- Interstate 35
length_ref=cite web|publisher=Interstate Guide|url=http://www.interstate-guide.com/i-035.html|title=Interstate 35 @ Interstate-Guide.com|accessdate=2008-02-15]
established=1956 (completed 1982) [Gyure, Joseph. [http://www.historicwaco.org/WHP/Places/I35.htm Interstate 35 dramatically changed Waco's face] . "Waco Tribune-Herald", reprinted in [http://www.historicwaco.org/WHP/index.htm Waco History Project] , accessed January 10, 2006.]
San Antonio, TX
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX
Oklahoma City, OK
Jct|state=MO|I|70 in Kansas City, MO
Des Moines, IA
Jct|state=MN|I|90 near Albert Lea, MN
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN
Interstate 35 (I-35) is a north–south
interstate highwayin the central United States. I-35 stretches from Laredo, Texas, on the U.S.-Mexico borderto Duluth, Minnesota, at Minnesota Highway 61 (London Road) and 26th Avenue East.cite web|publisher= Google Maps|url=http://www.google.com/maps?f=d&hl=en&geocode=3966640746460723679,27.524700,-99.502890%3B9356109620576285556,46.801921,-92.071031&saddr=I-35+N+%4027.524700,+-99.502890&daddr=46.808637,-92.06131&mra=dme&mrcr=0&mrsp=1&sz=13&sll=46.798649,-92.0644&sspn=0.053116,0.115356&ie=UTF8&ll=40.713956,-97.382812&spn=30.012924,59.0625&z=4|title=Overview Map of I-35|accessdate=2008-02-15] Many interstates used to have splits or spurs indicated with suffixed letters (N/S/E/W), but I-35 is the only one that still has such divisions. In two stretches, both through twin cities, the highway splits into Interstate 35E (Dallas and St. Paul) and Interstate 35W (Fort Worth and Minneapolis).
Interstate 35 does not directly connect to either international border. I-35's southern terminus is a
traffic signalin Laredo, Texas, just short of the United States-Mexico border. Travelers going south can take one of two toll bridges across the Rio Grandeand the Mexican border—straight ahead into Juarez-Lincoln International Bridge, or via Interstate 35 Business through downtown Laredo into Gateway to the Americas International Bridge. To the north, I-35 terminates in Duluth, Minnesota, with connections to Canada from the interstate's terminus via Minnesota Highway 61 to Grand Portage, or north to the border at International Falls by U.S. Route 53in Duluth, but that route is more typically accessed from the south by Minnesota Highway 33 at Cloquet.
Interstate 35 northbound begins at an intersection (controlled by a stoplight) with Business Spur I-35 in Laredo, Texas, just north of the
Rio Grande. Through Webb, La Salle, and Frio Counties, it has a mostly north-northeastern course, turning more northeast around Moore.cite map|title=Texas Official Travel Map|publisher=TxDOT|year=2006] It then cuts across the corners of Medina and Atascosa Counties before entering Bexar County and San Antonio.
Interstate 35 is named the Pan Am Expressway in San Antonio. There, it has brief concurrencies with both
Interstate 10and Interstate 410, and serves as the northern terminus of Interstate 37. I-35 heads northward out of the city towards the state capital, Austin.
In Austin, Interstate 35 is the Interregional Highway.Bear, Jacci Howard. [http://austin.about.com/od/roadmaps/f/ih35.htm Are Interstate Highway 35 and Interregional Highway 35 the Same Road?] . "About.com." URL accessed December 7, 2006.] Throughout Austin, elevated express lanes were constructed on either side of the original
freeway. Prior to this expansion, this section included an at-grade railroad crossing, which is extremely unusual for a freeway. From Austin, I-35 goes through Round Rock, Temple, and Waco. In Waco, I-35 is the Jack Kultgen Freeway.
I-35 then heads to Hillsboro, where it splits up into I-35W and I-35E and runs through the Dallas/Fort Worth area. The official mile markers follow I-35E through Dallas—I-35W, which is convert|85|mi|km in length, carries its own mileage from Hillsboro to Denton, as though it were an x35 loop. In Dallas, I-35 is the R.L. Thornton Freeway south of I-30, which picks up the name heading east. North of I-30, it is the Stemmons Freeway.
In Oklahoma, I-35 runs from the Red River at the Texas border to the Kansas line near Braman, passing through many of the state's major cities, including Ardmore and the cities of the
Oklahoma City Metropolitan Areasuch as Norman, Guthrie, Edmond, and the state capital and largest city, Oklahoma City. In Downtown Oklahoma City, I-35 has a major junction with I-40 and spurs into I-235through the north central inner city.
Between the Oklahoma state line and Emporia, I-35 is part of the
Kansas Turnpike. This section of interstate serves Wichita and passes through the Flint Hillsarea. At Emporia, I-35 branches off on its own alignment. This free section of I-35 provides access to Ottawa before entering the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, where it serves Johnson County, and Kansas City, Kansas.
In the southern sections of the state, I-35 is parallel to
U.S. Route 69, for much of its course. The highway runs mostly on a north alignment.
In Des Moines, I-35 has a convert|12|mi|km|sing=on overlap with I-80. The concurrency takes place northwest of the downtown district of the city. At exit 127 of I-80, the overlap turns east and terminates at exit 137 via an interchange with Interstate 235.
North of Des Moines, I-35 is mainly parallel with US 69, traversing a vast and rural area of Iowa. [cite map|title=Motor Carriers' Road Atlas|publisher=
The Minnesota section of Interstate 35 and Interstate 35W respectively are defined as
legislative routes 390 and 394 in Minnesota Statutes § 161.12(2). [http://ros.leg.mn/bin/getpub.php?pubtype=STAT_CHAP_SEC&year=2006§ion=161.12] The roads are not marked with those numbers. All of I-35 in the state of Minnesota from the Iowa state line to Duluth is named the Red Bull Highway, after the 34th Infantry (Red Bull) Division.
Minnesota, the on/off ramps lead to roundabouts rather than standard cross intersections. [Federal Highway Administration. [http://www.tfhrc.gov/focus/sep04/05.htm "Focus: Accelerating Infrastructure Innovations."] URL accessed 02:47, February 12, 2006 (UTC).] This is the first site in the state linked to a major highway to use roundabouts.
I-35 splits again into I-35W and I-35E in the Minneapolis/Saint Paul,
Minnesotaarea. The mile- and exit-numbering sequence continues along I-35E. At one sharp turn in I-35W near the junction with I-94, it is advised to slow to 35 mph (55 km/h) (although many drivers are able to maintain the speed limit of 55 mph (90 km/h)). Additionally, it is not possible to go from westbound I-94 to northbound I-35W, from southbound I-35W to eastbound I-94, from eastbound I-94 to southbound I-35E, and from northbound I-35E to westbound I-94 without resorting to surface streets.
On I-35E in Minnesota between Minnesota State Highway 5 and Interstate 94, in both directions, trucks weighing more than 9,000 lbs (4,082 kg) are banned from the freeway, and the speed limit drops to 45 mph (70 km/h) but it is rarely obeyed. This section was not completed until the late 1980s (although the route was cleared and graded earlier) due to opposition from the historic Crocus Hill neighborhood, which sits only a few hundred feet from the alignment. The four-lane alignment, "parkway" design was a compromise. The truck bypass for this section is signed on I-494 and I-694 to the east of Saint Paul.
The I-35 / I-535 / U.S. 53 interchange in Duluth,
Minnesotais known locally as the "Can of Worms" and features a pair of left exits from I-35, a stoplight, and lane drops over the I-35 bridge. [http://maps.google.com/maps?q=Duluth+MN&ll=46.765515,-92.12255&spn=0.005762,0.01663&t=h Map and aerial photo]
Some sections of I-35 in Oklahoma City were already built in 1953, before the Interstate system was created. Through Norman,
Oklahoma, the interstate opened in June 1959. In Moore, it opened in two parts: the northern half, connecting Moore to Oklahoma City, opened in January 1960. The southern half, linking it to Norman, was opened to traffic in June 1967.Medley, Robert. "Higways [" sic"] continue to drive economy." "The Daily Oklahoman" June 29, 2006: 1D.]
I-35 through Oklahoma largely parallels
U.S. Route 77. This is in large part due to efforts of the towns of Wynnewood, Paoli, and Wayne, which fought to keep I-35 as close as possible to U.S. 77. This was successful due to a threat from Governor Henry Bellmonto build a toll road rather than I-35, and legislation preventing state funds for the interstate from being spent if it were more than convert|1|mi|km|sing=on from the U.S. route. [McNichol, Dan. "The Roads that Built America: The Incredible Story of the U.S. Interstate System". New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 2006. ISBN 1-4027-3468-9]
I-35 was completed in Oklahoma in 1971, when parts of the interstate running through Carter Co. and Murray Co. were opened to traffic.Cockerell, Penny. "50 Years: As the intersection of Interstates 35, 40, and 44, Oklahoma is at America's crossroads." "The Daily Oklahoman" June 29, 2006: 2A.]
The final segment of I-35 (as originally planned) to open was in north central
Iowa, between Mason City and US 20near Iowa Falls. This segment was delayed due to some controversy. Originally, I-35 was to follow the alignment of US 69from Des Moines all the way to the Minnesotaborder. However, Mason City's business community lobbied for the route to be moved closer to their city. On September 1, 1965, the alignment was changed to instead parallel US 65through northern Iowa, which brought the highway much closer to Mason City. This, however, created a long diagonal section through Wright and Franklin counties. Local farmers objected to their farms being bisected into triangular pieces, and resulting litigation delayed I-35 for several years. A November 1972 ruling rejected a lawsuit filed by the farmers, and the final segment of I-35 was allowed to proceed, eventually opening in 1975. One of the final pieces of the highway puzzle happened in Faribault, Minnesota. For approximately 25 years, Highway 35 actually went through the town and travellers had to deal with several traffic lights. In 1975, the highway went around Faribault where today a traveler actually has three exit choices for this southern Minnesota town.
On September 1, 2005, MoDOT reopened the
Paseo Bridgeover the Missouri Riverin Kansas City, Missouri after completing a six-month rehabilitation project ahead of schedule. However, the rehab project is only a short-term fix; MoDOT is in the planning process of devising a six- to eight-lane crossing for the interstate, either by building a duplicate bridge to house one direction of traffic or a new bridge or bridges. The $245 million project includes $50 million in funding procured by Senator Kit Bondin the 2005 Transportation Bill. Project plans include significant updates to sections of the freeway and nearby interchanges beyond the bridge itself.
Trans-Texas Corridortoll-road project includes one proposal (TTC-35) to primarily parallel I-35 from the Mexico border up to the Oklahoma border. [ Trans-Texas CorridorStudy Site, I-35 Corridor Section: [http://www.keeptexasmoving.com/projects/ttc35/ "http://www.keeptexasmoving.com/projects/ttc35/"] ] There are major disagreements as to what impact this parallel route would have on I-35 in terms of traffic, maintenance, and commerce.
The Trans-Texas Corridor was first proposed by Texas Governor
Rick Perryin 2002. It consists of a 1,200 foot (366 m) wide highway that also carries utilities such as electricity, petroleum and water as well as railway track and fiber-optic cables.cite news
last = Kovach
first = Gretel
title = Highway to Hell?
url = http://www.newsweek.com/id/73372
accessdate = 2007-12-07 ] In July 2007, U.S. Representative and candidate for the Republican nomination in the
2008 U.S. presidential election Duncan Huntersuccessfully offered an amendment to House Resolution 3074, the FY2008 Transportation Appropriations Act, prohibiting the use of federal funds for Department of Transportationparticipation in the activities of the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America(SPP). Hunter stated that: "Unfortunately, very little is known about the NAFTA Super Highway. This amendment will provide Congress the opportunity to exercise oversight of the highway, which remains a subject of question and uncertainty, and ensure that our safety and security will not be compromised in order to promote the business interests of our neighbors." [ [http://www.house.gov/list/speech/ca52_hunter/Nafta_hgwy_amendment.shtml Congressman Duncan Hunter - Proudly Serving the 52nd District of California : Press Release/Statement ] ] Fellow Republican Congressman and presidential candidate Ron Paulbrought the issue to mainstream prominence during the December 2007 CNN- YouTubeGOP debate, where he rejected the concept and also called it "the NAFTA Superhighway" after the North American Free Trade Agreement, and, like Hunter, framed it within "the ultimate goal" of creating a North American Union.
Interstate 410in San Antonio, Texas (twice)
Interstate 10in San Antonio, Texas
Interstate 37in San Antonio, Texas
* Interstate 35 splits into I-35E and I-35W in
Interstate 20in Dallas (I-35E) and in Fort Worth, Texas(I-35W)
Interstate 30in Dallas (I-35E) and in Fort Worth, Texas(I-35W)
Interstate 820in Fort Worth, Texas (I-35W only)
** Interstate 635 in Dallas, Texas (I-35E only)
* I-35E and I-35W rejoin in
* Interstate 240 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
* Interstate 235 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Interstate 40in Oklahoma City, Oklahomaconcurrent with I-35 for 2 miles (3 km)
Interstate 44in Oklahoma City, Oklahomaconcurrent with I-35 for 5 miles (8 km)
Interstate 135and Interstate 235 in Wichita, Kansas(the Kansas Turnpikecontinues along I-35 east of Wichita, while I-135 passes through downtown Wichita)
Interstate 335in Emporia, Kansas(I-35 splits from the Kansas Turnpike at this point, and I-335 picks up the Kansas Turnpike designation)
Interstate 435in Lenexa, Kansas
* Interstate 635 in
Kansas City, Kansas
* Interstate 670 in Kansas City, Missouri
Interstate 70in Kansas City, Missouriconcurrent with I-34 between exits 2A and 2H
Interstate 29in Kansas City, Missouriconcurrent with I-35 for 6 miles (10 km)
Interstate 435in Kansas City, Missouri
Interstate 80in Des Moines, Iowa. I-80 is cosigned with I-35 bypassing Downtown Des Moines (served by I-235) for convert|13|mi|km.
* Interstate 235 in Des Moines, Iowa (twice)
Interstate 90in Albert Lea, Minnesota
* Interstate 35 splits into I-35E and I-35W in
Interstate 494in Bloomington (I-35W) and Eagan, Minnesota
Interstate 94in Minneapolis (I-35W) and in Saint Paul, Minnesota(I-35E concurrent with I-94 for less than a half mile)
Interstate 694in New Brighton (I-35W) and Little Canada, Minnesota/ Vadnais Heights, Minnesota(I-35E concurrent with I-694 for less than a half mile)
* I-35E and I-35W rejoin in
Forest Lake, Minnesota
Interstate 535in Duluth, Minnesota
* [http://www.kcstar.com/fyi/travel/i35/i35.htm Kansas City Star's "I-35 Odyssey, A Summer Travel Series"]
* [http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/history.htm "Highway History" - A Look at the History of the Federal Highway Administration]
* [http://www.texasfreeway.com/Austin/photos/i35/i35.shtml "Interstate 35 Through Austin"]
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