Meiwa

Meiwa
History of Japan
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Meiwa (明和?) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō,?, lit. "year name") after Hōreki and before An'ei. This period spanned the years from June 1764 through November 1772.[1] The reigning empress and emperor were Go-Sakuramachi-tennō (後桜町天皇?) and Go-Momozono-tennō (後桃園天皇?).[2]

Contents

Change of era

  • 1764 Meiwa gannen (明和元年?): The era name became Meiwa (meaning "Bright Harmony") because of the enthronement of Empress Go-Sakuramachi.

As a cultural phenomenon, the literature of this period records concerted attempts to distill the aggregate characteristics of the inhabitants of Edo (Edokko) into a generalized thumbnail description. These traits (Edokko katagi) were put into use to draw a contrast between Edokko and those who didn't have this "sophisticated" gloss -— those not from the city, as in merchants from the Kyoto-Osaka region or samurai from distant provinces. Sometimes Edokko katagi was presented with pride; and it was used mockingly.[3]

Events of the Meiwa Era

  • 1765 (Meiwa 2): Five-momme coin issued.
  • 1766 (Meiwa 3): A planned insurrection to displace the Shogun was thwarted.[4]
  • 1768 (Meiwa 5): Five-momme usage halted.
  • 1770 (Meiwa 7): A typhoon flattened the newly built Imperial Palace in Kyoto.[5]
  • 1770 (Meiwa 7): A great comet (Lexell's Comet) with a very long tale lit up the night skies throughout the summer and autumn.[5]
  • 1770 (Meiwa 7): Although no one could have known it at the time, this was the first of 15 consecutive years of drought in Japan.[5]
  • February 29, 1772 (Meiwa 9, 26th day or the 1st month): "The Great Meiwa Fire" -- one of the three greatest Edo fire disasters. Unofficial reports describe a swath of ashes and cinders nearly five miles wide and 15 miles (24 km) long—destroying 178 temples and shrines, 127 daimyo residences, 878 non-official residences, 8705 houses of bannermen, and 628 blocks of merchant dwellings, with estimates of over 6,000 casualties. All this devastation subsequently engendered the staggering costs of reconstruction.[5]
  • August 2, 1772 (Meiwa 9, 4th day of the 6th month): A terrible tempest hit the Kantō bringing floods and ruining crops.[5]
  • August 17, 1772 (Meiwa 9, 19th day of the 6th month): Another storm with more flooding and winds no less intense blew down an estimated 4000 houses in Edo alone.[6]
  • 1772 (Meiwa 9): At the time, it was said that "Meiwa 9 is Year of Trouble" because it was marked by an extraordinary succession of natural calamities. The pun was made linking the words "Meiwa" + "ku" (meaning "Meiwa 9") and the sound-alike word "meiwaku" (meaning "misfortune" or "annoyance").[5]
  • 1772 (Meiwa 9, 11th month): The nengō was changed to Anei (meaning "eternal tranquillity"), but this symbolic act was proved futile.[7]

Notes

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Meiwa" Japan Encyclopedia, p. 625 at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
  2. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 419.
  3. ^ Nara, Hiroshi. (2004). The Structure of Detachment: the Aesthetic Vision of Kuki Shūzō with a translation of "Iki no kōzō," p. 1.
  4. ^ Screech, T. Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779-1822. pp. 139-145.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Hall, John. (1955). Tanuma Okitsugu, 1719-1788, p. 120.
  6. ^ Hall, p. 120.
  7. ^ Hall, p. 169.

References

External links

Meiwa 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th
Gregorian 1764 1765 1766 1767 1768 1769 1770 1771 1772

Preceded by:
Hōreki

Era or nengō:
Meiwa

Succeeded by:
An'ei


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