maps an object to itself and a morphism to itself. Identity functor is an endofunctor.
Diagonal functor: The diagonal functor is defined as the functor from D to the functor category D^{C} which sends each object in D to the constant functor at that object.
Limit functor: For a fixed index category J, if every functor J→C has a limit (for instance if C is complete), then the limit functor C^{J}→C assigns to each functor its limit. The existence of this functor can be proved by realizing that it is the rightadjoint to the diagonal functor and invoking the Freyd adjoint functor theorem. This requires a suitable version of the axiom of choice. Similar remarks apply to the colimit functor (which is covariant).
Power sets: The power set functor P : Set → Set maps each set to its power set and each function to the map which sends to its image . One can also consider the contravariant power set functor which sends to the map which sends to its inverse image
Dual vector space: The map which assigns to every vector space its dual space and to every linear map its dual or transpose is a contravariant functor from the category of all vector spaces over a fixed field to itself.
Fundamental group: Consider the category of pointed topological spaces, i.e. topological spaces with distinguished points. The objects are pairs (X, x_{0}), where X is a topological space and x_{0} is a point in X. A morphism from (X, x_{0}) to (Y, y_{0}) is given by a continuous map f : X → Y with f(x_{0}) = y_{0}.
To every topological space X with distinguished point x_{0}, one can define the fundamental group based at x_{0}, denoted π_{1}(X, x_{0}). This is the group of homotopy classes of loops based at x_{0}. If f : X → Y morphism of pointed spaces, then every loop in X with base point x_{0} can be composed with f to yield a loop in Y with base point y_{0}. This operation is compatible with the homotopy equivalence relation and the composition of loops, and we get a group homomorphism from π(X, x_{0}) to π(Y, y_{0}). We thus obtain a functor from the category of pointed topological spaces to the category of groups.
In the category of topological spaces (without distinguished point), one considers homotopy classes of generic curves, but they cannot be composed unless they share an endpoint. Thus one has the fundamental groupoid instead of the fundamental group, and this construction is functorial.
Algebra of continuous functions: a contravariant functor from the category of topological spaces (with continuous maps as morphisms) to the category of real associative algebras is given by assigning to every topological space X the algebra C(X) of all realvalued continuous functions on that space. Every continuous map f : X → Y induces an algebra homomorphism C(f) : C(Y) → C(X) by the rule C(f)(φ) = φ o f for every φ in C(Y).
Tangent and cotangent bundles: The map which sends every differentiable manifold to its tangent bundle and every smooth map to its derivative is a covariant functor from the category of differentiable manifolds to the category of vector bundles. Likewise, the map which sends every differentiable manifold to its cotangent bundle and every smooth map to its pullback is a contravariant functor.
Doing these constructions pointwise gives covariant and contravariant functors from the category of pointed differentiable manifolds to the category of real vector spaces.
Group actions/representations: Every group G can be considered as a category with a single object whose morphisms are the elements of G. A functor from G to Set is then nothing but a group action of G on a particular set, i.e. a Gset. Likewise, a functor from G to the category of vector spaces, Vect_{K}, is a linear representation of G. In general, a functor G → C can be considered as an "action" of G on an object in the category C. If C is a group, then this action is a group homomorphism.
Lie algebras: Assigning to every real (complex) Lie group its real (complex) Lie algebra defines a functor.
Tensor products: If C denotes the category of vector spaces over a fixed field, with linear maps as morphisms, then the tensor product defines a functor C × C → C which is covariant in both arguments.^{[6]}
Forgetful functors: The functor U : Grp → Set which maps a group to its underlying set and a group homomorphism to its underlying function of sets is a functor.^{[7]} Functors like these, which "forget" some structure, are termed forgetful functors. Another example is the functor Rng → Ab which maps a ring to its underlying additive abelian group. Morphisms in Rng (ring homomorphisms) become morphisms in Ab (abelian group homomorphisms).
Free functors: Going in the opposite direction of forgetful functors are free functors. The free functor F : Set → Grp sends every set X to the free group generated by X. Functions get mapped to group homomorphisms between free groups. Free constructions exist for many categories based on structured sets. See free object.
Homomorphism groups: To every pair A, B of abelian groups one can assign the abelian group Hom(A,B) consisting of all group homomorphisms from A to B. This is a functor which is contravariant in the first and covariant in the second argument, i.e. it is a functor Ab^{op} × Ab → Ab (where Ab denotes the category of abelian groups with group homomorphisms). If f : A_{1} → A_{2} and g : B_{1} → B_{2} are morphisms in Ab, then the group homomorphism Hom(f,g) : Hom(A_{2},B_{1}) → Hom(A_{1},B_{2}) is given by φ ↦ g o φ o f. See Hom functor.
Representable functors: We can generalize the previous example to any category C. To every pair X, Y of objects in C one can assign the set Hom(X,Y) of morphisms from X to Y. This defines a functor to Set which is contravariant in the first argument and covariant in the second, i.e. it is a functor C^{op} × C → Set. If f : X_{1} → X_{2} and g : Y_{1} → Y_{2} are morphisms in C, then the group homomorphism Hom(f,g) : Hom(X_{2},Y_{1}) → Hom(X_{1},Y_{2}) is given by φ ↦ g o φ o f.
Functors like these are called representable functors. An important goal in many settings is to determine whether a given functor is representable.
Properties
Two important consequences of the functor axioms are:
 F transforms each commutative diagram in C into a commutative diagram in D;
 if f is an isomorphism in C, then F(f) is an isomorphism in D.
One can compose functors, i.e. if F is a functor from A to B and G is a functor from B to C then one can form the composite functor G∘F from A to C. Composition of functors is associative where defined. Identity of composition of functors is identity functor. This shows that functors can be considered as morphisms in categories of categories, for example in the category of small categories.
A small category with a single object is the same thing as a monoid: the morphisms of a oneobject category can be thought of as elements of the monoid, and composition in the category is thought of as the monoid operation. Functors between oneobject categories correspond to monoid homomorphisms. So in a sense, functors between arbitrary categories are a kind of generalization of monoid homomorphisms to categories with more than one object.
Relation to other categorical concepts
Let C and D be categories. The collection of all functors C→D form the objects of a category: the functor category. Morphisms in this category are natural transformations between functors.
Functors are often defined by universal properties; examples are the tensor product, the direct sum and direct product of groups or vector spaces, construction of free groups and modules, direct and inverse limits. The concepts of limit and colimit generalize several of the above.
Universal constructions often give rise to pairs of adjoint functors.
See also
Notes
 ^ Mac Lane, Saunders (1971), Categories for the Working Mathematician, SpringerVerlag: New York, p. 30, ISBN 9783540900351
 ^ Carnap, The Logical Syntax of Language, p.1314, 1937, Routledge & Kegan Paul
 ^ Jacobson (2009), p. 19, def. 1.2.
 ^ Jacobson (2009), p. 1920.
 ^ Mac Lane, Saunders; Moerdijk, Ieke (1992), Sheaves in geometry and logic: a first introduction to topos theory, Springer, ISBN 9780387977102
 ^ Hazewinkel, Michiel; Gubareni, Nadezhda Mikhaĭlovna; Gubareni, Nadiya; Kirichenko, Vladimir V. (2004), Algebras, rings and modules, Springer, ISBN 9781402026904
 ^ Jacobson (2009), p. 20, ex. 2.
References
 Jacobson, Nathan (2009), Basic algebra, 2 (2nd ed.), Dover, ISBN 9780486471877.
Categories: Functors
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