- Kanbun (era)
nihongo|"Kanbun"|寛文 was a nihongo|Japanese era|年号,|"nengō",|lit. "
yearname" after "Manji" and before " Enpō." This period spanned the years from 1661to 1673. The reigning emperors were nihongo|Go-Sai"-tennō"|後西天皇 and nihongo|Reigen"-tennō"|霊元天皇. [Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). "Annales des empereurs du japon," pp. 413-414.]
Change of era
1661: The new era name of "Kanbun" (meaning "Generous Art") was created to mark a number of disasters including a great fire at the Imperial Palace. The previous era ended and a new one commenced in "Manji" 4.
Events of the "Kanbun" era
* "Kanbun 2", on the 1st day of the 2nd month (
1662): There was a violent earthquake in Heian-kyōwhich destroyed the tomb of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.Titsingh, p. 413.]
* "Kanbun 2" (
1662): Emperor Gosai ordered Tosa Hiromichi 土佐広通 (1561-1633), a Tosa school disciple, to adopt the name Sumiyoshi (probably in reference to a 13th century painter, Sumiyoshi Keinin 住吉慶忍), upon assuming a position as official painter for the Sumiyoshi Taisha 住吉大社). [ [http://www.aisf.or.jp/~jaanus/deta/s/sumiyoshiha.htm "Sumiyoshi" in Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System (JAANUS} Internet article (in English)] ]
* "Kanbun 3", on the 26th day of the 1st month (
1663): Go-sai abdicated in favor of his younger brother, Satohito, aged 10; and then he lived in complete retirement until his death. [Titsingh, p. 413; Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). "The Imperial House of Japan," p. 284.]
* "Kanbun 3", on the 1st day of the 5th month (
1663): An earthquake struck in Ōmi province. [see above] ]
* "Kanbun 5", in the 6th month (
1665): Courts of inquiry were established in all the villages of the empire. These courts were charged with discovering the faith of the inhabitants, and their express purpose was to discover and eradicate all remnants of Christianity and Christian believers in Japan.
* "Kanbun 10" (
1670): The Bonin Islands("Ogasawara" Islands) are discovered by the Japanese when a ship bound for Edo from Kyushu is blown off course by a storm. [Tanaka, Hiroyuki. (1993). "The Ogasawara Islands in Tokugawa Japan," "Kaiji Shi Kenkyuu (Journal of the Maritime History)".]
* Ponsonby-Fane, Richard A.B. (1959). "The Imperial House of Japan." Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society.
* Screech, Timon. (2006). "Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779-1822." London:
RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-700-71720-X
* Tanaka, Hiroyuki. (1993). "The Ogasawara Islands in Tokugawa Japan," "Kaiji Shi Kenkyuu (Journal of the Maritime History)". No. 50, June, 1993, Tokyo: The Japan Society of the History of Maritime. [http://japanese.human.metro-u.ac.jp/kokubun/bonins/04tanaka.htm ... Click link to digitized, full-text copy of this monograph (in English)]
* Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). [Siyun-sai Rin-siyo/
Hayashi Gahō, 1652] , " Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon, tr. par M. Isaac Titsingh avec l'aide de plusieurs interprètes attachés au comptoir hollandais de Nangasaki; ouvrage re., complété et cor. sur l'original japonais-chinois, accompagné de notes et précédé d'un Aperçu d'histoire mythologique du Japon, par M. J. Klaproth." Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. [http://books.google.com/books?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ&dq=nipon+o+dai+itsi+ran ... Click link for digitized, full-text copy of this book (in French)]
* National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" [http://www.ndl.go.jp/koyomi/e/ -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection]
* Art Gallery of Greater Victoria, British Columbia [http://collection.aggv.bc.ca/iotd/today.aspx?y=2007&m=8&d=8 --link to period painting in museum collection]
* Asia Society, New York [http://www.askasia.org/teachers/images/image.php?no=715 -- link to porcelain figurines illustrating "Kanbun" era fashion] [http://www.askasia.org/teachers/images/image.php?no=716 ...seated porcelain figurine]
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